Genesis: Historical research - rubric Anthroposociogenesis and historical anthropology
Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Rubric "Anthroposociogenesis and historical anthropology"
Anthroposociogenesis and historical anthropology
Fedorova A.R. - On the emergence of the Yakut scare story as the genre of modern folklore pp. 1-12

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.9.36403

Abstract: This article examines the emergence and essence of the Yakut scare story. The modern Yakut scare story takes roots from the traditional culture, but in its genre form represents the modern urban legend. The goal of this research lies in tracing the process of synthesis from the perspective of anthropology. The author analyzes the differences between the Yakut, Soviet and Russian scary motifs, as well as determines the key traditional sources of the emergence of the Yakut scare story. The author aims to examine scare story as an important part of modern ethnic culture that retained traditional images, as a result of transition from the traditional life to an industrial society, rather analyzing separate stories through the prism of folklore studies. This defines the scientific novelty of this paper, as this topic has not previously become a separate subject of research in the scientific literature. The sources for this article employ the theoretical works about the Yakut culture, folklore overall, as well as Russian and Soviet horror stories; field materials acquired by the author, such as excerpts from interviews and sociological survey. The conclusion is made that the modern Yakut scare story has emerged in 1970s on the basis of traditional folklore, which obtains the features of the Soviet scare story and forms the new genre of modern folk art.
Dordzhieva E.V. - The image of the Kalmyks in the descriptions of foreign travelers of the XVII first half of the XVIII century pp. 1-19

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2024.1.69472

EDN: CDHETF

Abstract: The purpose of the work is to identify the features of the formation of an ethnic image and its constituent elements, which have become widespread in the works of foreigners. The subject of this article is the image of the Kalmyks, created by foreign travelers of the XVII first half of the XVIII century. The research material is travelogues by foreign authors, which allow taking into account the subjective moment of perception, revealing the problem of historical reality and its representation in a historical source. The article assumes the solution of the following tasks: 1) identification of the factors that led to the perception of Kalmyks by observers, 2) description of the means used by foreign travelers, recreating in travelogues the main features of the image of Kalmyks, and their worldview, which influenced the construction of this image, 3) assessment of the socio-cultural consequences that arose as a result of the formation of ethnic stereotypes about Kalmyks. The historical discourse of otherness is revealed using the method of semiotics. The analysis of narrative details and the logic of the text revealed information about foreigners' ideas about Kalmyks and stereotypes associated with the perception of the "Other". The theoretical and methodological basis of the article is the works of Russian and foreign researchers in the field of imagology. There are no special imagological studies in Kalmyk historical science, which gives relevance to this work. The novelty of the work lies in the correlation of travelogues' information about the Kalmyks with the civilizational models prevailing in the public consciousness of observers in the XVII first half of the XVIII century. Through the semiotic analysis of texts, the systematization of travelers' value judgments has been carried out. The results obtained indicate that the structure of the ethnic stereotype is characterized by a certain task. Foreigners' ideas about Kalmyks allowed them to take an inside look at their imaginary universe. Travelers imagined their world to be the center of the universe, on the outskirts of which were the Kalmyks barbarians. When explaining the difference between the "own" and "alien" world, the authors used the techniques of comparison and inversion. The interpretation of Kalmyk realities is achieved with the help of such a topos of ethnographic discourse as a story about miracles. Through the denial of negative traits attributed to "Others", one's own identity is being formed, a stable image of "One's Own". The ideas of travelers influenced the formation of the image of the Kalmyks in Europe and the Ottoman Empire.
Danilov A.A. - Social Aspects of Stylitism in the Late Antiquity pp. 18-26

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.9.38745

EDN: TRQLQE

Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of the tradition of stylitism, which originated in the V century in Syria. This practice is poorly studied in Western historiography and practically not studied in Russian historical science. Stylitism was an ascetic practice, which consisted in the fact that stylites spent their lives being on a high stone pillar. The tradition of stylites lasted for a long time and enjoyed great respect. The beginning of this tradition can be associated with Simeon Stylites, who climbed the pillar for the first time in 415 A.D. As a phenomenon, stylitism developed over many centuries, starting from the V century and up to the XI century, with some interruptions, especially after 900 A.D. In historical science, when studying stylitism, the emphasis is traditionally placed on the extremity of this type asceticism. At the same time, almost no attention is paid to the fact that stylites conducted their practice publicly, openly, taking an active part in the life of the society around them. This article uses the approach of considering stylitismas a social phenomenon, showing the connection of the origin and existence of stylitism with social changes. Stylitismis presented as an original phenomenon reflecting the reaction of society to social crises. Based on the existing research, an attempt is being made to show that thanks to the publicity of their harsh practices, stylites were able to perform important administrative functions so necessary for the development of a late Antique society.
Markhanova T.F. - Population of China during the time of Sui dynasty (581-618) pp. 29-37

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.5.20871

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the demographic policy of Sui dynasty. The goal of the work is to demonstrate the size of China’s population during the ruling of Sui dynasty based on the Chinese sources and Western-European literature. The author is first to examine the methods of calculation of the population base during the ruling of Sui dynasty and highlights three of them: maoyue (visual inspection), registration of households, and dynamic of population base. The system of taxation lied in the foundation of the centralized census of Sui dynasty. Similar official enumeration of the population was conducted for tax collection and realization of labor duty. Analyzing China’s demographic situation during the time of Sui dynasty, it is noted that the growth and decline in size of population of China were associated with the periods of development of the country, as well as socio-economic and natural-geographical factors. During the bloom of the dynasty, the author underlines a significant economic growth, which affected the increase of the size of population. However, during the crisis and wars, the situation with population changed to negative. The author comes to a conclusion that during the time of Sui dynasty in 609 A.D., with the help of three analytical methods, the population comprised 46 million registered people, which allowed forming a new tax base for the country.
Kupriianova A.N. - The French in St. Petersburg: fashion House "A. Brizak" 1855-1917. pp. 44-57

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.3.35581

Abstract: For the first time in Russian historiography, the article presents a detailed analysis of Rone Brizak's diary and Olga Alexandrovna Kulikova-Romanova's letters with Madame Brizak. The author examines the sources from the point of view of evidence of the life of French subjects in St. Petersburg. The above research is intended to reveal in detail the life line of the historical personality Ron Brizac and to show the view of a foreigner, as a representative of the French diaspora, on the turning events in the history of Russia of the late XIX-early XX centuries. The letters of the Princess are a separate subject of research, in this work they complement the general outline of the narrative. In April 2017, valuable documents were transferred to the Pushkin Museum-apartment. The archive contains 56 letters in French. Many of them are sent on postcards, artistically decorated by the Princess herself. In 2018, the letters were published in Kirov for the first time, but have not yet been commented on. The introduction of a new source into scientific circulation and the interpretation of the diary of Ron Brizac from the point of view of the anthropology of the Frenchman's life in St. Petersburg significantly complement the picture of the socio-political turning point in Russia of the late XIX-early XX centuries. The use of the microresearch methodology the study of the history of one family in the broad context of the history of the Diaspora - seems to us very promising. The antagonism of the key conclusions -the absence of the phenomenon of "Russification" in the Brizak family and, at the same time, a deep attachment to St. Petersburg, to Russian culture and everyday life, speaks of the multidimensional nature and the need for a comprehensive study of the French presence in St. Petersburg at the turn of the century.
Koroleva L., Korolev A.A., Mol'kin A.N. - Islamic Political and Informal Organizations of Russia During the 1990's (Based on the Example of the Middle Volga Region) pp. 76-88

DOI:
10.7256/2306-420X.2013.2.712

Abstract: The authors of the article analyze the process of creation of Muslim political organizations in Russia at the federal level during so called religious Renaissance in the 1990's (All-Union Islamic Revival Party 'Nakhdat', Islamic Cultural Center, Social Movement 'Nur' ('Light'), the Union of Muslims of Russia, 'Ittifak al'-muslimin' (Muslim Union) and political movement 'Refax'). The authors also analyze programs carried out by these organizations, activities of their leaders, relations with political parties and etc. The process of formation of informal Islamic groups had the following peculiarities in the Middle Volga Region: more 'earthly' nature of units, close relations to usual Muslims, radical nature of those organizations and their activities, political neutrality and focus on the issues of national culture. The authors also study associated programs, targets, activities and documents ('Tatar kanun' - Constitution of Tatar People, 'Tatar mekhellese' and others) created by both radical and moderate groups such as Tatar Social Center, Tatar Party of National Independence 'Ittifak', Youth Union 'Azatlyk' and etc. The authors also describe the Muslim closed group 'Saf Islam' (Pure Islam).  Even though Tatar national movements appealed to Islamic values, their programs and activities were mostly socially oriented.
Pererva E.V. - Anthropology of population of the pre-Sarmatian period from near Kurgan graves of the Lower Volga territory (paleopathological aspect) pp. 81-93

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2018.8.26917

Abstract: The subject of this research is the paleopathological peculiarities detected on the anthropological materials of pre-Sarmatian period from graves of the Lower Volga Region. Bioarcheological approach applied in examination of the skeletal remains expands the representation on the lifestyle of population of the pre-Sarmatian period. As the foundation for this research served the anthropological materials of 14 adult individuals; all of them had braincase and only five people the bones of postcranial skeleton. Paleopathological analysis of skeletal remains was based on the descriptive macro-morphological methodology developed by A. P. Buzhilova (1992, 1995, 1998). In archeological and historical science much attention was given to the problems of chronology and periodization of artifacts of the pre-Sarmatian period, as well as the questions of ethnic and language affiliation of population. In the course of paleopathological study of skeletal remains from the graves of pre-Sarmatian period of the Lower Volga territory, the author established the existence of the specific age and gender disharmonies. Examination of the state of dentition demonstrated that the people likely had a nomadic lifestyle and their diet consisted of the meat and dairy products. The proofs of belonging of the skeletons of Cimmerian period to the nomadic world of the early Iron Age could also be the signs of cold stress, specific injuries and a rare disease frontal hyperostosis.
Zubareva E.G. - Morphological type of population of the Lower Volga region (II - IV centuries BC) pp. 131-138

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.10.24131

Abstract: The subject of the study is the determination of average morphotype of the Sarmatian population (II-IV centuries) that resided in the Lower Volga region. Anthropological characteristic of the population is provided. The history of studying the craniology, demography and pathologies of the late Sarmatian population is considered. The main theories of the origin of the craniological types of the population are singled out, the demographic ratio of the population, the level of survival is determined, and the main diseases associated with this population are identified. The article is first to publish the data on the osteometric measurement of the postcranial skeletons of the Sarmatian population (II-IVc.) who resided in the Lower Volga region. The research applies the classical method of osteometric examination in accordance with the generally accepted program developed by V. P. Alekseev using the osteological blank. The reconstruction of the body length was performed through the arithmetic mean values of the shinbone. The study introduces into the scientific discourse the osteometric data, which complement the anthropological picture of the study, as well as provide information about the physical type of population. The formulas of K. Pearson and A. Lee, and V. V. Bunak were applied for calculating the height of the groups under the research. The result of the study consists in creation of an average morphological type of the Late Sarmatian population living in the Lower Volga region.
Zubareva E.G. - The physical type of the population Vodyanskoe settlement of the Golden Horde period (on the materials of christianized part of the necropolis pp. 135-142

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2017.2.18045

Abstract: Physical appearance of the population of the Golden Horde resulted from interbreeding of representatives of two big races, i.e. the Mongoloid and the Caucasoid. The presence of the Mongoloid component is to some extent manifested in the appearance of inhabitants of all the Golden Horde towns. Nevertheless, it is the Caucasoid features that prevailed in urban population. One of such places was Vodyanskoe settlement. This article presents the history of the antropological study of Vodyanskoe settlement during the Golden Horde period. The article includes craniological study of the Golden Horde population. The author provides a detailed description of the osteometrical series, conducts analysis of osteometrical material, as well as determines the anthropological type, which dwells on this land. The author’s main contribution consists in carrying out the osteometric research and introduction into the scientific circulation of the data about physical type of the Golden Horde population. Based on the craniological and osteological facts, the author was able to give almost precise description of appearance of the urban population of the Christian part of necropolis of the Vodyansky settlement.
Pererva E.V. - Paleopathological peculiarities of the Lower Volga Sauromates pp. 171-183

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.12.34412

Abstract: This article discusses the paleopathological peculiarities of nomadic population of Sauromates, which originated from the kurgan burials of the Lower Volga region. The skeletal remains of 20 individuals were examined. In the process of work with anthropological material, was applied a standard program for assessing the instance of pathological conditions on skeleton developed by A. P. Buzhilova (1995, 1998). The national scholars of Soviet and post-Soviet period (B. N. Grakov, K. F. Smirnov, D. A. Machinsky, V. E. Maksimenko, M. G. Moshkova) dealt with the problems of genesis, periodization and evolution of the culture of the Lower Volga Sauromates. The history of anthropological examination of the nomads of the Lower Volga region of the VI – V centuries BC is scarce. This research is the first attempt for analyzing the pathological conditions on skeletal remains of the Lower Volga Sauromates. Paleopathological studies of skeletal remains of the nomads of the VI – V centuries BC from the territory of Lower Volga have not been conducted prior to that. Paleoanthropological materials are introduced into the scientific discourse for the first time. Some sculls of Sauromatian period have traces of unnatural deformation. The revealed pathologies on the anthropological materials of population of the VI – IV centuries BC from the territory of Lower Volga allow including it into the group of nomadic cultures of the Early Iron Age. The anthropological materials of the VI – IV centuries BC show evidence of using the skills of primitive medicine, as well as the knowledge of military field surgery.
Pererva E.V. - Pathological analysis of remains of impuberal individuals dating to late Bronze Age from the near Kurgan burials of Lower Volga Region and Republic of Kalmykia pp. 176-185

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.4.17422

Abstract: This research is dedicated to the analysis of the pathological deviations that have been discovered on the remains of children from the burials dating to the late Bronze Age. The anthropological materials originate from Kurgan burials located in the Volgograd region and Republic of Kalmykia. In the course of this research, 62 individuals were examined under the age of 16. The bones were poorly preserved, and only various parts of scull fragments were discovered belonging to 52 children. Analysis was conducted on the pathological processes in form of hemorrhages, discovered on the inner surface of the bones at the top of the scull. Sides of anomalous structure on the bones of the scull and postcranial skeleton were also discovered. The age of the impuberal individuals was determined through dental examination, program developed by D. Ubelaker (1978), as well as the sizes of the diaphyses of the large bones of the skeleton and collar bones. It was determined that for the children of the late Bronze Age the characteristic pathologies were those that emerge as the result of lack of microelements in the organism, systematic malnutrition, and spread of infectious diseases.
Pererva E.V. - Paleopathological peculiarities of the impuberal adolescent population of the Middle-Sarmatian times buried in the Lower Volga Region pp. 206-220

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.6.21304

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the paleopathological examination of the remains of impuberal individuals and adolescents of the Middle-Sarmatian times from the near Kurgan burials, territory of the Lower Volga and Lower Don. During the process of this research, the specificities of the age structure of the group were being assessed. The character of pathological deviations was studied on the dentition (tartar and enamel hypoplasia), scull bones (signs of porosis, markers of iron-deficient anemia, inflammatory processes), as well as the bones of postcranial skeleton. Overall, 21 individual was subjected to this study. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that this article is the first to examine the anthropological materials of impuberal individuals and adolescents of the Middle-Sarmatian times in the context of paleopathology. In the result of this study, it was determined that during this timeframe there were not many children buried in near Kurgan Region, which is likely associated with the existence of other type of burial ritual of the impuberal population. The children of the Middle-Sarmatian period had prolonged breastfeeding and specific diet, which was based on meat and dairy. Thus, the illnesses, which emerge because of the lack of minerals and vitamins in the body, were common to the children of this period.
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