Genesis: Historical research - rubric Social history
Genesis: Historical research
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Social history
Chernova A.F. - The Silk Road Economic Belt and the Greater Eurasian Partnership: comparative analysis of the concepts and history of their development pp. 1-9


Abstract: The object of this research is the initiatives “Silk Road Economic Belt” of the People's Republic of China and “Great Eurasian Partnership” of the Russian Federation. Subject of this research is the content and history of development of the concepts. The goal is to analyze the prerequisites for advancing the initiatives, determine their points of intersection and fundamental differences. The common feature is the presence of external factors associated with the beginning of Trans-Pacific Partnership, as well as Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership, which pressed Russia and China to develop their own strategy in Eurasia. The fundamental difference is that the “Silk Road Economic Belt” does not imply the creation of any supranational governing body. The author underlines the rapid pace of implementation of the Chinese initiative and high degree of resistance to the negative factors. The conclusion is made that the practical content and scientific substantiation of the concept of “Greater Eurasian Partnership” continue to be discussed. The initiative “Silk Road Economic Belt” is not much “older”; however, in seven years of its existence became the core of the economic and foreign policy vector of the People's Republic of China. Considering the experience of its evolution, the establishment of the Greater Eurasian Partnership should start with the conduct of international conferences that discuss the target points and mechanisms of implementation of the proposed initiative. For bringing such idea to life, it is necessary to create a financial platform and attract investors. It seems reasonable to develop the strategy for the formation of the Greater Eurasian Partnership around the objective towards strengthening the Eurasian Economic Union as the foundation for the future integration association.
Osipov E.A. - French Decree on Family Reunification of 1976 in the context of the migration issue pp. 1-9



Abstract: The article analyzes the French migration policy in the 1960s and 1970s, when a large number of migrant workers from the Maghreb countries arrived in the country, with an emphasis on the significance of the decree on family reunification that came into force in 1976. In modern historiography, both French and Russian, there is an idea that this decree became one of the main mistakes of the presidency of Valery Giscard d'Estaing, symbolized the beginning of the policy of opening borders, attracting a large number of migrants from North Africa to the Fifth Republic and ultimately served as a starting point for the spread of Islam in France, the growth of religious radicalism and, in general, to the modern crisis of national and religious identity. The article is based on the latest achievements of French and Russian historiography. In particular, for the first time in Russian historiography, the results of the research of the French historian Muriel Cohen are introduced into scientific circulation, largely due to which the interpretation of the 1976 decree has changed in France. The article shows that in fact, the procedure for family reunification has not changed significantly since the end of World War II. However, depending on economic conditions and the degree of need for new migrants, law enforcement practice has changed. The French authorities liberally interpreted the issue of housing compliance with established standards in the 1960s during a period of shortage of workers, and vice versa, seriously approached the issuance of certificates of compliance with housing conditions in the 1970s. During the growth of unemployment and discontent of the French population with a large number of migrants from the Maghreb countries. Thus, the decree adopted in 1976 did not make significant adjustments to the migration policy of France and did not lead to an increase in the number of migrants in the country.
Kuznetsova N.Y., Kulagin O.I. - The development of the territory of the European North by representatives of individual religious groups (on the example of the study by the narodniks of the Old Believers religious group) pp. 10-19



Abstract: The article describes how and in what ways the largest religious group of the Russian Empire the Old Believers mastered the northern territory of the European part of Russia. The archives and materials of the well-known narodnik-religious scholar A. S. Prugavin (1850-1920) act as a source of information. In general, A. S. Prugavin's approach to the perception of the Old Believers did not differ from the traditional narodnik one, when this social community was considered a group ready for protest and struggle with the authorities, which only needed to be properly directed. But after being exiled to the European North (Arkhangelsk province), the researcher realized how much the intelligentsia and public figures were mistaken about the understanding of the common people, and changed his attitude to the Old Believers. The research methodology is based on the principles of historicism and system analysis of available sources. In particular, the author considered the journalism of A.S. Prugavin through archival materials preserved in the personal fund. The peculiarity of A. S. Prugavin's approach was a global rather than selective immersion in the topic. The religious scholar not only developed a "Program for collecting information about religious movements in the Russian people," he followed it himself and called for a similar approach by others. He often personally contacted religious groups and received information through personal observations and subsequent correspondence with representatives of Old Believers and sectarianism. That is why the Old Believers were perceived not only as a group that was isolated on a spiritual basis, but also as a significant part of the Russian people. The religious scholar came to the conclusion that the socio-economic role of the Old Believers in the peasant environment (contribution to education and economic development) is underestimated, whereas this experience could become a model for the development of the northern village, in search of which there were representatives of various socio-political groups.
Shilnikova I., Kasarov G.G. - Employment issue in the journals of the Special Council on State Defense (1915-1917) pp. 12-25


Abstract: Soviet historiography features a thesis that in the course of struggle against industrial strikes in Russia during the World War I, the government applied solely repressive measures, including armed suppression of worker strikes, prosecution, imprisonment, and conscription. The reports of proceedings of Special Council on State Defense, which was composed of the representatives of key ministries, State Soviet, State Duma, as well as entrepreneurial circles and nongovernmental organizations, allowed the government representatives to more objectively understand the essence of the “employment issue” in the conditions of protracted war and possible methods of its solution, including prevention of strikes, especially at the enterprises involved in execution of defense orders. The article presents the analysis of the content of discussions and decisions on the employment issue adopted within the framework of Special Council for ensuring steady operation of factories and preventing downtime as a result of strikes and quitting of employees. It is worth noting that a considerable part of political and military figures, major industrialists supported peaceful methods of solution the employment issue, such as negotiation process, seeking compromises, creation of reconciliation chambers and other specific authorities. However, the absence of an agreement and interaction between different departments impeded the development and implementation of prompt and effective measures to address the employment issue.
Boltaevskii A.A. - They Work Like a Good Warsaw Elevator: From Morning till Deep Night: Child and Teenager Prostitution in the Russian Empire and the USSR in the Late XIX Early XX centuries. pp. 14-21


Abstract: For the last quarter of century the average of prostitutes lowered to 14-15 years old. But serious talks about child and teenager prostitutions began in the end of XIX century. The article reviews historical experience of fighting this phenomenon, which is also important for a present-day situation. The author compares the expansion and fight against child prostitution in the Russian Empire and the USSR, showing drawbacks and mistakes of the State power bodies and public organizations.  The researcher reviews this difficult and long time concealed topic in the basis of statistical data, publications and contemporary researches. Child prostitution spreads in the conditions of family values crisis, the absence of a working lawful basis of punishments of pimps and the consumers of such services. A big increase of this social deviation appeared during the First World War because of bad economic conditions and an increasing number of refugees from Western regions.  During the period of NEP many street children were involved in prostitution. The Soviet state changed the situation not only with the help of repressive measures, but also with strong attention to motherhood and childhood.
Borodina E.V. - Convicts and exiled in Yekaterinburg in 1723 late 1730s: to the question on formation of social space of the city pp. 14-26


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the history of the Institution of penal servitude and exile in Ural Region in the 1720s – 1730s. The subject of this research is the convicts and exiled who arrived to Yekaterinburg during the period from 1723 to the late 1730s. Analysis is conducted on the legislation dedicated to regulation of penal labor and exile in Russia. Differences in the government policy with regards to exiled in the XVII and XVIII centuries are revealed. The author also examines the reasons of the emergence of exiled and convicts in Ural Region, dynamics of their arrival from Tobolsk and the capital regions, as well as the stance of the mining and metallurgical authorities on this social category. Historians alongside legal historians turned attention to studying penal labor and exile in Siberia, practically not comparing the situation of exiled and convicts in other Russian regions. The novelty of this work consists in studying life of the representatives of this social group in the Ural Region in the early XVIII century, which was noted for transit location, connecting  European and Asian parts of the country, and was the center of mining and metallurgical industry. Leaning on the analysis of documental sources and records, the author concludes that convicts and exiled played a role in the formation of social space of Yekaterinburg. They were well integrated into the social relations: they were allowed to own homesteads and marry, but were under permanent control of the mining and metallurgical administration.
Ivanova E.S. - "For each time I remind myself of you, neither do I eat, nor do I drink, but I cry": family relations of Roman soldiers according to papyri pp. 14-20



Abstract: The unique conditions of everyday life as well as special military traditions and mentality made family relations of Roman soldiers quite specific. Besides, the "marriage ban" or the lack of legal recognition of marriage contributed to the difficulties of militaries family life. Nevertheless, according to the data of epigraphy and papyrology, family played a key role in the life of Roman militaries. In this paper, the author's attention is focused on the information provided by papyrological sources. The object of the study is the papyrological letters of Roman soldiers to relatives. The subject of the study is the feelings and emotions of soldiers expressed in letters in relation to their family. The author also notes some practical issues of military family life, in particular, the problem of placing family members of a soldier on the territory of a military camp. Among the results of the study, it is worth noting the special sentimentalism of soldiers' letters revealed by the author. This feature should not be considered as a mere formality. The large numbers of emotional phrases are explained by the context of the era when most of people began to reflect on their duties and everyday being. In particular, they thought about the proper relationships between parents and children, husband and wife. Interestingly, one of the moral obligations in the relationships between close people became the presence of love. Moreover, this love should have been expressed in letters. Thus, despite the influence of the military ethos and other factors on the marital life of military personnel, the latter remained part of Roman society, for which family relations were one of the main values.
Vasil'eva Y.S., Biryukova A.B. - Portrait of a high official of the second half of XVIII first quarter of XIX century (on the example of I. V. Lopukhin and I. P. Yelagin pp. 16-20


Abstract: The officialdom has always played a big role in social life of the Russian Empire. Russian bureaucracy greatly affected the political and economic development of the country, and over the recent decades drew attention of the national and foreign historians. The subject of this research is the characteristic personal and behavioral features of the highest officialdom of the Age of Enlightenment. The article attempts to create a composite image of high official of the second half of XVIII – first quarter of XIX century on the example of the prominent representatives of the era Ivan Vladimirovich Lopukhin and Ivan Perfilievich Yelagin. The scientific novelty consists in examination and analysis of the personal qualities and political activity of the distinguished representatives of highest officialdom of the indicated timeframe. The demonstrated example prove that the representative of authority were educated and well-rounded individuals with multiple talents, who diligently carried out their duties and cared about the welfare of the state.
Sidorenko V. - The peculiarities of ideology of the first-wave feminist movement in Alberta: maternal feminism, Anglo-Canadian nationalism, and eugenics pp. 16-26


Abstract: This article examines certain ideological peculiarities of the first-wave feminist movement in the Canadian province of Alberta, and intertwinement of Anglo-Canadian nationalism, maternal feminism and eugenics in the ideological basis of the feminist movement in the early XX century. The author examines the fusion of the questions of gender and nationality in ideology of the feminist movement, and analyzes the formation and realization of a particular feminist agenda in Alberta, which was based on the specific ideology of maternal feminism. Paying special attention to similarity of the ideology and objectives of the Anglo-Canadian nationalistic and feminist movements in the province, the author notes the causes for rapid success of the feminist movement by pivotal goals of the agenda. The scientific novelty of this research is substantiated by the fact that the author is first within the Russian historiography to explore the intertwinement of nationality and gender in ideology of the feminist movement in Alberta. The conclusion is drawn on the interinfluence of Anglo-Canadian nationalism, maternal feminism and eugenics in the ideological basis of the first-wave feminist movement in Alberta, as well as placing in the agenda the question of equal rights of men and women as an important aspect in preservation of Anglo-Canadian ideals for the future generations in Alberta.
Sidorenko V. - Suffrage movement in Manitoba and maternal feminism: the activity of Nellie McClung as the leader of the movement pp. 17-27


Abstract: This article discusses the role of Nellie McLung in the suffrage movement of Manitoba and the impact of her activity as the ideological and political leader upon success of the movement in achieving the set goals. The author examines the peculiarities of ideological basis and realization of the suffrage agenda and strategy by female movement in the province anchored by Nellie McLung, as well as analyzes the reasons for success of suffrage movement in Manitoba. The assessment of the role of Nellie McLung in the activity of suffrage movement of Manitoba and consolidation of the ideas of maternal feminism within the Russian historiography has not been previously conducted. The author comes to the conclusion on importance of the role of Nellie McLung as the leader of suffrage movement, who was able not only to distribute the ideas of maternal feminism in the province, but also hold an active campaign aimed at achieving the goals of suffrage movement, turning public opinion towards the necessity for acquisition of electoral right by women.
Shebalin D.D. - Holy See in international relations: vision of modern Europe and democracy pp. 21-28


Abstract: The subject of this research is the foreign policy of the Holy See that experiences transformations in the context of modern international relations. The object of this research is the positions of the Holy See with regards to Europe (particularly European Union) and modern democracy. The author meticulously reviews such aspects of the topic as the Vatican’s representations on the European integration processes, political crisis in the EU, as well as economic and migration problems of the European states. Special attention is given to examination of proposition of the Holy See aimed at reforming the institution of democracy. Methodological base includes the historiographical analysis (historical aspects of policy of the Holy See in Europe), logical methods such as synthesis, induction, deduction of the collected material, as well as comparative-historical method that helps the author in structuring the periodization of transformation of the aforementioned positions of the Holy See. The scientific novelty lies in relevance of the phenomenon that experiences constant transformation in terms of the modern international relations. The main conclusion is defined by the thesis that Europe, which used to be a traditional sphere of influence of the Roman-Catholic Church, is viewed by Vatican from the new perspective. The author highlights that unlike the policy of his predecessors, Pope Francis suggested an alternative solution of the European political crisis, based on respecting of the international law, history and traditional values. The author’s special contribution consists in the thesis that according to Vatican’s opinion, the democracy cannot be achieved only at the political level; first and foremost, it is necessary to formulate the democratic principles at the civic and economic levels.    
Nikulin V.V. - Social and Legal Aspects of Anti-Corruption Enforcement in the Soviet Russia (the 1920th) pp. 24-61


Abstract: The author of the article investigates the experience of fight against corruption in the Soviet Russia in the 1920th years against the developed new economic relations (New Economic Policy) and the analysis of legislative and law-enforcement actions of the power counteracting. The main attention is paid to counteraction to bribery, as to the most characteristic manifestation of corruption. Various aspects of manifestations of bribery and specific actions of the authorities on its minimization are considered. It is claimed that experience of fight against corruption in the 1920th years testifies that, despite drastic legislative measures, corruption in the form of bribery appeared the unbeaten phenomenon of the Soviet-Russian reality, remaining the most essential component of nomenclature crime. Is shown that corruption changed and continued to exist. The bribe during strengthening of fight against it becomes latent, sophisticated, with attraction of the whole chain of intermediaries and use of the hidden methods of receiving. The conclusion that corruption was in many respects generated by the system is drawn and "military and bureaucratic dictatorship" generated them. Dictatorship promoted development of psychology of impunity of the nomenclature, aggravated with system of its withdrawal from punishment, destruction morally - moral principles of society that led to elimination of constraining motives of behavior. The situation was aggravated with low cultural level in the mass of the Soviet officials, the mutual responsibility reigning in the nomenclature environment, negative attitude to the law and confidence that received material benefits from a held post – deserved remuneration of the winner. Without having before revolution in what Russia - or especially recognized high situation, Bolsheviks, having come to the power, reached the highest position in the Russian society. Is shown as the consciousness of own exclusiveness easily turned into permissiveness. Situation was aggravated with lack of independent judicial system that generated low efficiency of national vessels, corruption of judges didn't allow to use the most important principle of punishment – its inevitability, to use all legal potential of the prevention and bribery eradication. The author comes to a conclusion about need for fight against corruption of application of a package of measures of legal, economic, moral character is constant and precautionary influencing potential corrupt officials.
Iminohoev A.M. - The city of Verkhneudinsk/Ulan-Ude in 1930: demographic processes and size of population pp. 25-32


Abstract: In the presented article, the author examined the channels and mechanisms of population formation in Verkhneudinsk / Ulan-Ude under conditions of large-scale socialist industrialization of the 1930s, when radical changes in the growth rates and the structure of the city's population took place. Based on the archive materials, special attention is paid to migration flows from other regions and rural areas of the republic, which was the main source of urban population growth during the examined the period. The author analyzes the important problems, which aggravated due to the massive influx of migrants, such as urban infrastructure, housing crisis, and growth of social diseases. The methodological basis of the research includes the fundamental principles of historical science: the principle of historicism, which requires considering historical events and processes in their development and interrelationship; the principle of scientific objectivity and systemic nature that allows carrying out an objective analysis, give assessment to the facts related to the topic in their combination. The main conclusions of the study lie in the thesis that the formation of urban population of Verkhneudinsk/Ulan-Ude during the 1930's was affected by a number of socioeconomic and demographic processes characteristic to the entire county, among which are industrialization, collectivization, and demographic transition. .
Vasil'ev M.A. - The establishment of fire service training in Baikal Region during the 1960s 1980s pp. 33-40


Abstract: The subject of this research is the peculiarities of establishment of educational institutions of fire service of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR over the period from 1960 to1980 in the territory of Baikal Region. The article provides a brief analysis on the transformation of structural units of instructional training, as well as on the role and list of heads of academic divisions at the stage of establishment and development of Irkutsk Fire Service-Technical School of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR, as well as Irkutsk branch of the Higher Engineering Fire Service-Technical School of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR. Research methodology employs a specific historical approach (M. V. Astakhov, I. D. Kovalchenko, V. F. Kolomiytsev, A. P. Pronstein, etc.), as well as summary, comparison, synthesis, classification, concretization; analysis of archival documents, legislation and scientific literature; retrospective analysis; and method of historical analogies. The scientific novelty consists in detection and generalization of the historical sources and archival data that contain detailed information on the establishment and development of the structure of academic divisions in fire service training schools of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR. The presented material are relevant for wide audience, since the study of academic, structural-organizational and service activity in the fire service educational institutions of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR is crucial for tracing the establishment and development of the system of departmental education of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR in the territory of Baikal Region in the XX century.
Borodina E.V., Kus'kalo Y.V. - Women's Movement and attempts to organize the National Women's Council in Russia at the beginning of the XX century. pp. 43-55


Abstract: The subject of this study is the organization of the National Women's Council in Russia at the beginning of the XX century. The study was conducted using a gender approach in history (historical feminology). In addition, the problems under consideration were studied using the methods of source studies, mainly internal criticism of historical sources. The source base of the article was made up of both documentary (legislation and materials of women's congresses and organizations) and narrative sources. First of all, these are the documents of the A.I. Filosofov Foundation: draft charters of women's organizations, letters of petition, responses of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and others. Of considerable interest is also the women's periodical press, which published reports and resolutions of women's congresses, memorable articles about representatives of the women's movement. The scientific novelty of the research lies both in the inclusion of new source complexes into scientific circulation, and in the reconstruction of the process of creating the All-Russian Women's Council, an organization that was seen as the coordinating center of the Russian women's movement. As a result of the analysis of sources and historiography, the authors came to the conclusion that at the beginning of the XX century the women's movement in Russia focused on the struggle for civil and political rights, for which it was necessary to unite the maximum possible number of women who aspired to equality. For this purpose, along with the creation of women's organizations and the publication of regular periodicals, women's congresses are beginning to be held. The First All-Russian Women's Congress for the first time raised the issue of creating a National Women's Council to unite all women's societies and organizations. Attempts to create the organization continued for 20 years, but were crowned with success only in 1917. However, Russian feminism has not been able to create an international organization. Despite the progressive nature of the activities of women's movement activists, the civil war in Russia interrupted the work of the organization.
Fadeev L.A. - Problems of Competitive Practices at Engineering Enterprises During the First Five-Year Periods pp. 51-75


Abstract: The article deals with socialist competition at the Soviet machine-building enterprises in days of the first five-years periods as to one of the major elements of labour relations. The analysis of the hard-powered work practices on various on the size and structure enterprises of one branch allows to track the influence of the scales of factory and a role of competitive practices in system of labour relations of the enterprise.
Kenya I.A. - Female Charity as a Special Element of Russian Charity in the XIXth - Early XXth Centuries pp. 53-77


Abstract: Object of research are motives, features, the main directions of female charity in Russia in XIX - N of the XX centuries. Activity of women's charitable societies is studied on the example of charitable societies of the empress Maria Fiodorovna and activity of society "Ladies' contempt poor" S. S. Shcherbatova. Examples of charity of wives of governors, merchants, businessmen are given. Charity of the countess A.D.Bludova and S.V.Panina is considered. In article it is featured charitable, educational and philanthropic activity of the princess M.K.Tenisheva. Research methods are used: comparative-historical, analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction. Motives of female and man's charity are defined by methods of psychology. Scientific novelty of research consists in identification of valuable installations and synthesis of motives of female charity in Russia in XIX - N of the XX centuries. The difference of motives and manifestations of female and man's charity is revealed. One of conclusions is representation of female charity as self-realization of an inner world of the woman. This conclusion is confirmed with concrete examples of activity of famous philanthropists of S.V.Panina, M. K. Tenisheva, etc.
Pavlova O.S. - Ufa Theological Seminary in the late XIX early XX century: consideration of educational process on the materials of the unpublished sources from National Archive of the Republic of Bashkortostan pp. 58-64


Abstract: The subject of this article is the activity of Ufa Theological Seminary in the late XIX – early XX century. The object is the educational and other aspects of life of the seminary during the indicated period of time based on the archival materials. The claimed topic is relevant from the perspective of examination of the transformation of estate education, accompanied by serious changes in social composition of the students, convergence towards secular educational facilities, loss of corporate isolation of the clergy, etc. The scientific novelty is defined by the fact that the article is based on the previously unpublished documentation and executive directives preserved in the National Archive of the Republic of Bashkortostan. Methodology includes the comparative-historical and problematic-chronological approaches that allowed considering the various sides of the activity of Ufa Theological Seminary as a result of the content of unpublished materials and characteristics of their information capabilities. A conclusion is made that the existing materials are sufficient for studying the problematic scopes within the framework of the topic at hand, namely: performance, social composition of students, curriculum, regulation of educational process, morale building activities, and other related questions.
Aleksandrovskii I.S. - Educational dimension of cultural policy of the Russian Empire and the Ukrainian question in the XIX century pp. 59-65


Abstract: The author refers to the relevant historical topic – the implementation of cultural policy of the Russian Empire in the so-called Little Russian provinces. The study of this topic allows demonstrating the multiplicity and multifacetedness of cultural policy of the Russian Empire and identify the main difficulties of its implementation. The article examines the paramount component of cultural policy of the Russian Empire in the XX century – educational. The establishment of state institutions in the sphere of implementation of cultural and educational policy in Russia faced vast amount of problems, one of which concerned the revival of national consciousness of the Ukrainian (Little Russian) population of southwestern provinces. The formation of educational environment (primarily university) contributed the consolidation of Ukrainophile views among certain groups of intellectuals, which resulted in analyzing and emphasizing the sovereignty of the local Ukrainian cultural specificity. The article provides definition to the concept of “cultural policy” and its conceptualization applicable to chronological framework of the research. The author comes to the conclusion that the educational component of cultural policy of the Russian Empire was developing gradually, but at the same time capable of achieving the set goals. Namely this substantiated the awakening of Ukrainophile activity, followed by the rise of Ukrainian nationalism.
Sevostyanova E., Ul'yanova O. - Do not deem the measures taken as violence...: public charity and governance in Transbaikal during the political regime of the ataman G. Semenov pp. 60-89


Abstract: The object of this research is the regional charity and its transformation after February 1917, while the subject is the public charity in Transbaikal during the Civil War and political regime of the ataman G. Semenov. The research relies on the archival sources and periodical press materials. Using the systematic methodological principle, the topic is viewed in strong correlation with the events that unfolded in the society, taking into account structural, genetic, and functional relationships. The article is divided into parts, each of which reflects one of the facets of the articulated problem: disastrous fall in living standards of the population, household difficulties and psychological state peculiarities; crisis of the system of state care and collapse of the imperial system of organized public charity; public initiatives in the sphere of charity (forms, main recipients); “techniques” for encouraging charity used by the administration of the ataman G. Semenov. The conclusion is made that charitable activity overall during the political regime of the ataman G. Semenov retained. This was important, particularly in the conditions of declining living standards and growing number of destitute people, given that the circle of those eligible for receiving welfare has reduced, including for ideological reasons. The main recipients of public charity remained the orphans. Charity events for the own benefit, conducted by the educational institutions and ethnic diasporas, became a noticeable trend. The charity evenings for supporting the military, which in the early going appeared to be unregulated by Semenov’s administration, were prohibited. The authorities, interested in retaining public charity, often resorted to coercive measures fort its stimulation, including threats to habitual activity of the residents. The population was actively forced to donate for the army. The article reveals the methods of psychological pressure and coercion applied to population for participating in charity activities.
Baranov E.Y. - The epidemic situation in the USSR in the 1930s (historiographical aspect) pp. 62-84


Abstract: The purpose of the study is to identify the main directions and results of historical studies of the epidemic situation in the USSR in the 1930s at the present stage of development of national historiography. Its relevance is due to the possibilities of a deep understanding of historical and modern trends in the development of epidemic processes and the assessment of historical experience in combating epidemics. Previously, the epidemic situation in the USSR in the 1930s did not become an independent subject of historiographical analysis. Two main directions have been identified. The first is connected with the conduct of historical and demographic research, the second - with research on the history of the formation and development of the healthcare system in the USSR. It is shown that the results of historical research consist in determining the political, socio-economic and environmental factors of epidemic morbidity, identifying positive and negative trends in the development of healthcare, quantifying the level of morbidity, assessing the role of infections in the structure of mortality. The historiography evaluates the level and resource potential of healthcare, analyzes measures to counteract epidemics, characterizes the role of epidemics in the onset of demographic crises, and reveals their negative impact on the processes of demographic modernization. It is concluded that approaches to historical and demographic research have changed: from identifying demographic crises, scientists have moved on to historical generalizations, analysis of morbidity and mortality based on the concept of "epidemiological transition". The results of the research show that the healthcare system has developed, taking into account the experience of population losses due to epidemics and despite the lack of resources. The emphasis in the fight against epidemics was placed on preventive measures, vaccination of the population was an effective tool.
Osipov E.A. - From totalitarian regimes towards multipolar world: advantages and disadvantages of the new senior year curriculum on history in France pp. 63-71


Abstract: History taught in schools becomes increasingly important worldwide. School textbooks, standards and curricula on, which used to be just part of the learning process, turn into documents that are subject to extensive discussion. Leaning in the contemporary French scientific literature and speeches of the representatives of the French Ministry of National Education in a panel sessions of the Russian-French group on modernization of school curriculum on history (2018–2019) and at the World Congress of School History Teachers held in Moscow in October 2021, analysis is conducted on the curriculum on history for senior year students, that came into force on September 1, 2019. The new school curriculum is structured in such a way that the rivalry between totalitarian regimes in the 1930s, primarily between the Soviet Union and Germany, is the key factor of the outbreak of World War II, which unfortunately corresponds to modern political trends in Western countries, but contradicts the historical facts. It arises questions and draws excessive attention to the program of the protection of the rights of minorities, and the elements of gender theory overall. At the same time, heightened attention to the history of genocides in the XX century, coverage of the events of 1968 and 1989 in global scope as separate topics, and a multifaceted approach towards teaching history of the Cold War are the strong points of the new French school curriculum on history.
Kattsina T.A., Mezit L.E., Tishkina K.A. - Everyday life of orphanages of the Yenisei province in the Early Soviet period pp. 63-72



Abstract: The subject of the study is housing conditions, diet, organization of life in orphanages of the Yenisei province after the end of the Civil War. In the conditions of mass homelessness and juvenile delinquency, the state sought to take care of all children in need, to re-socialize them and make them useful citizens of the new state. On the basis of archival materials, the living conditions of minors in orphanages in the early Soviet period are analyzed. Of all the institutions of social and legal protection of childhood operating during the study period, orphanages were selected as the most widespread institutions. The leading method of research was historical and anthropological. The article emphasizes the desire of the young Soviet state to make orphans and street children useful citizens of society. The authors come to the conclusion that the network of children's social institutions in the province, dispersed across different people's commissariats, did not cover all children in need of care and assistance, the operating orphanages could not cope with the tasks assigned to them, contributed little to the preparation of pupils for future independent life, but helped them survive in the difficult conditions of the period under study. The work of institutions was primarily affected by financial difficulties, budget deficit, lack of teaching staff, lack of systematic interaction in the activities of state bodies and public organizations involved in solving the "children's issue" in one way or another.
Drozdov A.I. - Population of Khakassia in the conditions of establishment of Sayan territorial-production complex: historical-demographic aspect pp. 65-72


Abstract: The subject of this research is the demographic changes in the territory of Khakassia in 1970 – first half of 1980’s. The goal of this work is to analyze the processes of natural and mechanic migration of population in the conditions of its industrial development. Khakassia was assigned to the role of the center of establishment of the Sayan territorial-production complex; it included the three industrial hubs: Abakan, Chernogorsk, and Sayanogorsk. The indicated period marks the time of consolidation of population structure in the region characteristic to the industrial society. The analysis of factual material is conducted on the basis of modernization theory. The work also applies the historical methods (comparative-historical, problematic-chronological, retrospective), as well as quantitative methods (descriptive statistics, dynamic analysis). The scientific novelty lies in generalization and systematization of the materials related to the considered problematic from the perspective of modernization theory. Examination of demographic processes is carried out on the basis of a set of historical sources (both, published and archival). In terms of the establishment of Sayan territorial-production complex, the demographic changes, common to the late-industrial modernization, took place in Khakassia: growth of the absolute size and portion of townspeople in the population structure, and thus, the reduction in size and relative density of rural population.
Avliev V.N., Batyrov V.V., Lidzheeva K.F., Olchanova T.V. - Demographic losses of the Kalmyk people in the first months of deportation on the example of Omsk Oblast: reasons and circumstances pp. 67-76


Abstract: The subject of this research is the examination of reasons and circumstances of the heavy demographic losses of Kalmyks during the first month of deportation on the example of Omsk Oblast. The object of this research is the deportation of Kalmyks to Eastern regions of the Soviet Union. Omsk Oblast, which became the first residents for accommodation of the Kalmyk people in special settlement, was selected as an example of demographic losses in the first months. The authors lean on the published sources and archival materials. The scientific novelty consist in determination of reasons and circumstances of the high mortality rate among Kalmyks during the first month of deportation to Omsk Oblast. It is demonstrated that the total amount of victims is uncertain due to the absence of valid statistics, although the documents demonstrate that the mortality rate among the special settlers was quite high. Among the factors are named the gross negligence and malpractice of the party and local authorities of Omsk Oblast, which led to the facts of misuse of grains, flour and other products by the administration of state-owned farms of Omsk Oblast (comrades Postnikov and Pichugin), as well as the failure in preparation of new lodgings and bathhouses for the Kalmyk special settlers in the state-owned farms.
Slezin A.A., Vanin V.A. - The evolution of the ideological and educational work of the Komsomol in the mid-1950s pp. 68-119
Abstract: Based on the materials of Tambov Region the author identifies the key areas of political and educational work of the provincial Komsomol Organizations in 1953-1957 and their contradictory impact on the public consciousness. The author evaluates the practical implementation of the current policy groups, groups by industry membership. It is shown that the political and educational activities of the Komsomol were romanticized and was built on the principle of the unity of education in the revolutionary traditions of the past, the heroics perception of the present and of the communist ideals of the future. Debunking the Stalin personality cult, which included the condemnation of the old methods of ideological and education activities, included calls for an end of embellishing present time involved a new turn in social strengthening of the cult of Lenin. Many of the noble appeals turned out to be propaganda and had little to do with reality. The realities of the mid-1950s have proved once again that the Soviet ideology, which by chance is sometimes identified with the Soviet religion, was constantly build on the cult of a leader. According to the authors, the system of political education still does not so much test the political beliefs but copies normative samples of politicized behavior.
Pryadko I.P. - Political-ideological and religious contradictions of the era of Ivan the Terrible: modern outlook pp. 71-83


Abstract: The subject of this research is the cultural transformations that took place in the XVI century during the ruling period of the Grand Prince of Moscow Ivan IV Vasilyevich. From the perspective of history and theory of culture, the author examines one of the most dramatic moments of national history of Moscow period. The events of intellectual history of the XV-XVI centuries are assessed through the prism of cultural-philosophical and political dispute, which in many ways determined the sociocultural landscape not only in the era of establishment of the centralized Russian State under the rule of Ivan the Terrible, but foremost, the dispute between the Slavophiles and Westerners in Modern Age. The scientific novelty consists in the thesis that such dispute is viewed from the standpoint of evolution of the communication and language, through the prism of liturgical books that signify the century under consideration. Which captures the ruling period of two Moscow Princes – Vasili III Ivanovich and Ivan IV Vasilyevich. The author draws a new conclusion on the political-cultural Westernism of Ivan the Terrible, which in essence, supported the practice of liturgical books following the “Renaissance” example suggested by Maxim Greek. The practice of liturgical books is compared with the efforts of cultural and literacy conservators grouped around the disgraced Grand Duchy Andrey Kurbsky.
Zagoruyko M.V. - State Symbols of the Republic of Azerbaijan: History and Meaning pp. 78-92


Abstract: The history of the young state of Azerbaijan goes to depth of centuries, closely intertwining with thousand-year history of such great powers as Persia, the Ottoman Empire, the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union, left an indelible trace in the Azerbaijani culture Today Azerbaijan harmoniously fits into the world community and, being the independent state, independently conducts foreign and domestic policy. In the early nineties the state symbolics was chosen as the people of Azerbaijan: flag, coat of arms, anthem. In this work an attempt to interpret a semantic component of the coat of arms and a flag of Azerbaijan in close connection with history of their creation, and also to estimate their relevance now is made. In research the historical approach showing the political phenomena and preferences of the republic Azerbaijan was used. Along with a historical and genetic method, and also a method of mathematical comparison of statistical data, the main reperny points of research allowed to define a historical and comparative method. It should be noted that after events of 1917, the heraldry was buried in oblivion for this reason, there are a lot of mistakes and inaccuracies meets in the coats of arms of various regions and even the sovereign countries now. Many states of the former Soviet Union approved the state symbols, roughly breaking not only strict dogmas of heraldry, but also historical experience of own earth and the people.  It is possible to claim that the coat of arms of the republic Azerbaijan abounds with disputable symbols. It is possible to correct current situation, it is worth rethinking the main state symbols of the state. Haste of their acceptance at the beginning of the XX century led to a number of mistakes. It is necessary to take for a basis of the coat of arms and a flag of the republic or the irano-Persian symbolics – symbolics of the first homeland of the Azerbaijani people, or symbols which were used in this territory during its entry into structure of the Russian Empire. Today it is the only symbols of Azerbaijan having the historical, dogmatic and ethnographic bases fixed by earlier acts that can't be told about "remake" of the beginning of the XX century.
Burdina D.A. - Measures of social Support and Protection of Motherhood and Childhood in the Irkutsk Region and B-MASSR (1936-1953) pp. 79-89



Abstract: The article examines the legal framework of the USSR of the period 1936-1953, regulating the sphere of family relations, the institution of marriage, motherhood and childhood. The consistent emergence of new measures of support and protection of families in the pre-war, war and post-war period in the state is analyzed. Based on the materials of regional archives and periodicals, ideas were formed about the implementation of social support measures in the Irkutsk region and the BMASSR, the main directions of social policy and the effectiveness of their implementation on the ground were determined. The author presents an analysis of the main measures to support families with children, as well as the distinctive features of the implementation of these measures in the regional aspect. The author's special contribution to the study is the analysis of unpublished sources, including archival documents and data from local newspapers covering the problems of motherhood and childhood in the region. The scientific novelty lies in the author's use of a regional source base, which allowed him to draw conclusions about the peculiarities of the implementation of social policy in relation to the Soviet family during the period under study. The conducted research allowed us to conclude that the experience of Soviet social policy has become a vivid example of how the foundation of social support measures laid down by the USSR Constitution of 1936 made it possible to create a bulwark for the further development of the country.
Ippolitov S.S. - Russian émigrés in Germany: psychological situation as a humanitarian program (1917-1920) pp. 82-93


Abstract: The author examines the psychological adaptation of Russian émigré in the German society during the period in question. Special attention is paid to the Russian humanitarian organizations as communication channels between the Russian refugees and authorities of the hosting countries with regards to distribution of humanitarian aid, solution of legal and administrative issues; humanitarian situation among former Russian prisoners of the World War I in Europe; psychological state of Russian emigrants as a humanitarian problem of white émigré. Methodological framework consists of the principles of historicism and systematicity. The latter implies studying the problem in inseparable connection with the processes and events taking place in society at the particular moment in history. The author examines the history of Russian humanitarian activity in emigration as an element of general historical context in development of the country. This article is first within the Russian historiography to consider the psychological peculiarities of adaptation of Russian émigrés in the European society; as well as introduce into the scientific discourse previously unpublished autograph of the prominent émigré writer and publisher Roman Borisovich Gul. Depressive trends, cultural famine, transformation of moral image were frequent occurrences in the moral-psychological climate of Russian communities, due to the circumstances of long-term isolated living in the refugee camps in Germany. As a counterbalance to the gradually vanishing hopes, as a so-called compensation for the emerged spiritual vacuum, in the moods of Russian émigrés have formed the centripetal tendencies, desire to unite national groups, isolate from antagonistic external environment, create the own “Russian” world in a foreign land.
Makarenko G.I. - Certain factors that justifies the drastic changes in ethnic and confessional picture of Crimea of the late XIX century pp. 84-93


Abstract: This article explores certain factors in social and political situation in Crimea, as well as foreign political status of the Russian Empire that could predetermine the changes in ethnic and confessional structure of Crimea in the late XIX – right after the end of the Crimean War, as well as indicates some regularities in the activity of Christian and Islamic confession in the region during this period. The author underlines separate characteristics and historical factors of everyday life of Crimean peoples of this period, including economic, administrative and religious. The scientific novelty consists in generalization of the various factors that could substantiate the transformation of the structure of Crimean population as a part of the Russian Empire, as well as determination of the trends of state regional policy regarding the questions of population in correlation with religious affiliation of the nationals. An assumption is made on the possible influence of foreign policy factor upon the Russian domestic policy. As a result, the author proves the transformation pattern of the ethnic and confessional structure of Crimea in the late XIX century as a mandatory component of ensuring stability in the region and territorial integrity of Russia.
Vorobeva S. - Wiedergeburt Society of Russian Germans in the Republic of Khakassia in the 1990s2010s pp. 90-99


Abstract: This article examines the “Wiedergeburt” Society of Russian Germans in the Republic of Khakassia over the period from 1990s to 2010s relying on the archival sources. The object of this research is the “Wiedergeburt” Society of Russian Germans in the 1990s–2010s. The subject is the “Rebirth” Society of Russian Germans in the Republic of Khakassia. The goal of the publication consists in analysis of the history of establishment and development of “Wiedergeburt” Society in the Republic of Khakassia. The author aims to trace the history of creation of “Wiedergeburt” Society in the Russian Federation, namely in the Republic of Khakassia; as well as analyze the role of “Rebirth” Society in Germany-Russia relations. The article employs historical-comparative, chronological, and retrospective methods. The scientific novelty lies in the comparative analysis of the processes of creation and development of “Wiedergeburt” Society on the national level and on the level of the Republic of Khakassia; summary and systematization of  the related material using the historical-comparative and system-functional method for examination of the tasks faced by “Rebirth” Society in the Republic of Khakassia; examination of the regional branch of “Wiedergeburt” Society in Abakan within the system of nonprofit organization of Russian Germans; use of archival sources. The conclusion is made that “Wiedergeburt” Society in the Republic of Khakassia is part of the system of nonprofit organization of Russian Germans, and the regional branch of “Rebirth” Society in Abakan slightly differed from the central All-Union Society of Russian Germans “Wiedergeburt”. In pursuit of its goals, the organization was focused on the cultural-educational activity, preservation of culture and traditions, and development of the German language.
Lapteva L. - Domestic violence: power of tradition pp. 92-106


Abstract: The subject of the article is the examination of various manifestations of domestic violence and search of the historical legal argumentation in favor of the purposefulness and potential for correcting the corresponding social relations through legislation. The research is based on the analysis of national legislation – both, the modern, as well as previously existed at various stages of evolution of the Russian State. In order to prove the thesis that violence with regards to family members is inherent to systemocentric and personicentric societies at different stages of historical development. The authors meticulously reviews such aspects of the topic, as the origins and methods of the struggle against domestic violence with regards to women. The use of comparative-historical and historical-country analysis, allowed saturating the research with the facts that confirm the immanency of family violence to the traditional microsocieties, structured in accordance with the principle of autocratic power of master of the house. The main contribution into the study consists in the thesis on the influence upon the formation of tradition of domestic violence of a number of factors, including the legacy of authoritarian social structure, religious and ethical imperatives, economic ill-being of family and society as a whole. The scientific novelty is defined by the facts testifying to the spread of domestic violence in the world, as well as formulation of propositions based on the global preventative experience, particularly through adopting the corresponding programs of social development and laws on prevention of the domestic violence.
Sugaipova R.A., Yanadamov A.M. - Dynamics of the Number of Chechens and Ingush on the Basis of the First General Population Census of 1897. pp. 93-99



Abstract: The subject of the study is the dynamics of the number of Chechen Ingush in the late XIX-early XX century. The source on which the author of the article relies are the materials of the first General Population Census of the Russian Empire in 1897 and the reports of the ataman of the Tersk region for the years 1900-1905. The methodological basis of the research is a set of theoretical and methodological principles and approaches: objectivity and historicism. The relevance of the topic is determined by the fact that the issues of demographic and ethnic development of the North Caucasus have been in the focus of attention of researchers for many years and are of interest not only to historians, but also to representatives of other specialties. The relevance is also determined by the fact that from the end of the XIX century to the present, the ethnic map has undergone certain changes, but at the same time, the area of compact residence of the peoples of the region has remained without significant changes. The materials of the first General Population Census of the Russian Empire are unique, they make up a huge layer of statistical data and their qualified analysis can help in studying many issues related not only to the number and language, but also to the economy. The scientific novelty of the reviewed article is manifested in the introduction into scientific circulation of the reports of the Ataman of the Tersk region for the years 1900-1905 and the analysis of the materials of the first General Population Census of the Russian Empire in 1897. The territorial scope of the study covers the Tersk region. The purpose of the article emerges from the content of the article to show the dynamics of changes in the number of Chechens and Ingush in the late XIX- early XX century. Based on the materials of the first General Population Census of 1897 and the reports of the Ataman of the Tersk region for 1900-1905, as well as the districts in which Chechens and Ingush lived, the number of urban population, etc. The article is an overview based on the conclusions made earlier by other authors.
Drozdov A.I., Stepanov M.G., Ivanova S.I. - Emigration and remigration processes of the Russian Germans in the late XX early XXI century (on the example of Khakassia) pp. 94-101


Abstract: The object of this research is the migration processes among the Russian Germans in the late XX – early XXI century. The subject of this research is the emigration and remigration services of the Russian Germans. The goal of publication lies in the analysis of the indicated migration processes using the nationwide and regional data. The authors examine the dynamics and causes of emigration process of Russian Germans in the Russian Federation overall and in the Republic of Khakassia in particular; analyze the process of returning of the Germans-emigrants to Russia, including the Republic of Khakassia, describes its causes and prospects. The authors apply the principles of structural-genetic approach towards the analysis of international migration of Germans. The scientific novelty consists in the following: 1) comparative analysis of the emigration and remigration processes of the Russian Germans at the national level and at the level of the Republic of Khakassia; 2) generalization and systematization of the material on the topic, using the cliometric tools and mathematical-statistical methods.
Shapovalenko D.A. - The struggle of the government of Alexei Mikhailovich with the uprising led by S. T. Razin in the summer and autumn of 1671. pp. 94-105



Abstract: The subject of the study is the government's activities aimed at eliminating the Razin movement at its final stage. The object of the study is the military actions of government troops against the rebels. The author examines in detail such aspects as: the personalities of the voivodes who participated in the suppression of S.T. Razin's rebellion, the situation in the regions of the Volga region and adjacent counties, the features of the final stage of the Razin "troubles", the reactions of neighboring countries to the events that took place in Russia in 1670-1671 and the conclusions drawn by the government of Alexei Mikhailovich. Special attention is paid to the defense of Simbirsk. Sheremetev and the siege of Astrakhan, the oath of the Don to Moscow, the reaction to the events of the "razinschina" of neighboring states, as well as the changes that occurred in the organization of military departments on the eve of the Russian-Turkish war (1672-1681), thanks to the conclusions made by the government of Alexei Mikhailovich. The methodological basis of the article is the principles of historicism, scientific objectivity and consistency. Within the framework of the article, logical and historical-genetic methods were used. The main conclusions of the study are: immediately after the suppression of the uprising of S.T. Razin, the government resorted to an active process of optimizing and supplying troops, reflected in the reassignment of military units in departments; combat experience gained in battles with the rebels in autumn winter 1670 and spring 1671. It had a positive effect on the effectiveness of government troops at the final stage of the Razin movement; thanks to the destruction of the anti-government part of the Don Cossacks, sympathy for Moscow strengthened on the Don, which contributed to the swearing in of the Don Cossacks to the tsar; closely monitoring the events of the next "turmoil" in Russia, the Crimean Khanate, in alliance with the Astrakhan and Nogai Tatars, planned to commit a major the raid that didn't take place. A special contribution of the author to the writing of this article is the involvement of unpublished sources from the RGADA Foundation (F. 111). The novelty of the study lies in a detailed examination of the fighting in the summer autumn of 1671, which became possible by attracting an extensive source base, including archival; the conclusion that the uprising of Stepan Razin prompted the government to change the management of the Russian army; the emphasis on the close attention of neighboring states to the events of the Razin "troubles"
Osipov S., Vyazmitinov M., Kamalova R. - Honors and rewards in the education system of Imperial Russia (the late XVIII the early XX centuries) pp. 96-105


Abstract: The object of this research is the reward signs bestowed upon the students of secondary and higher education for academic achievements and behavior in prerevolutionary Russia (the late XVIII – the early XX centuries); stages of the establishment of reward system; marks of distinction, etc. The author underlines the versatility of educational rewards, their tangible values, as well as the value in case of employment. The authors review the mechanism of ensuring credibility of such rewards, as well as describes the particular marks of distinctions of the various higher education facilities (medals, rings, tokens, etc.). Based on analysis of the collected data with the use of historical-hermeneutic methodology, the work defines the origins, peculiarities and development stages of the rewards system. Determines its levels, and underlines the moral and material aspects. The authors systematize the records on the rewards of secondary and higher schools of Imperial Russia, turning attention to the holistic character of many of the marks of distinction (moral rewards, tangible rewards, sign of corporate solidarity). A conclusion is made on the merits of prerevolutionary rewards system due to the presence of tangible component, and advantages in recruiting for government service, etc.
Mamysheva E.P. - Migrants and indigenous minorities in Yeniseysk Governorate in the late XIX early XX century (based on the materials of Minusinsky and Achinsky disctricts): relationship problem pp. 101-107


Abstract: The subject of this research is the relationship established in the late XIX – early XX century between the migrants and indigenous minorities of Yeniseysk Governorate. It is underlined that the conflict in their relationship sparked due to the territorial question. Based on the analysis of archival materials, the author determines the role of the indigneous self-governance in settling the conflict situations, demonstrates the ways of adaptation of the indigenous minorities to new living environment, in which they found themselves as a result of land surveying works. The historical-genetic method gradually reveals the factors that influence the character of relations established between the migrant and indigenous peoples. The problematic-chronological method contributed to examination of the problem in chronological sequence with determination of quantitative and qualitative changes. The author identifies the causes for dissolution of the indigenous authorities and establishment of volost institutions. A conclusion is formulated that the character of relationship between the migrants and indigenous minorities was affected by the political measures aimed at integration of Siberia into the composition of the Russian Empire. The research materials represent valuable addition to the scientific knowledge on the indigenous politics, implementation of Stolypin Land Reform in the Yeniseysk Governorate, as well as the impact of migration upon the population structure.
Kenya I.A. - Charity By Russian Tzars in Russian Province pp. 104-119


Abstract: The article is devoted to different directions of charity activities by the Romanov dynasty both at the levels of Russia and Russian provinces based on the example of Bryansk Region in the Orlov county. The author describes the main forms of charity by the royal dynasty in Russian province such as donations to monasteries and churches, donations to citizens, support of schools and orphanages. The author provides historical facts about visits of the royal family to the Bryansk Region. The article describes visits of the Peter the First and Alexander the First to Bryansk and Nicolas the Second to Bezhitsa and how these visits were reflected in the cultural monuments. A special part of the article is devoted to Mikhail Romanov's estate and his charity activities. Much attention is paid to the relations of famous donators of the Bryansk industry I. S. Maltsev, P. I. Gubonin, S. S. Mogilevtsev and M. K. and V. N. Tenishevs with the governors of the Russian Empire. 
Ma Y. - Socioeconomic relations between Kazakhstan and China after the dissolution of the Soviet Union pp. 105-112


Abstract: The object of this research is the China – Kazakhstan relations in the XX-XXI centuries. The subject of this research is the socioeconomic ties between the two countries after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Analysis is conducted on the general trend of socioeconomic ties between China and Kazakhstan, as well as socioeconomic cooperation between them during the 1990s and 2000s. The author examines such aspects as the advantages and difficulties with regards to trade, development of border trade, joint construction of railways, cooperation in the sphere of energy, etc. The main merit of the conducted research consists in the description of bilateral socioeconomic relations between the two countries, which are shifting to the next level and more diverse structure, due to the unique political coordination of Kazakhstan and China, benefits of geographical location and additional economic structure. The current China – Kazakhstan relations represent the model of mutual respect, equality and mutually advantageous cooperation. The novelty of this work lies in division of the China – Kazakhstan trade relations into different periods in accordance with the characteristics, as well as in determination of the priority vectors of cooperation. The article provides a general description of trade and economic cooperation between China and Kazakhstan.
Oleinikova E.G. - Social Situation in Stalingrad During the Periods of the Great Patriotic War and Post-War Reconstruction pp. 106-124


Abstract: The article is devoted to the social history of Stalingrad during the period of the Great Patriotic War and the first decade after the War. The author of the article analyzes a number of sources: archive documents and periodical press. Many of these sources are introduced in science for the first time. The author studies the phenomenon of development of the Soviet social model, in particular, formation of a special kind of social policy based on the principles of paternalism. The new policy guaranteed the priority role of the government in realization of social interests and personal needs. The all-encompassing influence of the government covered not only the sphere of production but also the sphere of allocation and consumption of social benefits. The author describes the social activities performed by the government before and during the defence of Stalingrad including the guidance over the evacuation processes, social protecton of evacuated population and citizens and raising funds to support the national defence. The author defines and describes stages of reconstructon of the social infrastructure of Stalingrad as well as special features of the reconstructive policy. She makes conclusions about the significance of social and historical researches in the process of formation of the social welfare state in the Russian Federation.
Fando R.A. - The bloom of non-state higher education in prerevolutionary Russia pp. 106-119


Abstract: The object of this research is the system of non-state higher education in Russia over the period from the late XIX until the early XX century. The subject is the history of organization of the private and public universities in prerevolutionary Russia. The author examines the emergence of educational facilities of the new type that received the title of people’s universities. This article helps to fill the gaps in the history of the national non-state education that emerged due to the long-term neglect in the Russian historiography of the questions regarding the functionality of the private higher education establishments. Moreover, during the Soviet period, multiple positive moments present in the prerevolutionary higher school, were consigned to oblivion. The history of evolution of the non-state higher education is viewed with consideration of the political, economic and sociocultural factors, which helps to understand the causes that affected the spread of such phenomenon in prerevolutionary Russia. The scientific novelty of this work lies in generalization of the historical path experienced by the non-state higher education in Russian over the period from the second half of the XIX until the firs decades of the XX century, involving the new previously unknown archival materials. Despite the insufficient knowledge of the private and public universities of the examined period, many of the scholars and educators had worldwide recognition due to their research in the breakthrough fields of knowledge, using the contemporary to that time methods. The first classical scientific schools originated within the private universities. The knowledge about the system of non-state higher education of prerevolutionary period is extremely relevant today, as over the two recent decades Russia observes the increase in the number of students of the non-state universities.
Slezin A.A. - Organization of leisure activities for children and youth as means for preventing legal violations in the early 1960s pp. 107-117


Abstract: The object of this research is the establishment of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League (Komsomol) that celebrates 100th anniversary in 2018. The subject of this research is the peculiarities of organization of leisure activities for children and youth in first half of the 1960’s, when the union practically crossed the “equator” of its historical path. The main sources used in this work as the materials from the Russian State Archive of Socio-Political History, State Archive of Socio-Political History of Tambov Oblast, as well as the highly classified “Codes of Rules” that initially were distributed in small circulation into the republican and regional Komsomol Committees. The author reviews Komsomol as a sociocultural phenomenon of the XX century, as well as illustrates that in the time of “Thaw”, the center of attention in activity of the Komsomol organizations was reoriented towards satisfaction of all increasing requests and interests of the entire Soviet youth. In public consciousness, Komsomol was associated with the interesting and valuable organization of leisure activities, which played a substantial role in prevention of legal violations among young men and women.
Bezgin V.B. - Unnatural vices within the peasant environment (second half of the XIX beginning of the XX century) pp. 108-120


Abstract: Based on the archive materials, the author examines the facts of sexual inversions (incest, sodomy, and zoophilia) in the Russian village of the end of XIX – the beginning of XX century. According to the existed criminal legislation they qualified as crimes against public morality, and the villagers considered them as vice and contradicting the human nature actions. The article presents an analysis of the court cases associated with the sexual actions of criminal character, which involved the peasants. The author determined the level of expansion of these crimes within the rural environment, explores the reaction of the villagers to the cases of sexual perversions, as well as studies the legal precedents with regards to such cases. As a hypothesis, the author suggests that the manifestations of sexual inversions among peasants were linked to the peculiarities of the rural lifestyle, as well as the negative consequences of the modernization process of the Russian society. The unnatural vices in the village were most common to the rural marginals. On the contrary, the male villagers became victims of sexual perversions on the city from the side of local sodomists. Based on the archive materials, the author examines the facts of sexual inversions (incest, sodomy, and zoophilia) in the Russian village of the end of XIX – the beginning of XX century. According to the existed criminal legislation they qualified as crimes against public morality, and the villagers considered them as vice and contradicting the human nature actions. The article presents an analysis of the court cases associated with the sexual actions of criminal character, which involved the peasants. The author determined the level of expansion of these crimes within the rural environment, explores the reaction of the villagers to the cases of sexual perversions, as well as studies the legal precedents with regards to such cases. As a hypothesis, the author suggests that the manifestations of sexual inversions among peasants were linked to the peculiarities of the rural lifestyle, as well as the negative consequences of the modernization process of the Russian society. The unnatural vices in the village were most common to the rural marginals. On the contrary, the male villagers became victims of sexual perversions on the city from the side of local sodomists.
Bukalova S.V. - Wounded in the everyday life of a provincial city during the World War I (on the materials of the Central Black Earth Economic Region) pp. 110-120


Abstract: The subject of this research is the multi-aspect impact produced by the system of medical care for the ill and wounded soldiers during the World War I upon the social life of provincial towns that accommodated the military hospitals. The article determines the role of the Central Black Earth Economic Region in treating the wounded; provides information on the number of hospital beds; describes organizational moments of operation of hospitals, as well as the forms of public participation in work of the hospitals. Attention is given to the common and symbolic aspects associated with the figure of a wounded soldier. The study is based on systematization of records on functionality of the medical military facilities in the Central Black Earth Economic Region, making emphasis on the changes and new occurrences in everyday of the city folks caused by establishing and operation of hospitals. The acquires results state that the system of medical care for the wounded during the World War I has become the subject of social consolidation, invoking new forms of charity and active cooperation of various social classes of a provincial city. At the same time, concentration of the wounded was a destabilizing factor of urban life.
Kisteneva O.A., Kistenev V.V., Ukhvatova E.A. - The activity of sanitary inspection of labor at the industrial enterprises in RSFSR over the period of the New Economic Policy (using the materials of Kursk Province) pp. 112-118


Abstract: The subject of this research is the activity of sanitary inspection of labor aimed at improving health of the employees of industrial enterprises of Kursk Province, as well as organizing their recreation over the period of the New Economic Policy. The study is conducted through researching the regional archival materials. It is noted that the sanitary inspections were responsible for improving the working conditions, as well as carried out mass health examinations. The most common diseases among the employees have been identified. It is underlined that the responsibilities of sanitary inspection of the Kursk provincial labor department also included the scientific work on studying the occupational illness and mortality rate, and the counteracting measures. The application of the comparative-historical and problem-chronological methods of the general historical research allowed the authors to identify the specificities of practical work of the trade unions in social-labor sphere. The scientific novelty consists in demonstration of the joint activity of sanitary inspection with trade unions, which has brought positive results. The companies have conducted mass medical examinations; identified the most common diseases among workers in hazardous industries, the causes and preventative measures; organized the state support in form of the sanatorium-resort treatment of workers; conducted educational work through publishing newspaper and journal articles; prosecuted  the company administration for violating Labor code in the field of labor protection, especially the private factories, rather that the state. The aforementioned facts positively affected the acceleration of production processes and increase of labor efficiency.
Kezhutin A.N. - Staffing issues in medical services of the river transportation of the Volga Basin during the years of Russian Civil War pp. 112-117


Abstract: This article describes the conditions and peculiarities of supplying the management apparatus, medical facilities and steamships of Volga Basin with medical staff due to the difficulties of wartime, economic crisis, growth of social and epidemic diseases, drastic transformation of government and social institutions. The relevance of research is substantiated by insufficient study of this topic in historiography, as well as human resourcing of modern national medicine and attempts to reform healthcare system. The author examines the activity of government branches and public organizations in solution of the problem of supplying transport system of the Volga Basis with medical personnel in the period from 1918 to 1922, in the context of development of the unified project of supplying river transport with medical staff. Examination of this question is related to the process of socioeconomic development of the society. The source base is comprised of the materials from Central Archive of Nizhny Novgorod Region. The author reveals the main peculiarities of establishment of the new system of human resourcing in the extreme conditions of wartime; as well as introduced into the scientific discourse the problems of recruitment, employment and relocation of medical personnel of the central apparatus, medical institutions and passenger steamships of river transport of the Volga Basin and practices of their solution.
Igumnov D.A. - Decease of Alexander III in coverage of news media of St. Petersburg (on the example of publishers Citizen and New Time) pp. 114-121


Abstract: The subject of this research is the perception of the demise of Alexander II in news media, namely the materials of the publishers “Citizen”, “New Time”, and “Light”. The author examines such aspects of the topic as the assessment of persona of the deceased emperor, time that he ascended the throne, and his activity ad a monarch. Special attention is given to comprehension of relations between the “old” and the “new” during the ruling period of Alexander III, as well as the problem of legacy of the Great Reforms, liberalism, and revolutionary moods. The author compares the materials of three publishers and draws conclusions about their similarities and differences. The scientific novelty is defined by comparison of the materials that have not been previously compared. A conclusion is made that during the ruling period of Alexander III from the perspective of the reviewed in the article publishers was pivotal for choosing the path of the Russian society. At the same time, assessing the image of the deceased emperor, the publishers bequeathed the own political ideals to the future.
Boltaevskii A.A., Pryadko I.P. - Establishment of the Soviet political elite: from Lenins death to Stalins triumph pp. 115-134


Abstract: The growing interest towards the defining moments in Russian history takes place under the conditions of establishment of Russia’s independent course. The object of fierce discussion, similar to the period of Perestroika, becomes the activity of J. V. Stalin, as well as the peculiarities of formation of the Soviet political system over the period of 1920’s – 1930’s. Some people see Stalin as a dictator, but other consider him a prominent government leader. At the same time, the interests to his persona causes the occurrence of various tendentious and falsified materials. The authors lean on a broad range of sources: documental materials, testimonies of political and military leaders, works of Russian and foreign experts, as well as use the comparative-historical and problematic-chronological methods. An average Russian believe that the great in Stalin’s era consists in increase of the political-military power of the country, success in industrial expansion, and most importantly – victory in the Great Patriotic War. All of these events overshadow the negative manifestations, such as mass repression, persecution of church alongside the academic and cultural figures, as well as devastation of peasantry during the process of collectivization. Depending on the sociopolitical situation in the country, the historical memory of our citizens will reproduce certain events of the period of 1920’s – 1950’s, which obscures the facts that contradict the established conjuncture. Stalin’s activity can be viewed as the creation of new political elite, which is capable of withstanding the internal and external challenges.
Zaitsev A.V. - The dialogue between state and civil society in modern Russia: phase of genesis (1985-2000) pp. 118-130


Abstract: The subject of this research is the genesis phase of the dialogue between state and civil society in the sphere of public policy of modern Russia. Such dialogue initially took place on the context of social dialogue. The beginning of Perestroika in the Soviet Union created the prerequisites for genesis of the dialogue between state and civil society. Analysis of evolution of the civil society institutions and formation of innovation, and simultaneously contradictory practices of dialogue interactions in the area of public policy are in the author’s center of attention. The main conclusion lies in the empirically substantiated periodization of institutional theory of the dialogue between state and civil society. Its main stages are the following: social dialogue in Russia prior to the emergence of mature civil society; genesis phase of the dialogue between state and civil society that transformed into the stage of institutionalization. These are namely the determined by the author key stages in institutional history of the dialogue between state and civil society in the Russian Federation.
Golovushkin D.A. - Correlativity of the mystical and rational. Formulation of the church-state relationship model at the 191718 Local Council of the Russian Orthodox Church pp. 120-129


Abstract: This article is dedicated to one of the most complicated and paramount questions discussed at the 1917–18 Local Council of the Russian Orthodox Church in terms of the political freedom, secularism and non-confessionalism of the state. Over the recent decade, this topic has repeatedly become a subject of attention of the national historians and theologians, but unfortunately never exceeded the scope of the empirically real side of the church, as a social institution, passing over its conceptual-mystical core – theocentricism, sociality and totality. The goal of this work is to demonstrate whether the Council had its own political and religious discourse based on the traditional social doctrine of the church that it “already” belongs to the Kingdom of God, developed the “middle way” in the church-state relationship and returned onto the “historical paths”. The analysis of the actions and decisions of the 1917–18 Local Council of the Russian Orthodox Church allows concluding that despite the enticement of the “free theocracy” the Council still was under the thumb of the political moment and targeted the religious policy of the new state. Thus, the derived from the Council final document – “On the Legal Status of the Russian Orthodox Church” was based on the idea of mutual compromise and mutual restrictions, which the church addressed to the state. This was an attempt of the “militant church” to embark upon the path of mediation, correlativity of the mystical and rational, which in the Russian Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodox Church is one of the unique experiences of similar type.
Kenya I.A. - Public charity in central Russia in the second half of XIX - early XX centuries and its features pp. 122-134


Abstract: The subject of this research public charity in the Russian Empire in the second half of XIX - early XX centuries and its features. The different types of charities vertical: national, provincial, district and horizontally: educational, parish, professional and other peculiarities of forming the system of organized public charity. Comparative analysis of the development of philanthropy in the territory of Orel, Smolensk and Vladimir provinces. Trends, the features of the development of charity in provincial and district towns. The study used methods of statistical analysis, comparative-historical method, historical legal method, logical-analytical and socio-cultural method of the study the Main conclusions of the study are :public charity in Russian Empire in second half XIX - n. XX centuries. was formed under the patronage of the Royal family of the Romanovs- the formation of a by n. XX in the system of organized public charity, which had its legislative framework- the appearance in the provincial offices of the Russian cities and provincial charities- charitable society in the province became the successors to the philanthropists- low initiative of the population was replaced by the municipal authorities in the establishment of charitable societiesThe novelty of the study is the first analysis of the emergence and development of the charitable societies on the example of Vladimir, Orel and Smolensk province.
Asochakova V., Chistanova S. - Missionary work as a factor of the development of Siberia in the XVII-XIX centuries pp. 124-130


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the analysis of missionary work as one of the forms of religious migration in Siberia. Settlement of Siberia for a long time was a paramount geopolitical and economic objective of the Russian government. The state policy with regard to Siberia alongside the forms and methods aimed at proliferation of Orthodoxy among the Siberian population were undergoing transformations throughout the period from XVII to XX century. The authors determine the six stages in state policy of Christianization, since the initial familiarization with Orthodox faith until the transition towards the policy of Russification. The article analyzes the process of Christianization of the indigenous dwellers in the context of solution of the political and economic issues of the Russian State, as well as demonstrate the changes in state policy from violence to religious tolerance. In the space of two centuries of missioners’ activity in Siberia, the forced methods of Christianization were replace by the tactics of tolerance and enlightenment in terms of retaining monopoly of the Russian Orthodox Church.
Kreitsberga K.A. - The Role of the League of Education in the Formation of the pedological Movement. pp. 125-138



Abstract: The purpose of this study is to reconstruct the interaction of the League of Education with the pedological community, which will reveal its role in the formation of pedological experience, subsequently applied in the 20-30s of the XX century in the USSR. The subject of the study is a community created by the League of Education and implementing pedological experiments in the educational space of the beginning of the century. The author pays special attention to the results of the League of Education on the example of Petrograd. The connection between the scientific heritage of the members of the Society and the use of these materials in the later period of the existence of the pedological movement, after 1917, is revealed. The paper analyzes the projects of the League of Education on the radical transformation of the school space, taking into account social and historical aspects. The period of existence of the pedological current before 1917 has been little studied in a historical way. The same should be noted regarding the study and analysis of the activities of the League of Education. This organization is described in most sources in several general paragraphs. The novelty of the research lies in the development and analysis of archival materials related to the organization and activities of the League of Education (the study was conducted on the basis of documents of the Central State Administration of St. Petersburg, TsGIA St. Petersburg, TSGAIPD St. Petersburg). The League of Education played a significant role not only in the analytical study of the educational space, the accumulation of pedological experience, the search for leading pedagogical developments, but also in the replication of these materials. The activities of the organization and its societies were widely covered in publications. Despite the successful and productive activities, the government refused the League of Education. And this is primarily due to the political context, from which, initially, according to the Charter of the organization, members of the society had to be abstracted. The specialists in question in the study continued their work in other institutions and created the foundation of Soviet pedology.
Zaitsev A.V. - Social dialogue in the pre-revolutionary Russian and USSR pp. 127-141


Abstract:   The subject of this research is the institutional history of social dialogue. The author examines the key institutions of the dialogue, beginning with Ancient Rus’ and all the way until the collapse of the Soviet Union. The article indicates the main stages of evolution of the dialogue. Institutional history of the dialogue is viewed as a fight between monologism and dialogism in the field of public discourse, which affects the level of propensity towards conflict or constructivism in the context of interaction between the Russian authorities and society.  Social dialogue manifests as an imperative part of Russia’s social history. The main conclusion consists in the thesis that social dialogue played an exceptionally crucial role throughout the Russian and Soviet history. It included all of the subsequently emerged types and varieties of social dialogue, the genesis and institutionalization of which are associates with the beginning of Perestroika process.  
Chen G.N. - Cuban School at a crossroads: states minders and libertarians during the early republican period pp. 128-135


Abstract: In the current realities, the problem of searching for the new forms and ways of education development becomes extremely important. One of such forms is private education, which has deep historical roots in Cuba. Considering this fact, the reference to Cuban experience represents significant relevance for the historical and pedagogical sciences. The subject of this research is the libertarian movement in Cuban education in the early XX century. The author analyzes the origins of alternative education in Cuba: opposition between the anarchists and the state, impact of pedagogical ideas of F. Ferrer upon education; as well as attempts to answer the question if private education was a serious alternative to public. The author’s major contribution into this study lies in reconsideration of the conceptual aspects of prerevolutionary education in Cuba. The usage of historical-pedagogical sources on the history of Cuban education (reports of P. Packard, Gonzalo de Quesada, and Charles Magoon) allowed determining the strong correlation between the political events and the reforms in the area of education in Cuba.
Stepanov M.G. - The role of civil aviation of the Republic of Khakassia in development of internal migration of population (mid 1940s late 1980s) pp. 131-139


Abstract: The subject of this research is the impact of civil aviation upon internal migration in the Khakassia Autonomous District of Krasnoyarsk Krai during the mid 1940’s – late 1980’s. Special attention is given to the development of aircraft infrastructure, expansion of flight geography, renewal of aircraft fleets, growth of labor migration due to the construction of Sayansk territorial industrial complex. A conclusion is made that with the opening of medium-range flights of the Abakan Airport led to the increasing interest in culture and history of Khakassia, and thus the growing tourist flow. In the course of this study, the author applied the following research methods: historical-comparative, historical-generic, historical-systemic, historical-structural and historical-typological. The scientific novelty lies in the fact that this article analyzes the impact of civil aviation of Khakassia upon the growth of internal migration of population, as well as introduces the materials from the National Archive of the Republic of Khakassia into the scientific discourse, which were classified until 2015 and were not available for examination.  
Dolidovich O.M., Starovoitova E.N. - Krasnoyarsk Mutual Fire Insurance Society (1904-1917) pp. 134-147



Abstract: The subject of the study is the organization and activity of the Krasnoyarsk Mutual Fire Insurance Society. On the basis of the historical and genetic method, the reasons for the origin of the insurance business in the Yenisei province, the leading trends in its development during the second half of the XIX - early XX centuries, changes that occurred under the influence of the First World War are analyzed. The application of the historical-systematic method allowed the authors to determine the role and place of the city mutual insurance society in the emerging fire insurance system in one of the provincial centers of Eastern Siberia. The historical-comparative method made it possible to identify the differences between mutual insurance companies and joint-stock companies. The statistics of fires and the scale of losses from them grew in the Russian Empire in the second half of the 19th - early 20th centuries. At the same time, a fire insurance system was being formed. A specific noncommercial form of insurance was mutual insurance (the main types are zemstvo and city), which arose due to the fact that the services of private insurance companies were inaccessible to a wide range of the population. In the Yenisei province , the only society of this type appeared only at the beginning of the XX century. Krasnoyarsk City Mutual Insurance Society for a short period of its existence could not significantly change the situation in the local insurance market, where the dominant position was occupied by branches of joint-stock insurance companies. Nevertheless, his activity has had a beneficial effect on the development of the insurance business in the city by reducing tariffs, supporting fire-fighting measures of the city authorities. The First World War carried the threat of loss of organizational and financial independence of mutual insurance companies, since the government became interested in the idea of introducing a state monopoly of fire insurance in order to compensate for the budget deficit.
Merkureva V.S. - Children of War: on the issue of providing assistance to children evacuated to the Stalingrad region in 1941 early 1942. pp. 139-148



Abstract: The object of the study is the social policy of the USSR during the Great Patriotic War. The subject of the study is social policy measures aimed at protecting childhood in the period under review. The methodological basis of the article is the principles of objectivity, historicism and determinism, which allow us to consider the content and significance of all the events that took place related to the creation of a system of measures aimed at protecting children, to show the multidimensionality of the events taking place, a holistic historical picture of a specific chronological period, consisting of a set of facts and their interaction. The author presents a comprehensive analysis of measures aimed at evacuating children from frontline areas to the rear, providing assistance to evacuated children's institutions, transferring orphaned children to foster families. The author draws attention to the changes in the legislative framework, the purpose of which was to more effectively regulate issues related to the provision of assistance to children. The article examines the initiatives of local authorities implemented within the framework of the state policy for the protection of childhood at the initial stage of the war. The materials of the regional archive are introduced into scientific circulation, which allow illustrating issues related to the evacuation of children to Stalingrad and the mechanisms of interaction between the authorities and society in the process of helping children. The author concludes that there are a number of difficulties associated with the placement of evacuated children's institutions and the possibilities of overcoming them, despite the difficult conditions of wartime.
Drozdov A.I., Karachakova O.M. - Work of the national cultural centers of Khakassia during the 1990s pp. 140-151


Abstract: The object of this research is the interethnic relations in the Republic of Khakassia over the 1990’s. The subject of this research is the main directions in the work of the regional national cultural centers during this time period. The goal of the study is to analyze the process of establishment of the national cultural centers of the Germans, Poles, Cossacks, Tatars, Shors, Uzbeks, Tajiks during the 1990’s. The author explores such aspects of the topic as the change in the number of representatives of the national communities of Khakassia, the activity of associations such as “Wiedergeburt”, “Polonia”, “Duslyk”, Abakan Cossack Hundered (Sotnia), “Shoria”, Center for Tajik and Uzbek Culture “Sogdiana”. The scientific novelty lies in introduction into the scientific discourse of the new factual data, generalization and systematization of the material, within the framework of the topic under consideration, from the perspective of systemic approach and the concept of “resettlement society”. The main vector of the activity of the national cultural centers of Khakassia in the 1990’s became the revival and preservation of language, development of national culture, customs and traditions, strengthening of interethnic relations, friendship between all peoples, and establishment of the atmosphere of mutual respect. The listed national cultural centers were an important form of development of the national relations, and contributed to interethnic harmony.
Khazov V.K. - Factors of socialization of children in the occupied territory of the Leningrad region in 19411944 pp. 143-156



Abstract: the article analyzes the factors of socialization of children in the occupied territories of the Leningrad region in the period from 1941 to 1944. The author relies on the principles of objectivity and historicism. The author uses a systematic approach, general logical and special historical methods (synchronous method, contextual analysis method, historical and textual analysis method). The article notes that socialization is a complex and multifaceted process. This phenomenon can be investigated either through its results (for example, through the description of survival practices, learned specific behavioral tactics) and through the analysis of stories about subjective experiences associated with the process of socialization. The author concludes that socialization carried out in the occupied territories has a number of specific characteristics: instability, fragmentation, inconsistency. The reason for these characteristics is twofold. The first reason: the impact on the personality of the conflict between the desire for survival and the desire to preserve freedom and dignity. The second is the destruction of traditional social ties for this community. At the same time, the main factor in preserving pre-war socialization attitudes was the family.
Prishchepa A.S., Khazov V.K. - Organization of the educational process in the post-blockade time in Leningrad pp. 148-160



Abstract: This article is devoted to the organization of the educational process in post-war Leningrad. This process is described as one of the factors of the rapid and sustainable recovery of urban industry in the second half of the 1940s. The blockade lasted for a long four years. The result of it was a massive destruction of the city. However, the main damage that Leningrad suffered and which significantly slowed down the process of its restoration was the mass death of people. The city is faced with an acute shortage of workers, primarily high-class professionals. The blockade caused huge damage to the material part of Leningrad universities. The elimination of this damage, carried out largely by the work of their employees, students and teachers, is one of the Great Pages of history. It was the combination of pedagogical and scientific thought that allowed many post-war profiles of industrial enterprises to appear. Students and young scientists actively contributed to the resumption of production of almost the entire range of pre-war products, as well as the development of new types of products, modern machines, machine tools, devices. As a result of the set of measures analyzed in this article, the Leningrad industry in terms of gross output reached the pre-war level in the late 1940s, and was able to exceed it by 1950.
Razinkov S.L. - Behavioral practices as a marker of the socio-cultural portrait of students of the USSR State Labor Reserves (1940s-50s) pp. 157-173



Abstract: The creation of the USSR state labor reserves in 1940 was accompanied by the formation of a specific socio-cultural environment, which remains practically unexplored to this day.The purpose of the article is to determine the structure and composition of behavioral practices as an element of the official and informal portrait of students of the state labor reserves. The methodological basis of the research was the system of social actions by T. Parsons, the concepts of variability of everyday practices by A. Ludtke and the dichotomy "norm/anomaly" in Soviet everyday life by N.B. Lebina. The work used a synthesis of macro- and micro-approaches of historical research aimed at identifying behavioral practices of an individual, based on the analysis of various sources: legal acts, administrative and other official documents, personal documents. The results of the study are: 1) identification and classification of students' behavioral practices based on the structure of social action (on individual acts, procedures and strategies of behavior), on the content of activity, frequency of application and attitude to public institutions; 2) development and description of a structural and functional model of behavioral practice containing control and correction functions (on the example of the practice of non-attendance of classes by students); 3) identification and substantiation of the features of behavioral practices from the point of view of markers of the socio-cultural portrait of students of labor reserves (interconnectedness, dynamism, dependence on the type of educational institution). The results of the research can be used in the study of everyday life and socio-cultural portrait of students in the Soviet period.
Evdoshenko N.V. - Charity organizations and financial aid rendered to the writers and scholars of white émigré in Europe in 1920s 1930s pp. 159-181


Abstract: The subject of this research is the financial aid rendered by charity organizations of the Russian literature and scientific emigration to the writers and scholars in European countries over the period of 1920’s – 1930’s. The goal consists in determination of significance of the provided by beneficiaries financial assistance in the context of economic situation of the receiving country during the indicated historical period. The work examines the activity of organizations that rendered financial aid to the writers, journalists and scholars in such countries as France, Switzerland, Germany, Turkey (Constantinople) and Czechoslovakia. Methodology is based on the historical approach and principles of scientificity and objectivity. Quantitative, comparative and statistical methods are applied for the analysis of financial indexes. For achieving the set foal, the author analyzed a wide variety of sources from the Russian and foreign archives, some of which were published for the first time. As a result of the conducted research, the author acquired new data on the size of actual financial assistance rendered to the writers and scholars of white émigré. Assessment is conducted on the significance of such aid for successful social adaptation and overcoming of financial difficulties by the representatives of scientific and literature emigration. The article is addressed to all researchers of the organizations of white émigré.  
Semenov M.A. - Medical Activity of Health Care in Rural Areas of the Rear Areas of the USSR during the Great Patriotic War. pp. 159-171



Abstract: The subject of the article is the study of the main characteristics of the medical activity of medical institutions in rural areas of the rear areas of the USSR during the Great Patriotic War. The research is based on consolidated statistical materials of health authorities stored in the Russian State Archive of Economics (RGAE). Based on archival materials, the article analyzes the dynamics of quantitative indicators of the provision of medical care to rural residents by medical inpatient and outpatient polyclinic institutions. Based on the comparison of a number of indicators, the author examines in detail the changes in the effectiveness of therapeutic activities. Much attention is paid to the disclosure of the territorial features of medical care in individual Union republics. For the first time, the article presents summary indicators characterizing medical activity in rural areas for the entire war period on the scale of the Soviet Union and the rear Union republics. Based on the analysis, conclusions are made about the reduction in the number of patients admitted by healthcare institutions. At the same time, taking into account the reduction of the rural population, an increase in the relative indicators of providing the population with medical care has been proven. Based on the comparison of the duration of the patient's stay in a medical inpatient facility and mortality, the conclusion is made about the increase in the effectiveness of treatment of patients. The significant influence of evacuation and re-evacuation processes on rural medicine of the Central Asian republics has been established. The priority orientation of the Turkmen SSR and the republics of Transcaucasia to the service of the rural population by urban medical institutions is shown.
Mezit L.E. - Establishment of the institutions of civil society in the early XX century (on the materials of Yeniseian Governorate) pp. 167-171


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the examination of work of the public organizations of Yeniseian Governorate in resolution of the questions of universal education. The chronological framework of the research capture the period after the adoption of law of Provisional Government of March 4, 1906 “Temporary Rules about Societies and Unions” and until the Revolution of 1917. Examination of the question at hand using the materials of Yeniseian Governorate allows forming the perception about which events took place in the regional life, as well as country as a whole. Analysis of the work of s public organizations in the studied period clarifies the level of comprehensiveness of the civil society institutions in pre-revolutionary Russia. The scientific novelty is defined by introduction into the academic discourse of the new, previously unpublished archive materials, which allowed reconstructing the activity of public organizations in the field of education using the example of Yeniseian Governorate. The article provides analysis of implementation of the system of social measures on distribution of education in the region, as well as gives assessment to the level of efficiency of local public organizations in addressing this issue.
Tverdyukova E.D., Prokhorova E.V. - Food substitutes in the daily diet of citizens of the Soviet Russia during the Civil War (1918-1921) pp. 195-205


Abstract: The authors investigate the role of nutrition in the organization of the social life of people in 1918-1921th yrs. The chronological framework of the study covers one of the crisis periods in the Russian history - the Civil War. The paper presents in details the everyday practices of food consumption and the state attempts to make up for the disastrous shortfall of the food market by authorized use of substitute goods, the study of which was put on a scientific basis in this period.An interdisciplinary approach to the research (that is located at the cross–disciplinary of history, social nutrition and physiology) is because of using of the systematic analysis of food practices of the nation as a social problem. The comparative analysis is used for the retrospective characteristics of the consumed food substitute across the country. The Scientific novelty of the research is determined by the fact that based on the analysis of a large source base (archival documents, statistical publications, materials of periodical press and diaries described the events of contemporaries records) it is concluded that in the first post-revolutionary years the changing of eating habits affected both urban and rural inhabitants. Faced with starvation death people consumed everything: substitutes foods that were on the rise but the quality of surrogates became worse; all the second-rate, rotten, foul hit on the consumer’s table. «Starveling» diet resulted in serious consequences: massive gastrointestinal diseases, anemia and mental disturbance of the citizens.
Bezgin V.B. - Suicide among peasant youth (the end of the XIX the beginning of the XX century) pp. 198-204


Abstract: Based on the archive sources, primarily the police reports, this work examines the problem of juvenile suicide of the late XIX – early XX century. The object of this research is the villages of the governorates of the European part of Russia. The subject of the study is the suicide cases among village children and teenagers. Special attention is given to the determination of the motives of a voluntary departure from life of the peasant youth. During the course of this work the author establishes the ways of committing suicide, as well as determines the gender peculiarities of suicide among peasant youth. The methodology of this research is based on the interdisciplinary approach, which allows considering this problem as a manifestation of social deviation of peasantry of the end of the XIX – the beginning of the XX century. The main conclusion consists in the fact that the growth in the number of suicide among the village youth is justified by the influence of modernization process, namely by the events that accompanied it. Breaking down of the familiar way of life resulted in the feelings of fear and despair; the children became the most vulnerable part of the village in such situation.
Shitova A.A. - Organizational growth of Komsomol as a way of antireligious propaganda and fight for the new society (based on the materials of North Caucasus Krai) pp. 205-233


Abstract: This article examines the formation, development, and change of the Soviet State youth policy in the late 1920’s associated with the antireligious struggle in the North Caucasus Krai. The foundation for this research became the materials of mass media, Russian State Archive of Sociopolitical History, Stavropol Krai State Archive of Contemporary History, published materials of partisan and Komsomol sessions and conferences, as well as the works of the modern scholars in this field. The author reviews Komsomol as a sociocultural phenomenon, determines the factors of its multi-directional influence upon the society, and attempts to generalize the positive and the negative experience. Based on the conducted analysis of the antireligious policy, the author formulates the following conclusion: due to the political events of the 1920’s, taking into consideration the local peculiarities and specific conditions of the North Caucasus Krai, one of the most efficient ways in the fight against religion alongside the political control over youth, became the mass involvement of the youth into formal social groups – voluntary communities, and especially Komsomol.  The involvement into such groups allowed distracting the youth from the traditional activities and religion by decreasing the portion of their free time; and what is most important, it allowed supervising their behavior through public efforts and obligatory communication within the framework of the organization.
Yakimov K.A. - Public moods among youth during the period of mass political repressions of the late 1930s pp. 234-251


Abstract: This research is dedicated to the problem of examination of the public moods specificity among the Soviet youth throughout the years of mass political repressions of the late 1930’s. The article thoroughly explores the components of Komsomol propaganda during the years of the “Great Purge”, analyses its influence upon the consciousness of young men and young ladies, as well as reveals the causes of mass participation and support of political repressions by the youth. The relevance of this topic is justified by a number of circumstances: firstly, the necessity for a comprehensive study of the experience of formation of peculiar features of public consciousness among youth during the period of totalitarian regime, including the years of the “Great Purge”; secondly, the importance of understanding of the historical role of Komsomol and Komsomol propaganda in the process of transformation of public moods of the young generation. Scientific novelty is substantiated by the fact that for the first time the study of the influence of political repressions upon the character of public moods among youth in the late 1930’s is conducted based on the materials from the State Archive of Sociopolitical History of Tambov Oblast. The author demonstrates that the atmosphere of overall suspiciousness encouraged the distortion of the actual moral and ethical values, but nevertheless, comes to a conclusion, that the youth was far from being monolithic. The article illustrates the multiple examples of defense of one’s opinion.
Romanovskaya V.B., Kvachadze O.B. - Political Foundation of a Legal Status of a Person according to the Medieval Law of the Cities of Ancient Russia and Western Europe in XI-XIV: rather-legal analysis pp. 255-279


Abstract: The given research is devoted to a rather-legal analysis of the basis of political rights of a person according to the Medieval Law of the cities of Ancient Russia (Novgorod and Pskov) and Western Europe in XI-XIV centuries. The problem of correlation of democratic institutions typical for the Russian and Western European societies is timely nowadays. The authors of the article perform a comparative analysis of the contents of the prototypes of political rights of the citizens that were fixed in the legal acts of the Russian and Western European cities in XI-XIV centuries. On the ground of using the methods of comparative analysis, context analysis, historical and legal, systematic and historical, technical and other methods of scientific research, the authors make a conclusion that the development of legal rights in Novgorod, Pskov and the cities of Western Europe led to different sorts of political consequences and to different contents of these rights.  Democratic institutions in the city’s administration and other municipal bodies in modern Western European countries and in Russia take their origin in Medieval history. 
Antropov R.V. - The social legislation of Germany in the second half of the XIX century: special features, evolution and the role in the history process pp. 280-291


Abstract: The German social legislation of the second half of the XIX century or the so-called «social laws» were an attempt of responding of the first Reichschancellor of the German Empire Otto von Bismarck on disastrous situation of the working class during the industrialization in the past century. Scientific novelty of research consists in its issues, in the historical context of the times, in presenting topical issues of history of formation and development of social legislation in Germany based on the German legal and theoretical sources as research subjects. For assessment and analysis of the evolution of social legislation in Germany in the second half of the XIX century the author used general scientific and specific scientific methods of knowledge: a systematic analysis of the studied phenomena, synthesis of research results, historical-legal, comparative legal, formal logic and other methods. The application of these methods allows you to form a thesis that Bismarck made a political decision of explosive force aimed to overcome the extreme social contradictions and, most importantly, on the deprivation ofnutrient solutionfor unrest of social democracy. The founder of the German Reich failed to prove the young German nation, that the state can offer much more than just the representation of the working class in politics. With the use of new approaches Germany became world-renowned pioneer in the construction of the state system of social protection of working citizens on the principles of joint participation of workers and employers in the financing of social insurance. Bismarck created a model that was soon adopted by many other countries, and to this day forms the foundations of the modern social state. Arose mainly from the cold calculations the «social laws», along with the German unification, are the greatest political achievement of Bismarck and a unique example of European history of that time. Just so a modern historiography evaluates the services of the «Iron Chancellor».


Abstract: The object of research is made by relationship of the Komsomol organizations with government bodies of national education, initial and average educational institutions, and also various categories of the population involved in processes of realization of reforms of school education, and also problems of general education in the early sixties. On materials of the Tambov region are shown as the huge efforts made by the state and the Komsomol organizations in development of evening education, and failure, a contradiction in activity of evening and correspondence schools of the region. For studying of historical and Komsomol problems the theory of nationalization of Komsomol became basic: the Komsomol is considered as peculiar Soviet "the ministry of youth", a link between the state and youth. Experience of activity of Komsomol is estimated from universal and state positions. Recognition of bases of the concept of education of viable generations of I.M. Ilyinsky also was of great importance for an objective assessment of a contribution of Komsomol in development of national education Considering that in general practice of national education didn't meet the ripened requirements, the author, nevertheless, notes high achievements in development of "schools for adults" and a major role of Komsomol in performance of the major economic task.
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