Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Rubric "Evolution, reform, revolution"
Evolution, reform, revolution
Mistryugov P.A. - State policy of provisional government and Soviet power with regards to former servicemen of Russian public and political police over the period of March 1917 December 1921 (on the materials of Samara province) pp. 14-31


Abstract: The subject of this research is the examination of policy of the provisional government and Soviet power with regards to policemen, gendarmes and secret police. The author considers such aspects of the topic as the measures of local authorities taken towards them, analyzes the vectors of state policy, means and methods of its implementation, as well as response of the communities in which the “former” served prior to being arrested. Relevance of the article lies in the fact that the problem of actual rather than mythologized political measures, applied towards the representatives of the annihilated law enforcement structures of imperial power at the local level, remains insufficiently studied. The scientific novelty is defined by the poorly studied problematic, which includes the previously unexamined questions on the political corrective measures towards servicemen of the imperial law enforcement structures over the period of 1917-1921; the acquired results of its study; and the sources introduced into the scientific discourse for the first time.  
Kutergin V.A. - Discourses of the radical Irish nationalism in the second half of the XIX century pp. 18-29


Abstract: This article examines the subject matter dedicated to the discourses of the radical Irish nationalism of the late XIX century. The author focuses attention of the anticolonial nature of Irish nationalism, showing it as a product of the entirely British imperialism. The work demonstrates the establishment and evolution of the basic discourses of the radical Irish nationalism, which allows viewing it as a formed “narrative of opposition”, which in the early XX century has come to the fore and radicalized the Irish national movement, as well as contributed into the “launch” of the chain of events that led Ireland to independence. The methodology includes the theoretical works of E. Said, hegemony concept of A. Gramsci, approaches towards examination of nationalism formulated by the neo-Marxist scholars B. Anderson, M. Hroch, E. Gellner, E. Hobsbawm). The author was able to describe the relation between the radical Irish nationalism and sociopolitical thought of the XIX century. On the other hand, it is an important fact that Irish nationalism was of anticolonial nature. The representatives of the radical direction of nationalism had formulated such discourses and concepts that were subsequently promoted by other representatives of the anticolonial nationalism.
Balynin I.V. - Establishing the Constitutional Russia during the reign of Alexander I: preconditions and opportunities pp. 20-28


Abstract: The object of the study are part of the public relations in the constitutional development of the Russian state at the beginning of the XIX century. The subject of the research are preconditions and opportunities of adopting the Constitution during the reign of Alexander the Great.The author examines in detail the projects such as the Most Gracious charters Russian people, Introduction to ulozheniju state laws (Plan of universal public education), State Charters of the Russian Empire. Particular attention is paid to the last project developed by NN Novosil'tsev and PA Viazemsky, which included 191 article.Methodological foundation is based on scientific methods (analysis, comparison and description), and on special (problem-chronological and synchronic).The main conclusions of the study are the following: the ability to create a constitutional Russia in the 19th century was quite real, and under certain conditions, the country could become a constitutional monarchy. But for some reason Alexander I was forced to give up their constitutional ideas.The novelty of the research is to investigate the insufficiently explored the possibility of establishing the Constitutional Russia during the reign of Alexander the Great. The practical significance of the study results is the ability to use the application the student and faculty community in the educational process in higher and secondary specialized educational institutions.
Moiseeva L.A. - Innovative entrepreneurship as a unrealized prospect of Russias politics during reform period of the late XX century pp. 20-30


Abstract: The subject of this research is the innovative entrepreneurship as a factor of transition towards the innovative economy – the unrealized opportunities of the Russian reform period in the late XX century. Based on the modern historical knowledge, the article examines the theory of innovative entrepreneurship of the foreign and Russian scholars from metaphysical to contemporary behavioristic and psychosocial. The author describes the three “waves” in development of the theory of innovative functions of entrepreneurs reflected in a number of aspects of the conceptual constructs of the representatives of Austrian, German, French, and Dutch schools. The article demonstrates the specificity of theories of the Russian scholars that depicts the rapid formation of the new Russian entrepreneurship that is forced to lean not upon the national entrepreneurial culture, values and traditions, but interact with the business world of a foreign culture. The scientific novelty lies in revealing the structural-functional nature of the modern Russian entrepreneurship alongside the new unrealized functions of the state, which led to the large and dangerous historical delay that resulted in preservation of the technological backwardness and collapse of economy. At the same time, the scientific and technological innovations possess the specific functions: disrupting the ever-aging technological stability of production, they generate the structural shifts that allow defining the innovations as a factor of self-development of the entrepreneurial system. The author introduces the model of innovation development of economic system, the main conditions of which are the all-round promotion of innovation and experimentation at all levels and all departments of the corporation; establishment of a specific creative atmosphere; orientation of all innovation activity towards the social needs and national security.
Zharova E. - System of education in universities of the Russian Empire: between academic freedom and state regulation pp. 25-34


Abstract: The subject of this research is the process of transformation of education system in terms of the policy of the Ministry of Education. Universities of the Russian Empire were subjected to reform throughout the entire period of their existence that were associated with finding the path of development either in spirit of academic freedoms or state regulation, taking the German universities as a reference standard. All of the reforms were reflected in the system of education, which started with the freedom of choice and subject system, and later transformed into a course system with rigid framework of completing a course and passing annual tests. Based on the comparative-historical method and principles of historicism and objectivity, the article examines the questions regarding the organization of educational process in the universities of Russian Empire at different periods of their existence throughout over a century, as well as analyzes the implementation of the course and subject systems and their reform. The scientific  novelty consists in demonstrating how the reforms of liberal and conservative statutes affected the establishment of education system in the universities, having rejected the negative assessments of the so-called conservative statutes of 1835 and 1884. The center of research is the educational process and the impact of the state educational policy alongside initiatives of the representatives of university corporation upon it.
Strizhov A.Y. - India XIX century: on the way to becoming a unified system of values pp. 27-35


Abstract: Value factor plays a huge role in the consolidation of society. Cultural "hegemony" of the ruling class forms the balance of attitudes of the entire social body. In the XIX century, Indian intellectuals began to create a new ideology. Faced with a number of obstacles in its path, the idea of national liberation could not equally quickly take root among the masses. The subject of our study - the formation of an all-India pre-image system of values, which was a significant step towards the liberation of the country from the British rule.The basis for research on the role of political and cultural superstructure taken the concept of cultural "hegemony" of Antonio Gramsci.The author offers a look at the core of culture, system of values, both factors will affect the appearance of the broad masses of ideas of national liberation. The complexity of education in colonial India unified system of values associated with internal religious, ethnic, economic and geographic diversity of the region. Bearer of values of liberation from British rule, which at first appeared only intellectuals, it was necessary to enlist the support of the masses. The inverse images of uniform for the whole of India socio-cultural values we can find in the pre-colonial period. However, the pursuit of economic, ethical and political solidarity against the power of foreigners has not yet occurred. The origin of the balance of values in the social environment has led to the beginning of the liberation of India from British rule, and evaluative factor began to gain an increasing share in social development.
Ovchinnikov V.M. - Peculiarities of establishment of the French Officer Corps during the Great Century (1589-1715) pp. 28-40


Abstract: The object of this research is French of the early Modern Age, while the subject is the examination of the establishment and development of the French Officer Corps during the period of highest military activity of the kingdom associated with the ruling of Louis XIV. The article demonstrates the practice of using of military mechanism by the Sun King for strengthening his power in the context of further advancement of absolutism as the military-political concept, which relates to the active instrumentalization of the ancient, namely Roman legacy, required by the realities of such global process as the “European military revolution”. The author states that throughout the XVII century in France has formed a relatively stable military hierarchy, which became the model for the development of officer corps of the various European countries. A significant role was played by the table of ranks (Ordre du tableau) introduced in 1675 upon the initiative of Louvois, which was skeptically assessed by the Duke of Saint-Simon. It illustrates the active instrumentalization of the Roman military and political practices that defined the transformation of absolutism into the highly ideology-driven and complicatedly structured military-political doctrine, which carved out its place in the history of European civilization.
Rabkin S.V. - Reforms Kosygin: the historical aspect of the search immaterial factors of institutional development pp. 29-50


Abstract: The subject of study is the impact of immaterial factors of economic development for implementation the reforms of Kosygin. The article deals with scientific issues such as the causes and consequences of the reforms, the problems of the Russian Economic School, the implementation of the model interaction between the center and regions, forming basic enterprises and strategic industries of the economy. Indicated on the institutional nature of the changes and their historical significance, in terms of the formation of the modern scientific and practical approach to economic reform. On an example formation of transport infrastructure Republic of Komi defined the mechanism of implementation of the soviet management model by the economic development of regions.Based on the method of historical analogy and methodology of institutional analysis, concludes the need to consider the impact of immaterial factors of economic development during the current economic reforms. These factors contributed to the no implementation of reform Kosygin. However, in the long term, policy reforms revealed new opportunities for the development of the Russian Economic School, created the prerequisites for the formation basic enterprises and strategic industries, identified the institutional problems relations between the federal center and the regions in future. Therefore, it is essential to use the historical experience of these reforms in the formation system of economic security and national priorities of modern Russia.
Chirkov A.A. - Council of Ministers P. A. Stolypin and the armed forces reform pp. 35-52


Abstract: The subject of this research is the establishment and development of the policy of the Council of Ministers P. A. Stolypin in the area of state defense. The armed forces reform that took place in the Russian Empire after the severe defeat in the Far East played a substantial role during the World War I. The basic strategies that defined the army and navy development originated during the period of activities of P. A. Stolypin. The foreign and Russian historiography viewed the indicated problem in a peculiar way, mostly using the public utterings of P. A. Stolypin, while disregarding the published documentation. Thus, the position of P. A. Stolypin is extensively covered within the historiography that was offered for the Czar, news media, and society, although his true contribution into the army and navy reforms has not been studied until presently. The goal of this work consists in determination of Stolypin’s involvement in the reforms of the defense establishments, considering that his representations of the reforms and political influence varied under the influence of certain factors. The chronological method allowed examining the course of events of the indicated transformations. Guided by the principle of scientific objectivity, leaning on the works of the forerunners, the author rejected the dogmas of the “reputable” historians, and based his conclusions exceptionally on the sources, structuring the research in a way that the conclusion will be based on the facts will be adjusted to the previously made conclusion. The author underlines that the military reforms conducted in Russia in the early XX century were not a part of Stolypin’s reforms, and the heads of the military and navy establishments were exerting the non-reliance, deviating from the line set by the government. The scientific novelty is defined by the fact that this conclusion completely refutes the viewpoint in the Russian historiography.
Dunaeva N.V. - Reformative Draft Law as a Tool for Developing the Russian Legal Culture of the XIXth Century pp. 98-121


Abstract: Subject of the present article are the legal ideas and bills directed on reforming of the public relations upon transition from agrarian to industrial society in Russia in the second half of the XIX century.The author in detail considers such aspects of a subject as the theoretical bases of lawmaking in a transition period, including in aspect of interaction of tradition and an innovation; a role of legislative impact of the state on rates and quality of reforming of the social relations upon transition from evolution, agrarian to an industrial stage; reformatory potential of unrealized bills on the example of the bill "About Application of Provisions on February 19, 1861 to Peasants Monarchic, Specific, Palace" of October 27, 1861. Methods are used: general scientific methods (dialectic, system, ascensions from abstract to concrete, unities of historical and logical research and others) and chastnonauchny methods, including, in the field of jurisprudence (concrete historical, the sociocultural analysis, social and legal modeling, legallistic, comparative and legal and others). The historical and legal analysis of the specified bill in the context of legal culture of transitional society allows to carry it to the significant phenomena of the Russian legal culture of the XIX century and to highly appreciate both the reformatory potential of this little-known bill, and level of sense of justice and professional legal culture of his developers.
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