Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Rubric "History of public institutions"
History of public institutions
Savelev D.L. - Formation of the system of public education management during the first years of the Soviet power (on the example of Tyumen governorate) pp. 33-41


Abstract: The article is devoted to examination of the processes of formation of the system of public education management and cultural-educational activity during the first years of the establishment of Soviet power in Tyumen (Tobolsk) governorate, before its entry into the Ural Region in 1923. Based on the analysis of archive materials, the author determines and analyzes the features of formation and human resources of the governorate's department of public education under the conditions of the civil war and establishment of a system of councils. The article gives assessment to the role of military revolutionary committee of Tyumen governorate alongside the governorate political and educational committee in the organization of public education. The scientific novelty is substantiated by introduction into academic discourse of the archive materials that allow expanding the perception about the content of the state building processes in the field of public education, as well as political agitation in the territory of Tyumen governorate. The author underlines that the development of organizational structures alongside the public education management system in the region were under the influence of the circumstances of civil war and repeated change of political power.
Abdulin R.S. - Political-legal nature of judicial administration in Russia (1917-1998) pp. 63-96


Abstract: The subject of this research is the political-legal nature of judicial administration in Russia. The author claims that judicial administration is an original, inimitably specific phenomenon in the history of the Russian state and law, which has its peculiar legal nature. Due to this fact, it is important to understand on the doctrinal level not only the system of legal norms that regulate this legal phenomenon, but also a combination of essential actions on its implementation and realization, as well as its inner foundation and content. Therefore, the author gradually reveals the legal nature of judicial administration, which represents a complex multilevel process of comprehensive research and determination of the specific conceptual aspects. The research of the political legal nature of judicial administration carries a major significance – it establishes its genesis, defines the initial principles of structural organization, which leads to a deeper understanding of the place and role of judicial administration within the system of the government authority bodies. Scientific novelty consists in the fact that this work is a complex interdisciplinary research, which for the first time in history examines the political-legal nature of the Russian judicial administration as a variety of government activity in judicial sphere.
Roshchevskaya L.P. - Control over the islands of Arctic Ocean in 1920’s pp. 73-84


Abstract: The subject of this research is the activity of the branches of local executive authorities on the islands of Arctic Ocean, various responsibilities and scientific interests of the head of Administration of the Islands of Arctic Ocean I. A. Perfiliev: characteristic of economic situation of arctic land and its place in national economy; organization of control over a vast territory of the islands in 1920’s; explorations of systematics and study of flora of the islands. The goal is to analyze the documental base on history of the branches of local executive authorities and examination of plant resources of the islands of Arctic Ocean in 1920’s from the perspective of the social history of science. For periodization of activity of the Administration is applied a comparative method; the criterion for periodization is the administrative changes in control over the islands. The history of Administration counts three periods: 1917-1925; March of 1925 – June of 1927; 1927-1934. In the context of substantiation of the geopolitical and socioeconomic interests of the country, the author analyze the documental data on development of the islands as a part of Russia, reveal the geography and sizes of the region headed by I. A. Perfiliev during the 1920’s. The scientific novelty lies in introduction into the academic discourse of Perfiliev’s manuscripts preserved in the Institute of Biology of Komi Scientific Center, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The author determines the vectors of Perfiliev’s activity in Arctic in 1920’s: organization of control over the islands; characteristic of people’s occupation; development of deer farming; exploration of flora of the islands as deer forage.
Serov D. - Legal educational qualification requirements and formation of the association of jurists in government service of the Russian Empire pp. 123-138


Abstract: The object of this article is the part of Russian bureaucracy, which performed their service in justice agencies during the second and third part of the XIX century. The subject of this article is the processes that lead to the transformation of this part of bureaucracy into the association of jurists in government service of the empire. Due to this fact, special attention is given to the coverage of the history of introduction of the legal qualification requirements for the officials of the justice agencies in Russian legislation, as well as dynamics of the educational level of the judges, prosecutors, and investigators over the period of 1850’s – 1860’s. The work suggests the definition of the notion “professional association”, as well as formulates the conditions required for the emergence of the association of jurists in government civil service. The author substantiates the conclusion about the presence in pre-reform Russia of the deficit of individuals with the higher education in law. Based on the attraction of an extensive circle of legislative acts and normative material, the author carefully examines the history of establishment of the legal educational qualification requirements in the first half of the 1860’s. The article is first to provide the systemic data on the dynamics of the educational level of judges in pre-reform and reformed agencies of justice, prosecutors, and investigators over the period of 1851-1868. It is demonstrated that the conditions necessary for the establishment of the association of jurists have formed in Russian during the course of judicial reform and reform of the investigative bodies, and the graduates of the Imperial School of Jurisprudence comprised the backbone in origination of this association.
Abdulin R.S. - General characteristics and models of court administration in the RSFSR (1917-1998). pp. 138-202


Abstract: This article examines the formation and development of judicial administration in Russia from 1917 to 1998 the Main part of the article is devoted to the development of judicial administration in the RSFSR, reviewed the model at various stages of the Soviet state. The author believes that the judiciary of the RSFSR originates in pre-revolutionary Russia, since at the initial stage of its development, the Soviet state created the judicial management -the people's Commissariat of justice of RSFSR and gave it functions similar to the Ministry of justice of the Russian Empire and the Provisional government. The author explores the development of each model trial and shows their dependence on state policy in the field of justice and influence on these processes of the Communist party. Throughout the study, the author carries out the idea that in any transitional historical periods of formation and development of judicial control of substantial importance is given to past experience in judicial management, creative perception of the national traditions of such governance, objectively exist between different historical periods of the development of the state.
Sevryukov D.S. - Features of formation of the judiciary in the development and adoption of the Constitution of the USSR in 1936 pp. 651-671


Abstract: The subject of the research is the set of normative legal acts regulating the formation of judges of courts of general jurisdiction in the Russian Federation. The author explores not only regulations, but also archival sources. The paper makes an interesting conclusions, allowing the show features of the procedure of formation of the judiciary in the study period. The above circumstances actualize the theme chosen for the study because of historical and legal analysis of the experience of becoming the organizational and legal mechanism of formation of the judiciary in the RSFSR can make positive adjustments to the process of reforming the modern judicial system in order to avoid the mistakes made in the past. Methodological basis of this work are the general principles and methods of scientific knowledge related to the research unit of the humanities. This includes, in particular, the principles of dialectics: Development and historicism, general scientific approaches - methods of analysis and synthesis, systematic approach, induction and deduction, etc. In addition, were used special methods: formal-legal, concrete historical, comparative legal, chronological, sociological, etc. due to the fact that the presented thesis is the first in the domestic legal science work that attempts to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the organizational and legal mechanism of formation of the judiciary courts of general jurisdiction in the Russian Federation. In the course of the study to obtain new results and conclusions, supplemented, clarified, specifying either refute prevailing in the domestic legal science views on the issues of formation of the judiciary in Soviet Russia.
Tret'yakova E. - The establishment of the Ministry of foreign Affairs of the Russian Empire in the XIX - early XX century pp. 672-690


Abstract: The article explores the process of formation of the Ministry of foreign Affairs as one of the most important bodies of state power in the XIX - early XX century. Considered normative acts of the Russian state, determined the structure and powers of the Ministry of foreign Affairs on the stage of active international cooperation of the Russian state. The main stages in the formation of patterns and issues, analyses the relevant transformations that took place in the course of the reform. Attention is paid to individual personnel policy within the Ministry. The study of historical and legal analysis of the claimed processes based on primary sources (acts of domestic legislation adopted in the specified period of time). Conducted historical and legal analysis of the formation of the Ministry of foreign Affairs in the XIX - early XX centuries, the tendencies associated with the process of forming the structure of the public authority, carrying out the foreign policy activities in the specified period, based on the analysis of normative legal acts of the structural elements of the foreign Ministry, their legal status, functions.
Abdulin R.S. - The origin of the court administration (historical legal analysis) pp. 692-763


Abstract: The subject of this research is the origin of the Russian judicial administration. Within the Russian juridical science since the pre-revolutionary period the tendency to determine what is the “judicial administration” is quite evident. The author believes that the judicial administration takes its roots from the period of Peter the Great's Administrative and Judicial Reforms and represents a complicated socio-political phenomenon that is subjected to a constant action and change. Due to this fact, the author conducts a systemic analysis of genesis and evolution of this phenomenon, defines its elements, which give an understanding of the mechanisms and principles of functioning of the institution of court administration within the specific historical period. In his research, the author examines the establishment and development of judicial administration in the Russian Empire, as well as in the inter-revolutionary and Soviet periods, and its transformation into the modern internal judicial administration carried out by the judicial authority itself.
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