Genesis: Historical research - rubric Evolution, reform, revolution
Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Rubric "Evolution, reform, revolution"
Evolution, reform, revolution
Butovskiy A.Y. - City self-defense of the Crimean Peninsula during the first and second Crimean Regional Governments (June 1918 April 1919) pp. 1-9


Abstract: The object of this research is the organization of security of Taurida Governorate during the difficult time of severe military and political crises. The subject of this research is the nonprofit organizations of city self-defense created by the local self-governing bodies, as well as the professional unions in the Crimean territory at the time Civil War in Russia, during the “first” and “second” Crimean Regional Governments. The author meticulously examines such aspect of the topic as the organization of the pubic security and self-defense bodies in the various Crimean cities under the conditions of heavy German and domestic censorship existing on the Peninsula. Special attention is given to the history of creation of the Flying (Reserved) Squad, which later became a part of the Simferopol City Police and partially Simferopol City Guard of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Using the method of source analysis, the author carefully processes information from the previously undiscovered materials from the State Archive of the Republic of Crimea, as well as recollections of eyewitnesses of the events and periodicals of revolutionary time. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that for the first time, based on the extensive biographical material, the author was able to determine the peculiarities of organization and activity of subdivisions as a phenomenon in the history of security forces of the Crimean Regional Government and Armed Forced of the South of Russia. The author believes that the creation of city self-defense organizations allowed consolidating professional and semi-professional servicemen into the single militarized structures, as well as shifted the expenses for police operations from the government onto the local self-governing bodies and population.
Mistryugov P.A. - State policy of provisional government and Soviet power with regards to former servicemen of Russian public and political police over the period of March 1917 December 1921 (on the materials of Samara province) pp. 14-31


Abstract: The subject of this research is the examination of policy of the provisional government and Soviet power with regards to policemen, gendarmes and secret police. The author considers such aspects of the topic as the measures of local authorities taken towards them, analyzes the vectors of state policy, means and methods of its implementation, as well as response of the communities in which the “former” served prior to being arrested. Relevance of the article lies in the fact that the problem of actual rather than mythologized political measures, applied towards the representatives of the annihilated law enforcement structures of imperial power at the local level, remains insufficiently studied. The scientific novelty is defined by the poorly studied problematic, which includes the previously unexamined questions on the political corrective measures towards servicemen of the imperial law enforcement structures over the period of 1917-1921; the acquired results of its study; and the sources introduced into the scientific discourse for the first time.  
Kutergin V.A. - Discourses of the radical Irish nationalism in the second half of the XIX century pp. 18-29


Abstract: This article examines the subject matter dedicated to the discourses of the radical Irish nationalism of the late XIX century. The author focuses attention of the anticolonial nature of Irish nationalism, showing it as a product of the entirely British imperialism. The work demonstrates the establishment and evolution of the basic discourses of the radical Irish nationalism, which allows viewing it as a formed “narrative of opposition”, which in the early XX century has come to the fore and radicalized the Irish national movement, as well as contributed into the “launch” of the chain of events that led Ireland to independence. The methodology includes the theoretical works of E. Said, hegemony concept of A. Gramsci, approaches towards examination of nationalism formulated by the neo-Marxist scholars B. Anderson, M. Hroch, E. Gellner, E. Hobsbawm). The author was able to describe the relation between the radical Irish nationalism and sociopolitical thought of the XIX century. On the other hand, it is an important fact that Irish nationalism was of anticolonial nature. The representatives of the radical direction of nationalism had formulated such discourses and concepts that were subsequently promoted by other representatives of the anticolonial nationalism.
Balynin I.V. - Establishing the Constitutional Russia during the reign of Alexander I: preconditions and opportunities pp. 20-28


Abstract: The object of the study are part of the public relations in the constitutional development of the Russian state at the beginning of the XIX century. The subject of the research are preconditions and opportunities of adopting the Constitution during the reign of Alexander the Great.The author examines in detail the projects such as the Most Gracious charters Russian people, Introduction to ulozheniju state laws (Plan of universal public education), State Charters of the Russian Empire. Particular attention is paid to the last project developed by NN Novosil'tsev and PA Viazemsky, which included 191 article.Methodological foundation is based on scientific methods (analysis, comparison and description), and on special (problem-chronological and synchronic).The main conclusions of the study are the following: the ability to create a constitutional Russia in the 19th century was quite real, and under certain conditions, the country could become a constitutional monarchy. But for some reason Alexander I was forced to give up their constitutional ideas.The novelty of the research is to investigate the insufficiently explored the possibility of establishing the Constitutional Russia during the reign of Alexander the Great. The practical significance of the study results is the ability to use the application the student and faculty community in the educational process in higher and secondary specialized educational institutions.
Moiseeva L.A. - Innovative entrepreneurship as a unrealized prospect of Russias politics during reform period of the late XX century pp. 20-30


Abstract: The subject of this research is the innovative entrepreneurship as a factor of transition towards the innovative economy – the unrealized opportunities of the Russian reform period in the late XX century. Based on the modern historical knowledge, the article examines the theory of innovative entrepreneurship of the foreign and Russian scholars from metaphysical to contemporary behavioristic and psychosocial. The author describes the three “waves” in development of the theory of innovative functions of entrepreneurs reflected in a number of aspects of the conceptual constructs of the representatives of Austrian, German, French, and Dutch schools. The article demonstrates the specificity of theories of the Russian scholars that depicts the rapid formation of the new Russian entrepreneurship that is forced to lean not upon the national entrepreneurial culture, values and traditions, but interact with the business world of a foreign culture. The scientific novelty lies in revealing the structural-functional nature of the modern Russian entrepreneurship alongside the new unrealized functions of the state, which led to the large and dangerous historical delay that resulted in preservation of the technological backwardness and collapse of economy. At the same time, the scientific and technological innovations possess the specific functions: disrupting the ever-aging technological stability of production, they generate the structural shifts that allow defining the innovations as a factor of self-development of the entrepreneurial system. The author introduces the model of innovation development of economic system, the main conditions of which are the all-round promotion of innovation and experimentation at all levels and all departments of the corporation; establishment of a specific creative atmosphere; orientation of all innovation activity towards the social needs and national security.
Zharova E. - System of education in universities of the Russian Empire: between academic freedom and state regulation pp. 25-34


Abstract: The subject of this research is the process of transformation of education system in terms of the policy of the Ministry of Education. Universities of the Russian Empire were subjected to reform throughout the entire period of their existence that were associated with finding the path of development either in spirit of academic freedoms or state regulation, taking the German universities as a reference standard. All of the reforms were reflected in the system of education, which started with the freedom of choice and subject system, and later transformed into a course system with rigid framework of completing a course and passing annual tests. Based on the comparative-historical method and principles of historicism and objectivity, the article examines the questions regarding the organization of educational process in the universities of Russian Empire at different periods of their existence throughout over a century, as well as analyzes the implementation of the course and subject systems and their reform. The scientific  novelty consists in demonstrating how the reforms of liberal and conservative statutes affected the establishment of education system in the universities, having rejected the negative assessments of the so-called conservative statutes of 1835 and 1884. The center of research is the educational process and the impact of the state educational policy alongside initiatives of the representatives of university corporation upon it.
Strizhov A.Y. - India XIX century: on the way to becoming a unified system of values pp. 27-35


Abstract: Value factor plays a huge role in the consolidation of society. Cultural "hegemony" of the ruling class forms the balance of attitudes of the entire social body. In the XIX century, Indian intellectuals began to create a new ideology. Faced with a number of obstacles in its path, the idea of national liberation could not equally quickly take root among the masses. The subject of our study - the formation of an all-India pre-image system of values, which was a significant step towards the liberation of the country from the British rule.The basis for research on the role of political and cultural superstructure taken the concept of cultural "hegemony" of Antonio Gramsci.The author offers a look at the core of culture, system of values, both factors will affect the appearance of the broad masses of ideas of national liberation. The complexity of education in colonial India unified system of values associated with internal religious, ethnic, economic and geographic diversity of the region. Bearer of values of liberation from British rule, which at first appeared only intellectuals, it was necessary to enlist the support of the masses. The inverse images of uniform for the whole of India socio-cultural values we can find in the pre-colonial period. However, the pursuit of economic, ethical and political solidarity against the power of foreigners has not yet occurred. The origin of the balance of values in the social environment has led to the beginning of the liberation of India from British rule, and evaluative factor began to gain an increasing share in social development.
Ovchinnikov V.M. - Peculiarities of establishment of the French Officer Corps during the Great Century (1589-1715) pp. 28-40


Abstract: The object of this research is French of the early Modern Age, while the subject is the examination of the establishment and development of the French Officer Corps during the period of highest military activity of the kingdom associated with the ruling of Louis XIV. The article demonstrates the practice of using of military mechanism by the Sun King for strengthening his power in the context of further advancement of absolutism as the military-political concept, which relates to the active instrumentalization of the ancient, namely Roman legacy, required by the realities of such global process as the “European military revolution”. The author states that throughout the XVII century in France has formed a relatively stable military hierarchy, which became the model for the development of officer corps of the various European countries. A significant role was played by the table of ranks (Ordre du tableau) introduced in 1675 upon the initiative of Louvois, which was skeptically assessed by the Duke of Saint-Simon. It illustrates the active instrumentalization of the Roman military and political practices that defined the transformation of absolutism into the highly ideology-driven and complicatedly structured military-political doctrine, which carved out its place in the history of European civilization.
Rabkin S.V. - Reforms Kosygin: the historical aspect of the search immaterial factors of institutional development pp. 29-50


Abstract: The subject of study is the impact of immaterial factors of economic development for implementation the reforms of Kosygin. The article deals with scientific issues such as the causes and consequences of the reforms, the problems of the Russian Economic School, the implementation of the model interaction between the center and regions, forming basic enterprises and strategic industries of the economy. Indicated on the institutional nature of the changes and their historical significance, in terms of the formation of the modern scientific and practical approach to economic reform. On an example formation of transport infrastructure Republic of Komi defined the mechanism of implementation of the soviet management model by the economic development of regions.Based on the method of historical analogy and methodology of institutional analysis, concludes the need to consider the impact of immaterial factors of economic development during the current economic reforms. These factors contributed to the no implementation of reform Kosygin. However, in the long term, policy reforms revealed new opportunities for the development of the Russian Economic School, created the prerequisites for the formation basic enterprises and strategic industries, identified the institutional problems relations between the federal center and the regions in future. Therefore, it is essential to use the historical experience of these reforms in the formation system of economic security and national priorities of modern Russia.
Chirkov A.A. - Council of Ministers P. A. Stolypin and the armed forces reform pp. 35-52


Abstract: The subject of this research is the establishment and development of the policy of the Council of Ministers P. A. Stolypin in the area of state defense. The armed forces reform that took place in the Russian Empire after the severe defeat in the Far East played a substantial role during the World War I. The basic strategies that defined the army and navy development originated during the period of activities of P. A. Stolypin. The foreign and Russian historiography viewed the indicated problem in a peculiar way, mostly using the public utterings of P. A. Stolypin, while disregarding the published documentation. Thus, the position of P. A. Stolypin is extensively covered within the historiography that was offered for the Czar, news media, and society, although his true contribution into the army and navy reforms has not been studied until presently. The goal of this work consists in determination of Stolypin’s involvement in the reforms of the defense establishments, considering that his representations of the reforms and political influence varied under the influence of certain factors. The chronological method allowed examining the course of events of the indicated transformations. Guided by the principle of scientific objectivity, leaning on the works of the forerunners, the author rejected the dogmas of the “reputable” historians, and based his conclusions exceptionally on the sources, structuring the research in a way that the conclusion will be based on the facts will be adjusted to the previously made conclusion. The author underlines that the military reforms conducted in Russia in the early XX century were not a part of Stolypin’s reforms, and the heads of the military and navy establishments were exerting the non-reliance, deviating from the line set by the government. The scientific novelty is defined by the fact that this conclusion completely refutes the viewpoint in the Russian historiography.
Osipov S., Vyazmitinov M., Kamalova R. - Emperor Nicholas II and Zemstvo delegation of June 6, 1905: compromises and lost opportunities pp. 65-79


Abstract: The subject of this research is the relatively unknown episode of the First Russian Revolution (1905-1907): hosting a delegation of Zemstvo Congress on June 6, 1905. The authors thoroughly examine this event (background, course, and results), determine the development trends in relations between the government and society as of May-June 1905, note the compromises made by both parties towards audience alongside the lost opportunities discovered by this audience. The article is based on the principles of historicism, objectivity and systematicity; methodology contains the historical-genetic methods, archival materials, memoires, and press reports. Using the example of a particular event, the authors determine the trends characteristic to the First Russian Revolution throughout. Receiving the Zemstvo delegation by the emperor on June 6, 1905 has been previously viewed in the general chronology of relations between the government and society, development of Zemstvo movements and political activity of participants of the convention. The focus of this research is the event itself: description of its sociopolitical context, background, details of convention, speeches of the participants, public response, and its consequences. Both parties had to make concessions in order for this imperial unprecedented event to take place. The chains of mutual micro-concessions and compromises lead to the convention that could mark the beginning of cooperation between the government and Zemstvo, but turned as lost opportunities for the emperor and the opposition for reasons attributable to both parties. Leaning on a particular episode, the authors emphasize the specificity of the First Russian Revolution in gradual approach to reforms and sustainable public order as a characteristic of arranged compromises.
Akimova T.M. - Women's issue at the dawn of establishment of civil society in Vladimir Governorate (February October 1917) pp. 76-90


Abstract: This article explores the establishment of civil society in Vladimir Governorate between the February and October Revolutions of 1917. Women for the first time became legally its full-fledged subject. Based on the documents preserved in the State Archive of Vladimir Region, State Archive of the Russian Federation, press materials (newspapers “Staryi Vladimirets”, “Vladimirskaya Zhizn”, "Svobodny Muromsky Golos”), the author examines the perception of the political events of that time by women of the governorate; outlines the urgent problems that women were concerned with; describes attitude towards the received suffrage and areas of manifestation of their social activity; as well as perception of the new in women’s rights by male part of the population. After the February Revolution of 1917 in Russia, the important steps were taken towards establishment of civil society with women being its full-fledged subject. Among the residents were not engaged in the revolutionary movement, most activity demonstrated the townswomen. They supported the implementation of universal suffrage, created women's communities, and participated in the discussion of urgent problems. Peasant women were mainly concerned with survivability of their families during difficult times. They were not familiar with the political life of the country and governorate, and unaffected by electoral campaigns into the district self-governance. This was justified by their tough financial situation, patriarchal structure in families, and lack of education.
Naumov A.O. - The role of the "Ukraine without Kuchma" campaign in the growing socio-political crisis in Ukraine at the beginning of the XXI century pp. 82-90



Abstract: The article examines the campaign "Ukraine without Kuchma", which the Ukrainian opposition conducted from late 2000 to mid-2001 with the aim of resigning the current President of Ukraine Leonid Kuchma and his government. The author examines in detail such aspects of the topic as the causes of the protest movement, the main events of the "Ukraine without Kuchma" campaign, the role of various actors in it and the response of government structures. Particular attention is paid to the technologies of nonviolent struggle used by the opposition in attempts to force the President of Ukraine to leave his post, as well as the reasons for the failure of this campaign. In Russian historiography, a detailed analysis of the "Ukraine without Kuchma" campaign is being conducted for the first time. A special contribution of the author to the research of the topic is the introduction into scientific circulation of new sources, including documents of the Archive of Foreign Policy of the Russian Federation and materials in Ukrainian. The author comes to the conclusion that the campaign "Ukraine without Kuchma" played an important role in the growing socio-political crisis in Ukraine at the beginning of the XXI century. Despite the final defeat of the protesters, the events of 2000-2001 became the prologue to the "Orange Revolution" of 2004, during which the opposition managed to seize power.
Naumov A.O., Naumova A.Y. - The Role of Rustavi-2 TV Channel in the Preparation and Implementation of the "Rose Revolution" in Georgia pp. 84-93



Abstract: The object of the proposed study is the "rose revolution" in Georgia the first coup d'etat in the former USSR, carried out with the help of "soft power" technologies. The object of the study is the activity of the opposition TV channel "Rustavi-2" during the preparation and implementation of this "color revolution". The authors consider in detail such aspects of the topic as the emergence of the Rustavi-2 TV channel, its connection with foreign non-governmental organizations, the specifics of the information policy of this media. Special attention is paid to the tactics and strategy of the Rustavi-2 TV channel during the struggle against the regime of Eduard Shevardnadze at various stages of its operation, from the initial stage and up to the active phase of the "rose revolution". The study of the place and role of Rustavi-2 in the implementation of the first "color revolution" in the post-Soviet space in Russian historiography is carried out for the first time. Based on the analysis of the rich empirical material, the authors of the study conclude that the Rustavi-2 TV channel was a consistent opponent of the ruling regime and was one of the key actors of the "rose revolution". This was especially true of his activities in the framework of mobilizing the protest electorate, bringing to the Georgian audience information about falsifications of the results of parliamentary elections, which became the trigger for the beginning of the active phase of the "color revolution", as well as active information support for the political opposition and the youth movement "Kmara".
Fedotova D.Y., Sulimov V.S. - Tobolsk Men's Gymnasium and the revolutionary unrest of 1905-1907. pp. 85-97



Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of the activities of students of the oldest educational institution in Western Siberia the Tobolsk Men's Gymnasium during the revolutionary upheavals of 1905-1907. The subject of the study is the activity of students of the Tobolsk men's gymnasium in 1905-1907. The object of the study is the Tobolsk men's gymnasium. The work is based on the principles of historicism, integrity, objectivity, comprehensiveness. Both general scientific and traditional methods for historical research are used: systematic, historical-comparative, problem-historical.Attention is paid to the analysis of the features of the educational process, reflected in the protocols of pedagogical councils and reports of the director of the gymnasium P. I. Panov. It is noted that despite the control over the behavior of gymnasium students by the director, teachers, classroom teachers and parents, students were gradually drawn into political processes covering the whole country.The authors consider the main requirements put forward by the pupils of the men's gymnasium in the fall of 1905, which were presented to the management of the educational institution in the form of a petition containing 29 points. It should be taken into account that the petition was sent from European Russia to unite the demands of secondary school students to change the educational process. The paper concludes that high school students opposed prohibitions and restrictions, did not have a clear political program and a single plan. Their actions were spontaneous and chaotic. In this article, the authors use a representative source base of unpublished materials from the collections of the State Archives of Tobolsk and Tomsk relating to the history of the Tobolsk Men's Gymnasium.
Dunaeva N.V. - Reformative Draft Law as a Tool for Developing the Russian Legal Culture of the XIXth Century pp. 98-121


Abstract: Subject of the present article are the legal ideas and bills directed on reforming of the public relations upon transition from agrarian to industrial society in Russia in the second half of the XIX century.The author in detail considers such aspects of a subject as the theoretical bases of lawmaking in a transition period, including in aspect of interaction of tradition and an innovation; a role of legislative impact of the state on rates and quality of reforming of the social relations upon transition from evolution, agrarian to an industrial stage; reformatory potential of unrealized bills on the example of the bill "About Application of Provisions on February 19, 1861 to Peasants Monarchic, Specific, Palace" of October 27, 1861. Methods are used: general scientific methods (dialectic, system, ascensions from abstract to concrete, unities of historical and logical research and others) and chastnonauchny methods, including, in the field of jurisprudence (concrete historical, the sociocultural analysis, social and legal modeling, legallistic, comparative and legal and others). The historical and legal analysis of the specified bill in the context of legal culture of transitional society allows to carry it to the significant phenomena of the Russian legal culture of the XIX century and to highly appreciate both the reformatory potential of this little-known bill, and level of sense of justice and professional legal culture of his developers.
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