Genesis: Historical research - rubric Factors of historical development
Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Rubric "Factors of historical development"
Factors of historical development
Bugaev D.S. - Transport inaccessibility of Georgia in the 1770s 1860s pp. 1-13


Abstract: Based on the source study of the publications of the travelers’ diary entries, this article examines the transport inaccessibility of Eastern Georgia during the 1770s – 1860s. The goal lies in determining the impact of transport inaccessibility upon the implementation of pro-Russian goals. The author aims to determine the level of transport inaccessibility of Eastern Georgia on the imperial and local levels as the negative factors for the travelers in this region. The article employs the methods of the archeology of knowledge in the classical tradition of M. Foucault and discourse analysis of micro-historical scale in the classical interpretation of C. Ginzburg. Traditionally, the attention of researchers is focused on the positive integration processes, while the isolationist anti-globalist practices that contradict these ideas and their justifications are not reflected by the researchers. A non-biased account of anti-globalist practices significantly complements the known historical facts, and allows providing a new interpretation that is relevant against the background of the ongoing in the region ethno-national "renaissance". The scientific novelty lies in articulation of the problem: based on the travelers’ diaries, the author characterizes the impact of transport inaccessibility upon the implementation of pro-Russian tasks in the 1770s – 1860s. The mechanism for integration of the Georgian population lies in the development of land routes, which the Russian Empire regarded as the most effective way to establish its presence in the region, allowing it to quickly transfer resources and attract local producers of goods to the Russian markets. The article discusses a popular scientific opinion that Russia through interaction with the Russian and obtaining practical benefits by the Georgian, intended to arouse the interest of the latter to the model of social structure and culture of metropole. The conclusion is made that the centripetal policy faced negative factors of inaccessibility of Eastern Georgia on the imperial and local levels.
Sukhodolskiy D.N. - The Varangian Guard as an Instrument for Maintaining Domestic Political Stability during the reign of Michael IV the Paphlagonian (1034 1041) pp. 1-13



Abstract: This article discusses the position and role of the Varangian Guard in the internal political events of Byzantine Empire during the reign of the emperor Michael IV the Paphlagonian (1034 1041). The subject of the article is the Varangian Guard as a tool for maintaining power in the context of internal political struggle in Byzantium. The main conclusion of the study is the assumption that the active period of the formation of the Varangian Guard falls on the beginning of the reign of the Paphlagonian dynasty. The Byzantine emperor Michael IV the Paphlagonian (1034 1041) and his relatives, who did not have strong ties with representatives of the Byzantine civil or military nobility, relied on the Varangian guard to maintain their own power and used it as an instrument of internal political struggle. The novelty of the study lies in a comprehensive analysis of the activities of the Varangian Guard during the reign of the emperor Michael IV the Paphlagonian (1034 1041) on the basis of Byzantine, Scandinavian and Old Russian sources of different times. In addition, the Varangian Guard is for the first time considered as an instrument not so much of the imperial power, but of the power of the Paphlagonian dynasty.
Seidaliev E.I., Kadyrov R.R. - Sedentarization of the traditional nomadic population of the Crimean Khanate in the context of historical-archeological study pp. 7-13


Abstract: The subject of this research is the examination of the transition process towards the sedentary life of the traditional nomadic population of the Crimean Khanate in the context of historical-archeological study. The work presents an attempt of coverage of the historical events that took place in Crimea in the XV-XVIII centuries and their impact upon sedentarization of the nomads. Based on the analysis of the wide variety of written, archeological and illustrative sources, the authors attempted to trace the time of the emergence of stationary settlements in the North and Northwest of the Crimean Peninsula. In the course of this research, the authors applied the historical method of studying the events, phenomena and processes, along with other general scientific approaches. The scientific novelty lies in the comprehensive analysis of sedentarization of the nomadic population of the Crimean Khanate. This topic for the first time is viewed in the context of historical-archeological study in addition with the written sources and toponymic data. A pursuit for localization of settlements using the cartographic material deserves separate attention.
Sevostyanova E. - Third year in a row the Ghulja question gives the go-around: Russia and China in settling the Ili Crisis on the pages of Eastern Herald newspaper pp. 21-36


Abstract: This article examines the reflection in the Eastern Herald” newspaper of a difficult period in the history of China-Russia relations during the 1870’s – 1880’s. The goal consists in the analysis of newspaper publications, and determination of conceptual components of the discourse on the Ili (Ghulja) crisis and border demarcation. The research established that this topic was one of the principal on the pages of “Eastern Herald” during the 1882-1884; separate publications occur in the 1890-1891l; the consequences of resettlement were covered in the 1890-1891. Chronological, comparative-historical methods along with the method of content analysis were applied. The reports on the course of border demarcation carried information character and neutral language of description, while the publications on relations between the authorities and the population in the transferred territories were characterized with the negative-biased nominations. As a result of conducted analysis, the author determine six main plot lines: overall assessment of policy of the Russian Empire on transferring Ili (Ghulja) District; course of measures on demarcation of borders; main events on organization and defense of migration flows to the Russian Empire and organization of resettlement in the territory of Semirechye; formation of the image of China’s provincial officials and government overall; characteristics of China’s army and its military capability; characteristics of China-Russia trade. The parallel plot line of the publication was the reports on situation in the Far Easter borders of Russia, which created a general picture of China-Russia border relations.
Shchuplenkov N.O., Shchuplenkov O.V. - Peculiarities of the Political and Legal Orientation of the Social Democratic Movement in Russia pp. 22-77


Abstract: The main aspects of social democracy taking into account modern relevance of political and legal views of movement are considered. Special value for social democracy has refusal of the Marxist economic concept of a socialism. The private property has the right for protection to means of production so far as it doesn't interfere with development of a fair social order. The market economy, free competition and free enterprise initiative admit modern social democrats as fundamental instruments of economic growth, economic efficiency and social justice. Exactly thanks to the thesis of equality, solidarity, justice of party of social democratic orientation arise practically on all continents. Thanks to a historical method we can track social democratism genesis at all stages of its development. In conditions, when in the world at the beginning of the XXI century. new collision – now not on ideological (totalitarian and democratic modes) is observed, and on a civilization basis (first of all between the western individualism and east traditsionalizm, the most otstaivayemy Islamic fundamentalism), to lot of social democracy falls a link role, first of all for the reason that its valuable installations incorporate both individualist, and the collectivist beginnings.It is necessary to emphasize that all main principles of a socialism – equality, justice, solidarity – remain and in a new socialism, providing its continuity with past sotsializm. But these principles are realized in a new way, gain new lines, providing a place to a socialism and in new, post-industrial society.
Nikulin V.V. - The Need for Safety. Legal Status of the All-Russian Emergency Commission, State Political Directorate and Joint State Political Directorate in the Structure of the Soviet State pp. 25-84


Abstract: The author of the article views the problem of creation and legal structuring of the All-Russian Emergency Commission in the system of the Soviet state. The author analyzes the relations between the Commission and other repressive authorities and describes serious organizational and legal contradictions between those. The author also studies the process of differentiation between competences and legal authorities of the Commission and other repressive authorities, in particular, Revolutionary Tribunals. The author also studies attempts to assign a more concrete legal status fo the Commission. By studying historical archives, the author analyzes the process of reinforcement of the structure of the Commission and establishment of the Commission subdivisions in the provinces. Noteworthy that that process was quite slow and difficult because creation of the Commission subdivisions had to 'compete' with numerious local commissions and other local emergency agencies.  The author also traces back the process of strengthening of the role of the Commission in the entire state structure against the background of developing military and political environment.  The author also views the process of re-organization of the Commission subdivisions during the New Economic Policy including restriction of competences, limitation of investigation periods and so on. 
Shapiro B. - Russian cavalry after the Crimean War: main scenarios of development pp. 27-36


Abstract: The defeat in the Crimean War started one of the most controversial periods in the history of Russian cavalry.  Much of what became an inseparable part of military science by 1850’s, in the second part of the XIX century forced to raise a question about the role of cavalry in the theatre of war. Therefore, the goal of this research lies in the analysis of the dynamics of development of Russian cavalry during the reign of Alexander II, initiated by the defeat in Crimean War and subsequent reforms. The author attempt to restore the history of evolution of the Russian cavalry over the period from 1855 to 1881, as well as determine the landmark changes and their consequences. The focus is made on the three different development phases: after the end of the Crimean War; in the 1860’s; and in the 1870’s. The archival materials that allow tracing the roots of the crisis of Russia cavalry in the 1850’s, as well as the dynamic of overcoming the crisis during the reign of Alexander II (1855-1881), are introduced into the scientific discourse. The acquired results lead to the conclusion that in a quarter of century, Russian cavalry has significantly improved its situation. A benchmark for its future development becomes the Cossack Cavalry; the key development vectors – narrowly specialized training, including the strengthening of material and scientific base, advancement of military hippology, military equestrianism, and sport horse breeding.
Shadrin A.Y. - Mobilization Development Model in the USSR (1945 - 1991). Crisis and Attempts to Overcome it pp. 29-50


Abstract: Control system and ideology are the two main controls of society under the conditions of moblization development. The peak efficiency of that particular model of social management fell on the post-war period. However, overpressure of forces and limited resources raised a question about using personal motivation of citizens along with the methods of enforcement and conviction. Economic and social management was performed by economic executives through political parties. This led to functional differentiation in the Soviet elite and created groups who had special interests. When Iosif Stalin's government was over, the question about which group would be at the head of government came up. The Council of Ministers lost their position to the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and republican authorities which created another powerful group, national 'elite'. At  the same time, ideology was in chaos: the XX convention raise important questions about the previous state strategy and included utopic targets of full development of the communist society. The struggle of the 'elite' groups also introduced new methods of political management. Informal relationships became important. Elections of a new Soviet governor depended on clan relations just like in case of Mikhail Gorbachev. Groups kept satisfying their needs and interests and in the long run came to direct communication with the criminal environment. Needs of the state and government were replaced with the interests of clans. The government lost its legitimacy. The hopes people had at the beginning of Reconstruction Era were replaced with disappointment and disrespect towards Gorbachev and all what he symbolized - socialist regime and the Soviet Union.  
Sosenkov F.S. - Constitutional and legal principles of Soviet Federalism pp. 30-45


Abstract: The subject of this research is establishment and development of the principles of Soviet federalism: ideocracy, class character, proletarian internationalism, party spirit, right of nations to self-determination, two-level nature, unity of legal space, dual sovereignty, inviolability of the territory of the republics, dual citizenship, etc. The goal lies in examination of the sources, peculiarities of constitutional layout, evolution of the principles of Soviet federalism, and their role in the crisis and downfall of the Soviet federalism. The author offers the   definitions of such phenomena as the Soviet federalism and the Soviet federation, which defines the novelty of this work. Classification is given to the principles of Soviet federalism in accordance with the criteria outlined by the author: 1) by the time of emergence, the principles are divided into ideological (ideocracy, class character, proletarian internationalism, party spirit, right of nations to self-determination, etc.) and state-legal (single citizenship, inviolability of the territories of the republics, unity of legal system, supremacy of federal legislation, etc.); 2) by the method of codification, the principles are divided into constitutional (ideocracy, class character, right of nations to self-determination, etc.), and stemming from the essence of constitutional norms (asymmetry, party spirit, two-level nature). It is noted that some principles of Soviet federalism fade their significance over time (class character), while others are eliminated from the constitutional and legal practice (principle of mutual control over observance of the all-union and republican legislation). It is substantiated that Soviet federalism was jeopardized mostly by the fundamental interrelated ideological principles: ideocracy, party spirit, and right of nations to self-determination. The author’s special contribution consists in introducing archival documents into the scientific discourse.
Gegհamyan V.G. - Characteristic of modernization in Turkey over the period of Kemalist authority: an attempt of reassessment pp. 44-55


Abstract: This article represents an attempt of socio-anthropological interpretation of the process of modernization in the Republican Turkey. The process of radical modernization, which took place in Turkey during the ruling period of Kemalists (1923-1950), aroused extensive interest in the West and resulted in the emergence of large number of scientific publications. The foreign observers mostly admired the results of the modernization and claimed the creation of “New Turkey”. But all these works had apparent flaws, thus Kemalism and Kemalist modernization require a new critical approach. The author suggests examining the Turkish modernization in the context of difference of the sociocultural dynamics of historical process between the West and the East, as well as defines the key characteristic of Turkish modernization as authoritarian. At first, the author demonstrates the evolution of authoritarian modernization processes in Turkey, reveals their ideological roots, and then, the unidentified aspects of the Turkish modernization. The analysis of evolution of the Turkish modernization within the framework of differences in sociocultural dynamics of the historical process allows viewing the modernization processes of the traditional Eastern society not as a consistent phenomenon, but a complicated process, in which the authority discussed the modernization policy with the traditional society.  The article illustrates that modernization had limited direct impact upon the Turkish society, which opens the new research questions.
Bredikhin V.E. - System of education for the leaders of All-Union Leninist Young Communist League during the Great Patriotic War: 1941-1945 (based on the materials of territorial organizations) pp. 53-64


Abstract: The subject of this research is the methodical, material and professional framework for advanced training and retraining of the administrative Komsomol apparatus. The author examines the factors that predetermined the need for organizing the regular training of Komsomol employees, form and scale of training of Komsomol apparatus at the various levels of executive hierarchy, and the content of educational programs. The article demonstrates the significance of the system of party education in the process of training Komsomol resources. Analyzing the level of general and political culture of Komsomol workers, the author gives assessment to viability of their theoretical self-training on the basis of the “History of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks): Short Course”. For the first time, from the perspective of modern science on the all-union materials, the article reveals the methods and practice of preparation of the regular and temporary Komsomol leaders during the Great Patriotic War. The necessity in the system of advanced training and retraining of Komsomol employees was dictated by the insufficient level of their overall and political education and lack of experience in the leading positions due to intense personnel turnover and high number of contenders. Training of Komsomol  workers was aimed at broadening of their political and overall range of view and acquisition of practical knowledge in production, information-propaganda and domestic activity. For much of the war period, the domestic system of education did not have a systemic maintenance and did not ensure due coverage of administrative employees. At the final stage of the war, it attained a systematic character. The focus on self-education of Komsomol resources, as the basic method of academic training, contributed to formalization of the domestic system of education of personnel.
Eiler A.A. - Devotees of science and education of Crimea (the role of nobility in the establishment of Taurida National University) pp. 59-75


Abstract: The subject of this research is the specific contribution of the representatives of nobility and intelligentsia of Taurida Governorate to the establishment of Taurida National University in 1916-1918. The foundation of this university greatly benefited the development of culture, science and education in Crimea and Southern Russia. The goal consists in reflection of progressive and constructive influence of separate individuals on the formation of humanistic and sociocultural space of Taurida Governorate; as well as in systematization of information from dozens of sources for creation of the more objective and precise course of events. The relevance and scientific novelty are defined by the need to reconsider the Crimean cultural processes of 1916-1918; determine and describe particular factors related to the contribution of nobility and intelligentsia of Taurida Governorate to the establishment of Taurida National University. Emphasis is made on the contribution of separate individuals and scientific communities, as well as their role in the process of emergence of the first university in Crimea. The progressive-constructive character of the activity of nobility and intelligentsia in historical-cultural space of Crimea is demonstrated. Based on application of objective and contemporary approach to the events of 1916-1918, the author gives assessment of the events that correspond to representations of modern science, as well as conducts of comparative and generalizing analysis of the data from a number of sources.
Derkach M.A. - Non-institutional factors of popularity of the Sweden Democrats party in 2006-2014 pp. 105-125


Abstract: The subject of this research is the non-institutional factors that affected the popularity (level electoral support) of the populist parties in Sweden over the period of 2006-2014: portion of immigrants; change in the portion of immigrants; level of economic wellness of the residents; level of unemployment; level of crime; low level of education of the voters; “historical predisposition” to voting for the populists. Identification of these factors is realized based on the analysis of results of participation in the elections to Riksdag of the party “Sweden Democrats” – the leading populist political power in Sweden at that time. Results of the research demonstrate that the popularity of the “Sweden Democrats” was observed in the regions with the lower level of social wellness, higher level of crime and unemployment, and with more uneducated people among the voters. At the same time, voting for the populists at parliamentary elections, the Swedish voters were on one hand concerned about the number of immigrants from the European countries, which can manifest as their competitors in job market, and on the other – by the dynamic of the increased number of culturally alien immigrants from the non-European countries. The author’s special contribution consists in determination of the following regularity: with the growing popularity of the populist party, the influence of immigration factors alongside the factor of “historical predisposition” towards voting gradually reduces, while the influence of socioeconomic factors increases.
Krichevtsev M.V. - Reforms of the Military Judicial System of Switzerland in 1799-1800: on the Question of French Influence pp. 215-226



Abstract: The proposed article is devoted to the history of two reforms of military justice in Switzerland 1799 and 1800. It describes a chronologically small but very important stage of the transition to a new military-judicial organization associated with foreign interference in the affairs of the country. The purpose of the study is to present the main changes in the military justice of Switzerland and the degree of influence on them of the French institutions of the late XVIII century. The object of study here is the military-judicial law of the Helvetic Republic, reflected in the laws of July 27, 1799 and November 24, 1800. The subject of the study is the process of reforming military justice in Switzerland at the reception of the norms of French law. When working on the materials of the topic, the comparative historical research method, contextual analysis of legal documents and structural and functional analysis of judicial and legal institutions of the two countries were applied. As a result, the study showed that the reforms created a new system of military justice, which was connected only with the military organization and did not depend on the cantonal affiliation of military personnel. The reform of 1799 differed from the reorganization of 1800 by the greater radicalism and democracy of the institutions created, which corresponded to the political aspirations of various ruling groups that succeeded each other in the Helvetic Republic leadership. Nevertheless, both reforms were oriented towards the assimilation of the French experience of the military judicial system of the era of the Great Revolution. The borrowing of foreign military-judicial law in Helvetia was not limited to the complete copying of foreign norms, Swiss legislators were able to show a certain originality in their adoption. The main difference of the Swiss military judicial organization was the introduction of a three-tier system of military courts and the preservation of the institution of disciplinary councils, which in the French Republic by the end of the XVIII century already ceased to exist.
Pletnikov V.S. - Discretion as one of the factors of state legal structuring and administration pp. 269-278


Abstract: In the introduction the author examines such aspect of the topic as the level of scientific development of the category of “discretion”. Later the author concentrates on the historical and modern examples of discretion related to the questions of state legal structuring and administration. A special attention is given to the public law, including the issues of discretion within the private legal relations. The main part of the research is completed with the demonstration of the issues of discretion pertaining to the questions of serving in military and law enforcement, as  two types of service that are subject to the effect of the unrestricted discretion. Among the main conclusions are the following: 1) category of “discretion” in the area of public legal relations did not receive a corresponding scientific and theoretical conceptualization; 2) discretion, depending on its nature, can have various manifestations; 3) in most cases, the processes taking place within the state legal structuring and administration in the past, as well as in the modern Russia, are predetermined by the discretion of  a particular individual, endowed with certain authorities, usually of state power.
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