Genesis: Historical research - rubric History of ethnicities, peoples, nations
Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Rubric "History of ethnicities, peoples, nations"
History of ethnicities, peoples, nations
Karpov G. - The role and place of Indian diaspora in the colonial Kenya pp. 1-15

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.11.36732

Abstract: This article examines the role of Indian diaspora in Kenya under colonial rule of the British Empire. Detailed analysis is conducted on the key prerequisites for migration from British India to East Africa, population dynamics and ethno-religious composition of South Asian communities. The author reviews the impact of migrants from South Asia upon the economy, politics, demographics, and healthcare of Kenyan society. Emphasis is place on examination of the contribution of Indian workers to the construction of railways and establishment of the local law enforcement system. Special attention is given to the relationship of Kenyans of Indian descent with European settlers and local populations. Methodological framework is comprised of the problematic-historical approach, comparative analysis, and a range of instruments offered by micro-history. The Indian diaspora in Kenya originated long before the colonial period; however, it expanded its presence in Africa only under the British rule. Immigrants from India have played an important role in the development of local business, industry and trade, being sort of guides of the achievements of Western civilization among the indigenous people, where the European natives were unable to work due to climatic peculiarities and severe living conditions. Up until Kenya declared independence in 1963, Indians were the so-called intermediaries between the Europeans and Africans, leaving in mind of the latter persistent negative associations of racial discrimination, entrepreneurial cynicism, and unscrupulousness. After the collapse of the colonial system, the Indian diaspora in Kenya has declined as a result of forced migration to metropole and Western countries.
Akulenko V.S. - Modern views of South Korean scholars upon the process of ethnogenesis of the Koreans pp. 9-15

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2018.3.25450

Abstract: The subject of this research is the examination of the question of ethnogenesis of the Koreans by the South Korean scholars at the present stage. The success, achieved by the South Korean historical  science by the early 1990’s, jointly with application of the newest methods of genetics, as well as appeared opportunity for unimpeded collaboration and data exchange with the colleagues from the People's Republic of China and Russian Federation, led to establishment of the modern views of South Korean scholars upon the process of ethnogenesis of the Koreans. Unfortunately, not all of the views correspond with the criteria scientificity. In the recent years, there have been a growing number of works that demonstrate clear intent to falsify history. The main method of the research lies in comparative analysis of the theories of ethnogenesis of the Koreans, published in the Republic of Korea after 1990. The article is first within the national literature study that is based on examination of the modern South Korean views upon the process of ethnogenesis of the Koreans. As a result, it was established that the majority of South Korean scholars involved in various academic disciplines and using different materials, mostly concur in principal questions of ethnogenesis of the Koreans, depicting it as a process of formation of the Korean ethnos based on polyethnic grounds as a result of multiple migrations during the various historical periods.
Orbodoeva M.V. - Buddhism translation activity in China during the Western Jin period pp. 20-24

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.6.21547

Abstract: This article is dedicated to one of the most important stages of spread of Buddhism in China – activity of translators and establishment of translation tradition. The expansion of Buddhism in China is closely related with translations of Buddhist literature from Sanskrit onto the Chinese language. Therefore, the work of Buddhist missionaries became an imperative component of the spread of Buddhism. The ruling period of Western Jin is the crucial time in establishment of Buddhism in China. This period is signified by translation of the canons.  The article caries out the analysis of translation activity in Chine during the period of Western Jin based on the translations of works of the Chinese scholars. The author thoroughly describes the activity of Buddhist texts translators into the Chinese language. The work introduces multiple new names of the translators, which are rarely mention in Russian literature. It is also determined that during the period of Western Jin, main attention was given to the translation of Buddhist text.
Zurnachyan A.S. - The Lawcode of Mxit'ar Gosh as a Source of Armenian Law pp. 25-49

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2015.2.14027

Abstract: The subject of the present research is the Lawcode of Mxit'ar Gosh created in the late XIIth - early XIIIth centuries, in particular, legal provisions regulating criminal law and civil law relations and rules of judicial proceedings. Special attention is paid to the principles of legal proceedings and principles of imposition of punishment for commission of crime. The author also examines the process and conditions for imposing death penalty. The author also touches upon the questions of the legal regulation of all kinds of treaties, the procedures of hereditary succession and testamentary succession that were effective in Armenia in the middle ages. The author has applied geneal research methods and special research methods such as historical-legal, comparative-historical, comparative-legal, formal-logical and system methods. The main conclusion of the research is that Mxit'ar Gosh was the first one to introduce the concept of natural law, natural right, natural beginnings and humanism long before European philosophers of the Enlightenment. The rules established by the Lawcode were quite progressive for those times and created the basis for the formation and development of Armenian law. 
Ubeeva O. - Demographic situation in Northern Buryatia during the 1990s (on the materials of the districts of BaikalAmur Mainline) pp. 28-37

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.6.33185

Abstract: Demographic situation in Eastern Siberian and Far Eastern regions of Russia has always depended on economic policy of the Soviet government. During the period of post-Soviet transformation, demographic processes were characterized by negative dynamics. This work explored the peculiarities of demographic development of the northern districts of Buryatia in the 1990’s on the materials of districts under the socioeconomic influence of Baikal–Amur Mainline. The national historical literature has multiple works dedicated to demography of post-Soviet and modern Buryatia, however the population of northern areas has not previously become the subject of a separate research. The article describes the key conditions and factors of demographic development of the territories of Russia’s Far North, as well as determines dependence of demographic processes on the socioeconomic problems in development of the region. The author reviews peculiarities of the dynamics of birth rate, mortality rate and natural population increase. Current situation of the districts of Baikal–Amur Mainline can be characterized as deprivation when certain social needs of the local population cannot be fulfilled. Prevalence of dilapidated housings, poorly developed engineering and public utilities, lack of social sphere facilities, severe climatic conditions of the Far North alongside depressive state of backbone enterprises substantiated the low standard of living of the society. The conclusion is made that demographic development of Buryatia is characterized with depopulation due to rise in mortality rate and significant reduction in birth rate.
Khotko S.K. - Inclusion of the Northwest Caucasus under the range of influence of the Ottoman Empire, 1475-1520 pp. 29-41

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.3.19308

Abstract:   The subject of this research is the establishment of the Ottoman control over the western areas of the Northwest Caucasus throughout the period of the late XV – early XVI centuries. After the Ottoman occupation of the Genoese Caffa (1475) and first invasion into Circassia (1479), the ethnopolitical history of the Northwest Caucasus has marked the beginning of a long era, the content of the events of which to a certain extent were determined by the character of relationships with the Ottoman Empire. In order to conquer the country of Circassians, the Ottoman government used a powerful military resource of the vassal Crimean Khanate. At the same time, the Ottomans were making efforts to prevent the spread of the Khan authority in Circassia, and encouraged the direct vassal ties of the Circassian dukes with regards to the sultan. All of the key events in the history of Ottoman- Circassia relations are examined on a broader scale of events associated with the Ottoman conquest of Crimea, Balkan Peninsula, and the Near East (Syria-Egypt Empire of the Mamluks), as well as the influence upon Circassia from the Crimean Khanate and Russian state. The author made the following conclusions: 1) clarification of the institutional character of the Ottoman dominance in the Northwest Caucasus; 2) inclusion into the scientific discourse of the problematics of the Cirkassian presence in Mamluk Egypt, which affected the vector of the Istanbul- Circassia relations; 3) influence of the Ottoman military-political presence in Crimea and Caucasus (Caffa  vicegerency)  upon the character of Crimea- Circassia connections.   
Chyrgalan S.Y. - The activity of Oirot Autonomous Oblast in training of domestic personnel for the Tuvan Peoples Republic over the period of 1925-1944 pp. 29-40

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2018.6.26381

Abstract: The subject of this research is the activity of Oirot Autonomous Oblast in training of domestic personnel for the Tuvan People’s Republic (TPR). The goal is to analyze the process of formation of the domestic personnel of TPR in Oirot Autonomous Oblast over the period of 1925-1944. The author meticulously examines such aspects of the topic as qualification criteria for training, questions of financing, specialization, adaptation problems of the Tuvan students. Particular attention is given to the dynamics of formation of the domestic personnel, which is reflected in statistical data contained in the historical documents. Methodological foundation is the methodology of historical science; the use of general scientific principle of historicism allowed giving assessment to the formation of domestic personnel of TPR in the Oirot Autonomous Oblast in relation to the social, economic and political processes unfolded in the territory of Tuva and Altai over the indicated timeframe. The main research method is the historical analysis of archival materials of the second half of XX century. The classification method allowed determining the key vectors in the policy of TPR and Oirot Autonomous Oblast regarding the formation of domestic personnel; statistical method was applied for identification of quantitative changes in the number and structure of educational facilities and graduates. The author comprehensively studied the processes of formation of the staff reserve considering the ethnocultural and ethno-economic factors. In conclusion, the author gives assessment to the activity of Oirot Autonomous Oblast in the area of formation of domestic personnel for the Tuvan People’s Republic; as well as defines the key directions in training of the Tuvan specialists, taking into account the economic and social program of development of TPR and functional assignment of the staff, having underlined the major practical issues in personnel training.
Alekseev K.A. - To the question of origin of Indo-Iranians and Tocharians in light of the newest genetic data pp. 34-43

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.12.34080

Abstract: The subject of this research is the ethnogenesis of Indo-Iranian and Tocharian groups of Indo-European language family. The author analyzes the data on genetic composition of the population of Gandhara grave culture, which is an undisputable archeological evidence of expansion of Indo-Iranians into the Indus Valley, i.e. the place of dwelling of the speakers of Indo-Iranian languages that will be subsequently recorded in the written sources. The results of analysis are compared to the data acquired on the ancient population of the Tarim Basin in Eastern Turkestan, which supposedly is proto-Tocharian. The comparison of mitochondrial DNA detected the only admissible localization of population, which is ancestral for both linguistic groups, as well as outlined the logical chain of migration of Indo-Europeans. The novelty of this research consists in application of the comparative-genetic method for detecting the localization of origin of a particular human population (in this article – Indo-Iranians and Tocharians). The following conclusions were made: additional arguments in confirmation of the genesis of Indo-Iranians and Tocharians from the area of Danubian culture of the Neolithic (linear pottery – Linearbandkeramik, Lengyel, Alföld), as well as well reasons in support the migration model of Indo-Iranians and Tocharians from the area of agricultural cultures of Europe through Eurasian steppes, which can serve as the new foundation for hypotheses on the formation of steppe culture (like grave culture) by the people of European descent.
Aleksandrovskii I.S., Kasatkin P.I. - Formation of the Ukrainian cultural space in the Russian Empire during the XIX century: main trends pp. 66-71

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2018.10.27679

Abstract: The subject of this research is the main trends in development of the Ukrainian cultural space in the Russian Empire during the XIX century. The object of this research is the attempts of codification of the Ukrainian language in form of standardized dictionaries and literary works. The author examines such aspects of the topic as comprehension of the historical events and formation of the mythological representations on history, which is common to the Modern Era. Particular attention is given to the Ukrainian cultural space as an independent phenomenon associated with the struggle of extreme views – the Russian imperial idea and the Ukrainian cultural self-identification. The main conclusion lies in the statement that the Ukrainian cultural space has gradually become a phenomenon in its own right due to restrictive measures of the state and hostile position of the Russian community after the January Uprising of 1863-1864. The author’s special contribution into the research consists in acknowledgement that the attempts of establishing the Ukrainian nation for a long time were viewed as a challenge to the inchoate project of the Russian nation, which led to the split of Russian people. The scientific novelty lies in comprehension of the peculiarities of transition of the Ukrainian cultural space from amorphous existence at the level of the regional-imperial identity and the status of ethnographic “marvel” to the clearly outlined boundaries and realization of its uniqueness, encouraged by the creation of “Cossack myth” and the relatively systemless regional policy of the Russian Empire.  
Bugai N.F., . - Chapters of History of German Peasantry in Russia pp. 70-128

DOI:
10.7256/2306-420X.2013.1.603

Abstract: The article reveals certain chapters in history of German peasantry in Russia, from involvement of German labour resources pursuant to the Manifesto of Ekaterina II (in 1973) until events of the XX century. Based on the analysis of documents, the authors of the article study participation of German peasants in the land development at the Volga Region and Novorossiysk Region during the XIX century and development of land resources in Kazakhstan during the XX century. Special attention is paid at active participation of Soviet germans in developing economy of the Soviet Union during 1940 - 1980. Previous articles were mostly devoted to forced migration of Soviet germans but in this article the authors focus on their life style in Siberia and Far North as well as Kazakhstan and Middle Asia. The authors describe their role and contribution to development of the economic potentials and spirits in the region. The authors provide names of Germans who were involved in different fields of industrial production, agriculture, state management, education, health care and sport. 
Zurnachyan A.S. - Legal Position of Peasants in East Armenia in the XIXth Century pp. 78-95

DOI:
10.7256/2306-420X.2014.4.12056

Abstract: In article features of legal status of peasants in East Armenia, the characteristic of their property and non-property rights, as during the period before accession of East Armenia to the Russian Empire (the first quarter of the XIX century), and after entry of the Armenian lands into structure of the Russian Empire are considered. Foundations of division of peasants on various groups on which depended not only a set of the rights and duties, but also a procedure for payment of taxes and other obligatory payments are analyzed.Change of the state accessory of the Armenian lands entailed serious changes in its social, economic, politichny order and legal system. The indicator of these changes, undoubtedly, position of the population and, first of all, the most numerous estate – the peasantry which left about 90 percent of the Armenian population is. The state (state) peasants made the vast majority of them about 80 percent. The others lived on landowners' estates and were called as landowner peasants. In article the adopted acts directed on definition of the rights and duties of peasants in system of the new power are analyzed. In work the following general methods of research - the description, analogy, the analysis and synthesis, logical and historical modeling are used. For the analysis of various points of view on development of legal status of peasants and its separate elements the dialectic method of knowledge was used. When writing article such special methods, as historical and legal, comparative-historical, comparative and legal, formal and logical, system were used. Application in total of the specified methods allowed to solve in a complex set the purpose and the tasks. The author of article for the first time systematized all acts, archival data, and also the main researches of the pre-revolutionary, Soviet and modern periods concerning legal status of peasants in East Armenia in the XIX century. Entry of East Armenia into structure of the Russian Empire and acceptance of a number of legal acts led to a certain systematization of legal status of the peasantry. Though, it should be noted that the adopted acts often contained the measures which had "vague" character in this sphere. It is connected with that the state policy of the considered period, in the most part, was directed on support of estate of land owners as they were a support of the government on places. Some attempts to carry out a full-fledged peasant reform weren't finished. However, despite all shortcomings, the carried-out transformations allowed to include Armenia and to its population in the process of creation of the capitalist, commodity-money relations which captured almost all empire.
Tychinskikh Z.A. - Serving Tatars in the frontier development of Western Siberia in the XVII century pp. 85-95

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.12.34657

Abstract: This article analyzes the poorly studied in Russian historiography question of the role of serving Tatars in the process of addition and development of Western Siberia. The object of this research is the Siberian serving Tatars “Yomışlı Tatarlar” as a special group of serving people. The subject of this research is the contribution of the serving Tatars to the frontier development of Siberia in the XVII century. Based on the previously elaborated methodology - the phase of development of the Siberian frontier, the author highlights the point and transitional stages characteristic to the initial period of colonization. It is noted that at these stages, the consolidation strategy for the recently annexed territories was the erection of fortresses as the benchmarks. The author provides various evidence to prove the significance of contribution of serving Tatars to the military and economic development of Siberian territories at the early stages of the frontier. Records on the number of serving Tatars in the garrisons of the first Russian cities during the XVII century, which demonstrate that their share of in the initial period of frontier development of Western Siberia comprised approximately one third of the military staff, are of special importance. Leaning on different types of sources, the article describes active participation of serving Tatars in construction of Russian fortresses and development of attached territories. The novelty of this research lies in the formulated conclusions that broaden the knowledge on the history of serving population in this period, and give a new perspective upon the role of serving Tatars “Yomışlı Tatarlar” in the process of colonization of Western Siberia.
Gunaev E.A. - Restoration of national autonomies of repressed peoples in the RSFSR in the late 1950s in the context of legal succession theory pp. 86-100

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.7.31030

Abstract: The liquidation of autonomous republics, deportation of peoples to the Siberian and Central Asian regions, subsequent restoration of the national statehood in 1957-1958 remain relevant topic in studying the history of statehood of Russian peoples in the Soviet period. The subject of this article is examination of the question of continuity, legal succession and continuation of autonomies in southern of RSFSR after being restored in 1957. This is related to the fact that in discussing socially significant issues in the southern republics of Russia, arises the question of whether restoration (formation) of the autonomies of repressed peoples in the late 1950s should be considered the beginning of a new stage of statehood or continuation of the stage prior to deportation. Another aspect is territorial integrity of the republics, or rather the problem of territorial rehabilitation, when a number of territories during restoration in 1957 stayed in the neighboring regions. Analysis is conducted on the normative acts of USSR and the RSFSR, as well as archival documents on the history of national statehood of the regions. The author concludes on applicability of the concept of legal succession to the restored autonomous republics (Kabardino-Balkaria, Kalmykia, Chechen-Ingushetia) of repressed peoples in comparison to those existed prior to deportation period. Karachay-Cherkessia marked succession to the former Karachay Autonomous Oblast and Cherkess National Okrug.
Galyamov A.A. - Evolution of the images of Ob Ugrians in ethnographic illustrated publications of the late XVIII early XIX centuries pp. 88-99

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.9.33822

Abstract: The subject of this research is representation of the images of Ob Ugrians in ethnographic illustrated publications of the late XVIII – early XIX centuries. The author examines the works of H. Rotht, J. B. Le Prince, H. G. Geissler as the visual and historical-ethnographic sources. The article touches upon the general historical, artistic and intellectual contexts of the second half of the XVIII – early XIX centuries, reflecting the dominant representations of the contemporaries on life and culture of Ob Ugrians. The approach proposed by Y. Slezkin that allows viewing the Ob Ugrians “with the eyes of Russians” is favored by the author. In analyzing the visual form of works, the author leant on the iconological method. The novelty of this research is defined by the relevance of studying visual representation of Ob Ugrians in the illustrated publications of the late XVIII – early XIX centuries based on the example of gravures by Roth, Le Prince, and Geissler. This topic is yet insufficiently studied from the perspective of existence of the corresponding historical-ethnographic research, as well as analysis of the artistic for of the works. The task for reconstruction of representations of the artists themselves on life and culture of Ob Ugrians is also relevant. These views were formed within the framework of particular theoretical models, concepts, historical-ethnographic ideas of that time, and were a reflection of the dominant aesthetic canons and artistic conventions, which ultimately outlined the general “portrait” of Ob Ugrians.
Borisov A.A., Pavlova-Borisova T.V. - The image of Tygyn in Yakut culture: problems of preservation and maintenance pp. 88-105

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.11.34121

Abstract: The object of this research is the image of Tygyn in Yakut culture. The subject of this research is the factors of preservation and maintenance of the image of the medieval ruler of Yakut people – Tygyn in modern culture of Yakutia. The authors examine the characteristic of the folklore and historical image of Tygyn. It is underlined that certain archetypes continue to play an important role in Yakut culture, for example, in folklore, literature, musical art, theater it is the archetype of the ruler reelected in the image of Tygyn. The article analyzes reference to this image in modern culture on the example of Yakut cinematography. The following conclusions were made: the authors believe, that modern Yakut culture still preserves archetype of the ruler reflected in the image of Tygyn, as it forms collective spirit of solidarity of Yakut people united around the image of a powerful forefather, prominent ruler and consolidator of Yakut nation. Its active manifestation in different forms of art, for example, in recently released film “Tygyn Darkhan”, alongside its stability, is based on the fact that people of art of Yakutia often reconstruct the archetypal forms of culture in their works, believing that the preserved ethnic traditions is the immense resource for further development of art.
Guykin V.A. - Korean Diaspora in Japan, Quasi-Labour Union of Soai-Kai and the Great Earthquake in Kanto pp. 89-142

DOI:
10.7256/2306-420X.2013.2.453

Abstract: Since 1916 when Japan experienced the industrial boom caused by the First World War a growing number of immigrants had been coming to Japan to work at factories and plants. In 1916 the Korean Diaspora consisted of 5624 people and in 1920 it reached 298000 people. Most of those people were simple workers with low competence and skills.Korean massacres after the Great Earthquake in Kanto in 1923 when thousands of Korean people had been murdered became some kind of a milestone in the history of the Korean Diaspora. It caused immigrants to establish their own social organizations and develop the quasi-labor union Soai-Kai and Zenko communist labor union. The present article is the first work in Russian historiography devoted to the Korean Diaspora in Japan. The author of the article also provides a complex analysis of activities performed by the quasi-labour union Soai-Kai that was created and managed by state and police authorities.
Chediya A.R. - Ethnic situation in Western Caucasus in perception of the Ottomans (on the example of the archival Ottoman document Hatt- Hatti hümayün 1104/ 444590- Y pp. 102-113

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2018.2.25306

Abstract: The object of this research is the representations of the Ottoman authors about the ethnic situation in Western Caucasus in the early XIX century. Considering the throughout more than a 300 year history (from 1454 to 1829) fell within the scope of the Ottoman Empire, special interest for studying the history of the regional residents and their relationship with the Ottoman Empire represent the unpublished archival Ottoman materials that reveal the peculiarities of Ottomans’ understanding of the ethnic situation in Western Caucasus. One of the aforementioned documents is considered in the article. The author conducted analysis and generalization of the Ottoman historical works that contain information about the peoples of the region, as well as used the basic theoretical and practical methods of historical research. For the first time into the scientific discourse is introduced the document from the Ottoman State Archive Hatt- Hatti hümayün 1104/ 444590- Y, which provides a description of the peoples of Western Caucasus. Due to the fact that they remained non-literate until the second half of the XIX century, the majority of historical research of the region is presented by the memoirs compiled by the foreign travelers, military men, ambassadors, agents, etc. Thus, the indicated document will allow the scholars of history and ethnography to have a new perspective upon the ethnic history of the peoples of Western Caucasus.
Mikheev D.V., Grebneva I.V. - Indigenous population of the New World in reports of the discoverers, pirates, and privateers of Elizabethan era pp. 106-115

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.11.34116

Abstract: The American continent found by the Europeans at the dawn of the Age of Discovery, immediately drawn the eye of adventurers who dreamt of fame and wealth. Special attention is turned to the representatives of England, who quite missed division of the world between the two great Catholic powers of that time – Portugal and Spain. English explorers were interested not only in natural resources of the New World, but particularly in its inhabitants. Testimonies on the First Nations were reported to Europe mainly by the Spaniards, often in an overly tendentious manner. The discoverers, pirates and privateers of Elizabethan era were interested in all details that can be useful to Europeans, such as appearance, language, culture and lifestyle of indigenous population of the New World, peculiarities of their social structure, religious attitude. The evolution of ideas and formation of image of the holds special place in the modern historical science. Review of the testimonies of English discovers, pirates and privateers who first arrived to the American continent during Elizabethan era, allows reconstructing impression on region at the early stages of its colonization, as well as tracing the peculiarities of perception of the New World in Protestant England right before the country turned into one of the world's leading colonial powers. Examination of the First Nations that inhabited the American continent not only satiated the thirst for knowledge of the English explorers, but also served as the practical purpose for seeking allies in the fight against Spaniards and Portuguese in the region. The common features of forming image of strong and kind indigenous people suffering from Spanish tyranny were aimed at consolidation of Spanish “Black Legend”, which lays the foundation for English trade and colonial expansion in the region in future years.
Bezgin V.B. - Russian village in the late XIX - early XX century: the verges of peasants deviant behavior (Part 1) pp. 120-167
Abstract: The article presents a research on the deviant behavior of Russian peasants in the era of modernization of Russia in the late XIX - early XX century. The author studies the problem of suicide among the peasants and the attitude of rural population to the facts of euthanasia. On the basis of archival materials author analyzes the dynamics of rural suicide, describes methods and motives of farmers’ suicide. The article clarifies the attitude of the rural population towards alcohol and determines the cause and extent of alcoholism in the village environment.Mental illnesses in a Russian village were not common, mental disorder was seen as a phenomenon that violates the usual rules and can potentially be dangerous. The article determines the level of spread of such crimes as infanticide and abortion in the Russian village, discloses its causes, nature and motives. The article brings the analysis of deviant behavior of Russian peasants in intimacies, disclosure the patterns of premarital and marital behavior and the attitude of the villagers to the deordination of the rules of marriage. The author describes reasons and forms of rural prostitution as well as the attitude of Russian villagers to fornication and adultery. The article shows different types of sexual crimes among Russian peasants, the motives and the extent of their expansion. The author describes the criminal laws of the Russian Empire and the legal views of rural residents in respect of such crimes. The article shows the examples of sexual inversions among the peasants and the reaction to it by the local population.As the result of this study the author finds deviant behavior of Russian peasants to be a result of the modernization processes in the country in the late XIX - early XX century. With the influence of the city, migratory fisheries, social mobility of residents of the village the accustomed relations, community and family foundations and patriarchal customs were destroyed and therefore the various forms of peasant deviance reinforced.
Aderikhin S.V. - Participation of Kazakh military units in defense of Leningrad pp. 147-152

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.12.22406

Abstract: The relevance of this topic consists in the need to examine the issues concerning the role of the working class of Kazakhstan in holding off the enemy, common to all peoples of USSR, degree of involvement of the military units formed in Kazakhstan in the battles of the World War II. The goal of this article is to demonstrate the contribution of the Kazakh military pilots in victory over the enemy. The subject of the research is the preparation stages and participation of the Kazakh military units in the battles of Leningrad during the Great Patriotic War. The scientific novelty lies in analysis of the role of Kazakh military pilots in crushing the enemy during the battles of Leningrad. The conclusion is made that the Kazakhs soldiers largely contributed into prevention of the enemy to Leningrad, which underlines the national character of the Great Patriotic War, unity of the nations that allowed to utterly destroy the Nazi Germany.
Bezgin V.B. - Russian village in the late XIX - early XX century: the verges of peasants deviant behavior (Part 2) pp. 149-190
Abstract: The article presents a research on the deviant behavior of Russian peasants in the era of modernization of Russia in the late XIX - early XX century. The author studies the problem of suicide among the peasants and the attitude of rural population to the facts of euthanasia. On the basis of archival materials author analyzes the dynamics of rural suicide, describes methods and motives of farmers’ suicide. The article clarifies the attitude of the rural population towards alcohol and determines the cause and extent of alcoholism in the village environment.Mental illnesses in a Russian village were not common, mental disorder was seen as a phenomenon that violates the usual rules and can potentially be dangerous. The article determines the level of spread of such crimes as infanticide and abortion in the Russian village, discloses its causes, nature and motives. The article brings the analysis of deviant behavior of Russian peasants in intimacies, disclosure the patterns of premarital and marital behavior and the attitude of the villagers to the deordination of the rules of marriage. The author describes reasons and forms of rural prostitution as well as the attitude of Russian villagers to fornication and adultery. The article shows different types of sexual crimes among Russian peasants, the motives and the extent of their expansion. The author describes the criminal laws of the Russian Empire and the legal views of rural residents in respect of such crimes. The article shows the examples of sexual inversions among the peasants and the reaction to it by the local population.As the result of this study the author finds deviant behavior of Russian peasants to be a result of the modernization processes in the country in the late XIX - early XX century. With the influence of the city, migratory fisheries, social mobility of residents of the village the accustomed relations, community and family foundations and patriarchal customs were destroyed and therefore the various forms of peasant deviance reinforced.
Timaralieva A.V. - School construction in Chechnya during the 1920s 1936s pp. 169-178

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.5.35568

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the question of eradication of illiteracy among school-age population of Chechnya during the 1920 – 1936. The author explores the role of religious figures in education; the cohort of students and construction of schools in the cities and rural areas; the arrangement of school curriculum, creation of alphabet, and solution of the problems with professional personnel shortage; as well as the system of dropouts and grade repetition. The republic is currently experiences one of the most difficult periods in its history. The leadership of the Chechen Republic is doing everything possible to ensure that education is evaluable to every resident. The reference to the historical experience of school construction allows reconstructing the severely deformed educational processes. The scientific novelty consists in studying the problem from the perspective independent of the Marxist-Leninist outlook upon the educational processes. The government, supporting the atheistic worldview, set the task to build a new personality, with no presence of religion what so ever, whose mentality would be all about building the Communism and fight the Capitalism. As of today, religion is an integral part of every Chechen; simultaneous secular and religious education has a positive impact upon personal becoming. Emphasis is placed on the fact that there were very few girls in the schools. This indicator has remained consistent for virtually the entire period of school reform in Chechnya.
Bleikh N.O. - The causes of emergence and transformation of military democracy among the nations of North Caucasus pp. 181-189

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.5.19705

Abstract: The lifestyle and mentality of any nation form based on the geographical conditions, as well as economic, political, and sociocultural component of its existence. But they cannot always be consistent, and thus, depending on the living standards they vary, forcing people to adjust to the new circumstances. In this aspect, all native ethnoses of the North Caucasus were involuntarily subjected to a centuries-long challenge, because they often became an object of foreign attacks: Tatar Mongols, TImur, Iraq, England, etc. Namely under these conditions, an acute necessity for establishment of military democracy has emerged. The author concludes that the form of organization of authority characteristic to military democracy means that the power belongs to the leaders of the tribes. One of the external manifestations of the system of military democracy became the creation of the strong military organizations under the leadership of military chiefs, as well as plundering raids of the neighbors. Leaders for the campaign were chosen usually in a specially designated place. Within time, such democracy transformed from elected based on merits to inheritable, turning democracy into tyranny. This also bring changes into the system, content and forms of martial arts of the North Caucasian nations.
Kuchumov I.V. - Russians and Bashkirs in the processes of interethnic interaction in Southern Ural pp. 190-204

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.5.20855

Abstract: The subject of this research is the examination of the process of interethnic interaction between the Russian and Bashkirian population in Southern Ural for the purpose of its periodization. The history in relationship between Russians and Bashkirs begins during the period of early Middle Ages, which is testified by the language facts and archeological findings, and continues until today. We can observe the peaceful, as well as conflict stages during the course of this process. The period of interethnic conflicts coincided with the time of Russia’s economic assimilation of the Southern Ural, political integration of the region into the composition of the Russian Empire noted by the clash of two diverse in their origin cultures. The author determines the periods of interethnic interaction, as well as interethnic conflicts between Russians and Bashkirs. The work also involves the written sources and field materials, the information of which allowed describing the general picture of the Russian-Bashkir relationship. The scientific novelty consists in highlighting and characterizing of the stages of interethnic interaction from the first contacts of the two ethnoses until their modern status based on the formulated within the Russian science theories. The author concludes that the episodic interethnic collaboration between the Russian and local population existed in Southern Ural prior to accession of the region to Russia. Such interaction in its various forms contributed into consolidation of the local pro-ethnoses into the full-fledged ethnoses and ethnic groups.
Ryabkova O.A. - Siberian Regionalists (A. P. Shchapov, G. N. Potanin, N. M. Yadrintsev) On The Situation Of The Peoples Of Siberia In The Russian Empire pp. 252-259

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.3.18896

Abstract: This article explores the poinst of view of historians of the second half of the XIX century, representatives of the regional history" concept, pertaining to the status of the people of Siberia during its colonization and their inclusion into the population of the Russian State. The ideas of the Siberian "regionalists" on the status of Siberian residents as a part of the Russian Empire represent a great scientific interest. The foundation for the analysis consists of the works of A.P. Shchapov, G.N. Potanin, M.N. Yadrintsev dedicated to this topic. The article gives attention to the interaction between the Russian and Siberian ethnic groups, processes of assimilation, population decline, provision of civil rights to Siberian population, alongside their education. The author determines the role and significance of the Siberian intelligentsia in solution of the problems of  indigenous population. In this context, the positive and the negative impact of colonization policy of the Russian State upon the development of the population Siberia is being examined.
Zagoruyko M.V. - The symbols of Georgia - historical retrospective pp. 292-325

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2015.3.14534

Abstract: Object of research of this article are the coat of arms and a flag of Georgia, history of these symbols and their interpretation. The earth on which there is modern Georgia, remembers a set of the ancient states. On it there were Colchis and Iberian kingdoms. These lands were a part of Great Armenia and the Roman Empire, waged wars with Mongols, Byzantium, Iran, the Ottoman Empire, knew a great number of talented tsars and commanders, saw not one imperial dynasty on the throne. It is obvious that the heraldry of the Georgian lands is sated with heroic and sacral symbols, symbols which can't be forgotten, deleted or distorted. They as "charms" of this earth have to be present at the coat of arms and a flag of the state. Article shows, what symbols were considered in the coat of arms of modern Georgia and what are unfairly buried in oblivion. The history of creation of the modern coat of arms of the state that allows to understand the main errors of hasty "coat of arms made" is also described. In research the historical approach showing the geopolitical phenomena and prerequisites at creation of the coat of arms of the state was used. The historical and comparative method along with a historical and genetic method showed possibility of continuity of old symbols in the modern state. On the basis of methods of the analysis and classification, symbols of Georgia are compared with a political system of the state. All above methods allowed to define the main points of research.The main conclusion of article is that it is impossible to call the coat of arms of Georgia complete. He demands completion - participation in its creation not only artists and politicians, but also historians. Those symbols, those fundamental coats of arms about which Georgia forgot are shown, and after all it is centuries-old history of its lands and ruling dynasties. Deleting these symbols, the country risks to lose not only self-identity, but also own territories. And as the history shows, this process doesn't stop in the state since 1991. Series of color revolutions and senseless wars already separated Abkhazia and South Ossetia from Georgia. Many will tell that it is result of dull policy of Mikhail Saakashvili. Yes it is, but after all at it the real coat of arms of Georgia was accepted. Perhaps, time came is critical to look at the main symbols of the state.
Zurnachyan A.S. - Sudebnik of Sempad the Constable as a monument to Armenian law pp. 434-457

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2015.4.15534

Abstract: The subject of this research is the Sudebnik (Code of Laws) of Sempad the Constable, devised in the second half of the XIII century and used throughout the territory of Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, its norms in the spheres of criminal and civil law, as well as the issues of government administration and state structure. A special attention is given to the positions that distinguish the norms of this document from the text of the Sudebnik written by Mkhitar Gosh, which was used earlier in Cilicia and was considered to be the main source for Sudebnik of Sempad the Constable. The main conclusions of the work consist in the thesis that the Sudebnik (Code of Laws) of Sempad the Constable is an independent legal act, preparation and enactment of which were substantiated by the demand and conditions of development of the Cilician society. The Sudebnik represents a unique legal document and a substantial contribution to the medieval Armenian culture.
Zurnachyan A.S. - Code of Law of David, the son of Alavik as a landmark of Armenian law pp. 860-870

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2015.6.17142

Abstract: The subject of this research is the Code of Law and its content of David, the son of Alavik, devised approximately in 1130.  The article is focused on the questions of legal regulation of the secular relations due to the fact that this Code of Law became Armenian first secular legal act, and was not a result of the legislative work of the church. The Code of Law was unsanctioned by the present authorities of the conquerors (Turks and Arabs), but at the same time was put into practice, thus it is of a great interest for studying. David’s Code of Law is one of the most little-studied sources of Armenian law till the present times. Among the main conclusions is the fact that David developed the first secular Code of Law, in which he attempted to reflect the existed in reality norms of common law, and based on them create a normative foundation for regulating the civil, family, labor, criminal-legal relations for the purpose of ensuring the rights and liberties of Armenian people. Thus, the principle of mandatory pay for work and the purpose for marriage (birth of children) were enacted for the first time. Some of the rules established by the Code of Law later became the origins for the more famous and studied Armenian Codes of Law – Mkhitar Gosh’s legal code(XII-XIII centuries), and Sempad the Constable legal code (1265).
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