Genesis: Historical research - rubric Historical facts, events, phenomena
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Rubric "Historical facts, events, phenomena"
Historical facts, events, phenomena
Levshenko M.T. - The Shroud of Turin a Solution is Found: "Solar" Image Formation Mechanism pp. 1-24


Abstract: Discussed in the scientific literature, possible mechanisms of «image» formation on a linen cloth of the Shroud of Turin were considered. It was shown how this «image» on the cloth was formed in a natural way and how much energy did it require. Oil traces of the body imprint on the white cloth which contain particles of myrrh plant ointment and hydrophilic substances from aloe juice, which could fall on the cloth together with the oil from the liniment applied for the body when buried, under the influence of the energy of the southern solar rays, caused oxidation and dehydration of the cellulose fiber of the shroud cloth. This gave the appearance of visible effects of the «image» formation on the cloth.Experimental data of linen cloth heating, on which a handprint (oiled with the liniment) was previously applied, are shown. The results of the heating of such cloth with the light energy of xenon lamp (which is an analogue of solar rays ) have shown that the «image» of the palm consisting of vague yellowish spots without visible borders has come out. This image was caused by a slight darkening of a surface of the cloth fibers.
Butenko Y.N. - The Main Aspects of the Relation Between Vatican and Russia During Pontificate of John Paul II pp. 1-16


Abstract: The second half of the XX century is characterized with the global political transformations and the crisis of ideologies that had been dominating throughout the century. Ideologies were replaced with religion and religion started to play a significant role as never before. One of the main global actors was the Catholic Church represented by Vatican. Vatican gained its status of the global 'moral' leader during the pontificate of John Paul II who took an active part in the life of the global community. During his pontificate that lasted since 1978 till 2005, the Eastern Europe became one of the main targets of the foreign policy followed by the Holy See. Political and religious interest of Vatican in the dialogue with the states of the region was mostly caused by the deepening of the integration processes in Europe and associated ecumenism-related policy of the Pope.  Vatican's political relations with Russia after the breakup of the Soviet Union were in the sidelines while the inter-confessional relations prevailed. Vatican had rather unstable and unsuccessful relations wit the Orthodox Church. The author of the article analyzes the obstacles interfering with the dialogue between the leading Christian churches in Europe. The long-term pontificate of John Paul II made a number of serious changes in the relation between Vatican and Russia. However, a number of issues related to their relation was still left unsolved. 
Loshchilova T.N., Nosova E.S. - Good King Henry: to the history of one myth pp. 1-23


Abstract: The object of this research is the image of Henry IV de Bourbon as the “Good King Henry” that was born in the consciousness of French society in the early XVII century and became one of the elements of the new dynasty’s legitimation process, which substantiated a significant consolidation of the royal power during the country’s recovery from economic, social, political and cultural crisis. The subject of this research is the methods, means and circumstances of forming the concept about the “Good King Henry”. The article examines the pivotal stages in establishment of the image  through the prism of the representation of power. Methodological foundation contains the works of foreign and Russia medievalists aimed at studying the problems of representation of the royal power and “potestary imagology” in the various spheres of political culture. The scientific novelty consist in analyzing the image of the “Good King Henry” from the interdisciplinary perspective. Examination of the representation of power and political symbolism, within the framework of potestary imagology, is a dynamically developing vector in historical science. Of particular interest are the kings who were able to grasp the benefits of public self-representation and role of the images of power for successful governance.
Bogdanov A.P. - Philhellenes and Latinists in the XVII century: texts in the context pp. 1-46


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the disputes on the enlightenment of Russia in the early 1680s. They emerged and continued due to the idea of Tsar Fyodor Alekseevich to open an Academy in Moscow: an autonomous university from the state and church authorities for preparing secular and religious personnel, which would teach in Polish, Greek, Latin and Russian languages. The article examines the positions of Russian and Greek Philhellenes. Some of them insisted on studying solely Greek language for preventing the distribution of knowledge in Latin and other languages. Others proved the advantage of Greek language in the educational system in all languages of science of that time. The author notes that the initiator of the Academy Sylvester Medvedev, who was later declared a “Latinist heretic”, took the second approach as the basis. The article refutes the modern attempts to change the perspective on dating, content and meaning of the primary sources, beginning with the Privilege of the Academy. The author substantiates that the Privilege was not a figment of Medvedev's imagination, but a Charter approved by the Tsar, which established the basic principles of the new university, namely the functions of faith protection were delegated by the tsar to the academic council. The implementation of measures against heresies, sorcery, etc., which were sternly formulated in the legislation,  since now on required the scholars’ examination. The objections of colleagues to the “harshness” of these measures, allegedly invented by Medvedev, were associated with legal ignorance. A substantial part of the article is aimed at familiarization of the colleagues with the legal, political, cultural and literary context, which contributes to the analysis of the sources.
Androsov D.P. - Western German terrorism and mass media in the 1960s-1980: assessments of the Professor Andreas Elter pp. 9-17


Abstract: The subject of this research is the interrelations between the terrorist organization “Red Army Faction” and mass media in the Federative Republic of Germany. Special attention is given to the research in this area conducted by Andreas Elter – German Professor of the University of Cologne. Since the late 1960’s, left wing radical groups of FRG began to actively use mass media to influence the citizens of the republic via self-positioning and self-expression, as well to be a communication channel for delivering their messages. The author analyzes the content of Andreas Elter’s book "Propaganda der Tat. Die RAF und die Medien" and draws conclusions based on the scholar’s reasoning. The author determines and reveals the hidden, but mutually beneficial interconnections, established between the functioning and the principles of operation of mass media as the commercial structures, and the members of “Red Army Faction” terrorist organization in West Germany, who most vividly manifested themselves in 1970’s during the time of the acute political crisis, known as the “German Autumn”.
Panenkov A.A. - Coordination of Mutual Actions of Prosecutor and Head of Administration A. Kadyrov on Anti-Terrorism Effort pp. 17-52


Abstract: In article the author addresses to the period of an active phase of a counter-terrorist operation in the Chechen Republic, focuses attention on features of public prosecutor's activity in extreme conditions. On the basis of personal observations tells about coordination and interaction of the management of prosecutor's office with the First President of the Chechen Republic A.A. Kadyrov in fight against terrorism. Gives the interesting facts which weren't published earlier and wide publicity wasn't given. In the conditions of an aggravation of a situation around Ukraine, terrorist manifestations on its territories, participation of leaders of the organized international terrorist organizations in intensity forcing, demands coherence of actions of all government institutions for repelling possible aggression. The author used the following scientific methods: the analysis of events of a counter-terrorist operation (WHO) studying and supervision of the occurring stages WHO in dynamics the events which are Earlier stated in article weren't published anywhere in the Chechen Republic which participant he was together with other prosecutors. The option of a statement of actions of participants offered by the author allows on new to look at events of an active phase of a counter-terrorist operation, to allocate not only office, but also human character of the relations between the management of prosecutor's office and the Head of administration of the Chechen Republic
Mikheev D.V. - Testimonies of Spanish captives about the course of Francis Drake's circumnavigation pp. 18-30



Abstract: The publication is devoted to the events related to the second circumnavigation organised by the English privateer, naval commander and discoverer Francis Drake. The author pays special attention to sources of Spanish origin, represented by the materials of interrogations of Spanish prisoners who had been on board the English ship and personally communicated with English corsairs. The Spanish testimonies contain detailed descriptions of the actions of Drake and his companions on the Pacific coast of the New World, reports on the armament and composition of the English crew, and considerations about the goals of the expedition. A special place in the testimonies is occupied by reports on the damage caused and the booty captured by the English. The comparative-historical method allows, as a result of comparing Spanish and other sources, to identify new details about the course of the expedition, omitted for various reasons by the authors of English testimonies about Drake's voyage. Spanish sources are actively introduced into the scientific turnover during the XX century, changing the idea of the course of the first English circumnavigation expeditions. Despite the repeated information in the testimonies about the actions of English corsairs off the Pacific coast of the New World we can trace the dynamics of Drake's actions, understand how his plans changed as he moved along the coast. Witness testimony allows us to imagine the scale of the booty captured by the British during their plundering raid, to trace the peculiarities of corsairs in Spanish waters on the eve of the open Anglo-Spanish conflict. Numerous testimonies of the captives of the English corsair help to recreate the image of Drake and his companions, to determine the peculiarities of their perception by the subjects of the King of Spain.
Lazarev A.B. - Modern Russian Feldegers, who are they? Russian State' Courier Communication at the Present Stage pp. 41-64



Abstract: The subject of the article is the following issues: the legal status and tasks of modern special state couriers, their differences from special communications staff, the requirements for candidates entering the service of federal courier communications, social guarantees of special couriers, the role of federal courier communications in the national security system of Russia at the present time. The object of the research of the article is the scientific domestic literature, legal documents related to the research topic. The purpose of the article is to disclose the issues that make up the subject of the study, to popularize the service in the bodies of the federal courier service. The relevance of the article is caused by the lack of works in Russian science devoted to the issues considered in the article, the interest of society and the state in the history of the formation and development of the federal courier service, the activities of its subjects special messengers and bodies of the federal courier service, which is confirmed by thematic requests of Russian citizens and organizations (requests related to the provision of biographical information, the issuance of archival certificates and documents, the provision of information about the activities of the SFS of Russia and its services, service in the federal courier service). The novelty of the article for Russian historical science is the very issues identified in the subject of the article, since they were not previously considered by Russian historical science, Russian citizens of organizations. The practical significance of the article lies in the possibility for Russian citizens and organizations to use the information contained in it both in theoretical and practical activities (when writing scientific literature, lecturing, conducting coursework, studying the history of Russian courier communications, improving legislation in the field of federal courier communications, work related to the selection of new personnel, patriotic education). The article uses general scientific techniques and methods of logical cognition: historical and legal analysis and synthesis, system-structural, functional and formal-logical approaches.
Zagorodnyuk N.I. - Exile settlers in Northwestern Siberia: social portrait, labor activity and living conditions of the deported population pp. 44-54


Abstract: The object of this research is the separate group of forced settlers – the deported citizens of the Soviet Union, convicted unlawfully for evading “agricultural work and leading an antisocial parasitic lifestyle” in accordance with the decree of Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of USSR of February 21 and June 2, 1948. Based on the archival materials, the author describes the number, resettlement sites, social composition of “exile settlers”, their labor activity and living conditions in the territory of Northwestern Siberia (Yamalo-Nenets and Khanti-Mansi Autonomous Okrugs of Tyumen Region. The article explores the previously unstudied questions of postwar deportation in the territory under consideration. The conclusion is made that “exile settlers” unlike other population groups, had special legal status; they became the source of compulsory workforce in timber industry, as well as construction of the Chum-Salekhard-Igarka Railway. The analysis of their social composition and content of sentences allow stating on the unlawfulness of application of repressions towards separate citizens; same as other groups of political prisoners, they stayed in arduous material and living conditions.
Tokmurzayev B. - Siberian Regionalism as an intellectual and socio-political movement in the epistolary and scientific-journalistic heritage of G.N. Potanin pp. 54-62


Abstract: The article is devoted to the problem of reception by the leader of the Siberian regionalism G.N. Potanin, factors of formation, circumstances of development and evolution of the regional movement as an ideology that was formed in the conditions of colonization in the outlying (Siberian) regions of the Russian Empire. The object of the research is the socio-political discourse of Russia in the second half of the 19th - early 20th centuries. The subject of the study is Siberian regionalism as an intellectual and socio-political movement in the epistolary and scientific-journalistic heritage of G.N. Potanin. The purpose of this article is to identify the ideas of G.N. Potanin about regionalism as an intellectual and socio-political movement that was formed in the active phase of his life biography. In methodological terms, the formulation of the problem, its solution and conclusions are provided by approaches and practices tested within the framework of the research direction new cultural and intellectual history, one of the problematic fields of which is intellectual biography and discursive practices. Within the framework of this article, the concept of representation is the semantic one, reflecting the subjective interpretation of the historical reality by G.N. Potanin in connection with the functioning of the regional movement as a sociocultural phenomenon. The sources of the research are the scientific and journalistic writings of G.N. Potanin and his extensive epistolary heritage, which captured the ideas of one of the leaders of the regionalists about the evolution of the movement in the wide chronological boundaries of the second half of the 19th - early 20th centuries. The author concludes that the history of regionalism as an intellectual and social movement was closely associated with the biographical context of the fate of the leaders of the movement. This fact, according to G.N. Potanin determined the evolution of the regional ideology, which has come a long way from manifestations of local patriotism, radical political delusions, to the construction of an original concept based on the recognition of Siberia as a colony of Russia.
Khil'chenko M.V. - History of emergence of Freemasonry in the early XVIII late XIX centuries pp. 61-71


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the history of emergence of the Masonic lodge in England and disclosure of the concept of “freemason”. The author reveals and describes the peculiarities of the emergence of Freemasonry, tracing its evolution from the antiquity until the XIX century. Its ancient history is divided into the two main periods (prior and after 1717, i.e. the creation of the Grand Lodge in England). The article describes such events from the history of Freemasonry as the establishment of the First Grand Lodge in England; creation of the Premier Lodge, Anderson’s Constitutions, and the Third Degree; the Great Schism of Freemasonry that tool place 1877; the Taxil hoax. Analysis is conducted on the relationship between the English and French factions of Freemasonry. The obtained results are accurate, since the analysis of the history of Freemasonry was carried based on the wide range of historical facts. The comprehensive analysis of the history of emergence of Freemasonry is carried out for the first time within the Russian-language historical literature, which defines the scientific novelty of this work. The author outlines the further prospects for studying the history of Freemasonry, such as accumulation of the reliable scientific information on the early history of the lodge, examination of the history of other Masonic factions (French, Italian, etc.), as well as the origin of Freemasonry in Russia.
Petrov Y.I. - The Problems of the Establishment and Development of the Institution of Assessors in Russia in the Late XIX Century pp. 72-103


Abstract: The article is devoted to the historical background of Nicolay Bunge's tax reform. The author of the article describes particular activities and measures aimed at elimination of the old taxes and introduction of the new taxes that would increase the taxation efficiency, expand the scope of persons paying taxes and change the social composition of taxpayers. The author also analyzes the status of fiscal management in Russia of the late XIX century. He underlines that the tax control was quite weak in those times and this is why the institution of assessors was created. The author describes the process of formation of the institution as a local financial control body. He also analyzes the legal base of activities performed by the new institution and touches upon the changes in its structure as well as the reasons causing these changes. Special attention is paid to human resources at such institutions, education of assessors as well as their service, promotion in rank and incentives. Much emphasis is mae on the question about the process of interaction between assessors and other local executive authorities. The author underlines the peculiar role and great significance of assessors in achieving targets of tax reforms in the late XIX - early XX centuries. 
Kontsevoi I.A. - Ideological conflicts between Bolsheviks and Left Social Revolutionaries in the regional government branches pp. 72-83


Abstract: This article examines the interaction between the representatives of Bolsheviks and Left Social Revolutionaries in the regional government branches during the first half of 1918. The subject of this research is the ideological conflicts that emerged between the members of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the Left Social Revolutionaries in their joint activity. Considerable attention is given to classification of the ideological conflicts, as well as to identification of their causes and consequences for interaction of the representatives of both parties on the local level. These conflicts were an integral part of the Soviet bipartite system. Their manifestation began since dissolution of the government coalition of Bolsheviks and Left Social Revolutionaries. Based on the analysis of archival documents and published sources, the author describes the interaction between Bolsheviks and Left Social Revolutionaries in the local soviets. The novelty consists in classification of the conflicts between Bolsheviks and Left Social Revolutionaries, as well as in introduction into the scientific discourse of certain archival documents. The conclusion is made that despite the joint activity of the two parties aimed at strengthening of the Soviet regime, the ideological conflicts demonstrated a different perspective of Bolsheviks and Left Social Revolutionaries upon the political course of the country, as well as the methods of local governance. The escalating antagonism between the two Soviet parties eventually led to instability in the bipartite system and its collapse.
Awah J. - The Cameroonian - Russian Relation: Main Directions and Priorities (1960-2022). pp. 74-82



Abstract: This article examines the main directions and priorities of Cameroonian-Russian relations from 1960 to 2022. In recent years, Russia has sought to expand its presence in Africa, and Cameroon has become a key partner in the region. The author analyzes the historical background of the relationship, including key events and milestones that have shaped this partnership over time. It also examines the political, economic and cultural aspects of the relationship, highlighting the main areas of cooperation and the challenges both countries face. The author concludes with a discussion of the future prospects of Russian-Cameroonian relations. The historical background of the relationship has played a key role in the success of this partnership, and both countries have demonstrated a desire to strengthen cooperation. However, the relationship faces a number of challenges, including a lack of direct air service and limited knowledge of the Russian language and culture in Cameroon. As a net importer, Cameroon must explore the Russian market to increase its exports to ensure a trade balance. Looking ahead, Cameroonian-Russian relations are likely to continue to develop, and both countries will seek to expand cooperation and deepen their partnership in the coming years, as they both share the same ideological and moral values.
Kravchenko E. - Commercial practices of the Italian merchantry during the XIIIXV centuries: cross-cultural communication pp. 79-88


Abstract: The problem of cross-cultural contacts is one of the most relevant topics in the research field of culturology. This article turns to the question of cross-cultural interaction on the example of medieval colonization of the maritime republics of the Apennine Peninsula. The object of this research is the economic and cultural processes of Italian expansion in the XIII–XV centuries. The subject is the commercial practices of the merchants, specifically from the republics Amalfi, Genoa, Venice, Pisa, and Florence. The goal of this article consists in the analysis of operations and practices introduced into the European economy from the culturological perspective. The leading methodological vector relies on the theory of cultural transfer developed by the French researcher Michel Espagne. It is established that that a range of economic and cultural phenomena is the product of cultural transfer. The application of M. Espagne’s theory of cultural transfer to the analysis of the phenomenon of Italian colonization is carried out for the first time, which defines the novelty of this work. The research results lies in the analysis of establishment of the economic and cultural phenomena, determination of cooperation of the republics of the Apennine Peninsula within the region and other European states and Arab culture, as well as the consideration of the republics of the Apennine Peninsula as trade partners, rather than competing countries alone. The provided materials can me valuable in the sphere of Mediterranean studies, for the development of cross-disciplinary scientific projects in the area of culturology and economics, as well as for profound research of Italian culture and the phenomenon of expansion of the republics of the Apennine Peninsula in the Middle Ages.
Belozerova V. - The development of Chinese calligraphic tradition in the works of Huang Qi (1914-2005) pp. 91-99


Abstract: The subject of this research is the creative stylistics of the traditionalist direction in modern Chinese calligraphy. The object of this research is the works of the prominent calligraphist Huang Qi (1914-2005, PRC), who was able to retain the ethical and aesthetic valued of calligraphic tradition through the historical cataclysms of the XX century. The goal of this article consists in the analysis of artistic principles that defined the creative work of Huang Qi, as well as characterizing the peculiarities of writing techniques of the maestro in various scripts. Psychotechnique of his creative process is explained through the traditional task of “nurturing life” (yang sheng). The example of the oeuvres created throughout the last two decades of Huang QI’ life demonstrates how the artistic expressiveness of calligraphy is interpreted and complements the content of the written texts. The picturesque scroll of the maestro are notable for calligraphic technique of arm manipulation and calligraphic structure of the picturesque shape, which corresponds with the fundamental for the Chinese visual art tradition principle of the initial unity of these two arts. The art methodology couples with the methods of semiotics, hermeneutics, and culturological analysis. The scientific novelty of the acquired results consists in examination of works of the remarkable representative of traditionalist direction that is yet insufficiently studies in the Western art history. The author reveals the factors of sustainable development of calligraphic tradition during the era of emergency modernization of China’s cultural space in the last quarter of the XX century, which opens the prospect for reconsideration of the importance of avant-garde directions known in the West.
Babich I.L. - Monastery of the Ascension of David Desert: beginning of journey (XVI XVII centuries) pp. 94-105


Abstract: The subject of this research is the peculiarities of monastery construction in Russia over the period of the XVI – XVII centuries. The object is the history of one of monasteries outside of Moscow – the Ascension of David Desert. This period signified the change in ideological paradigms: the Russian Orthodox ideology, which takes its roots in the history of ancient Byzantium, shifts towards the Western influences and trends. This is also the beginning of monastery colonization of Russia, when in the overall monastery’s decline have emerged many medium-sized monasteries. The goal of this article lies in examination of the questions related to the Russian power (princely and imperial) and monastery construction, as well as the status of Monastery of the Ascension of David Desert, claustral rule, specificities of allodial possessions, establishment and church construction. The works is prepared on the basis of materials from the three archives: Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts, Central State Archive, and archive of documents preserved in the Monastery of the Ascension of David Desert; the method of historical reconstruction was applied for analyzing these materials. The beginning of monastic life in the David Desert along with its establishment during the first two centuries (XVI – XVII) yet remains a little-known part of history, which defines the relevance of this article.
Lapina D.A. - Social and political foundations of the formation of urban planning and architecture of the cities of Ancient Russia pp. 116-124



Abstract: The subject of the study is the political and social aspect of the formation of town-planning scheme of ancient Russian cities. The object of the study is architecture, urban planning, street layout, urbanonims, social topography of cities such as Kiev, Novgorod, Vladimir, Ryazan. The author examines in detail the following aspects of the topic: the influence of the political situation on the architectural appearance of the city, the social and ethnic composition of the population of cities, the origin of ancient Russian urban toponyms. Particular attention is paid to architecture and urban planning as a source on social and political history, the process of evolution of urban development in the context of foreign policy relations, the influence of domestic political and social factors on it. The main conclusions of the study are that the following trends can be identified in the town-planning scheme of ancient Russian cities: chaotic development at the first stage of development and withdrawal to planning with the strengthening of political power, secondariness of streets in some cities of Ancient Russia, by means of urbanonims of ancient Novgorod, Vladimir and Kiev, it is possible to develop ideas about the social and ethnic composition of the city's population Ancient Russia, to trace the changes in its structure, in its political situation. A special contribution of the author to the study of the topic is the identification of a common architectural element between two religious buildings of different regions and different periods in the context of foreign policy contacts. This element is a promising portal in the Church of St. Paraskevi and in the church of Allenau in the village of Porechye, Kaliningrad region. The novelty of the research lies in the fact that urban planning and architecture of Ancient Russia can serve not only in the format of an art history discipline, but also as a visual illustration for political and social history. At the moment, the architecture and urban planning grid of ancient Russian cities is not considered as a serious source in research related to political power, international relations, and the history of social structures.
Starikov I.V. - Organization and officer corps of White Cossack military formations in Transbaikal territory during the Civil War (August 1918 November5 1920) pp. 122-134


Abstract: The goal of this research is the analysis of organization of the Cossack military formations of White Movement and structure of their officer corps in Transbaikal territory over the period from August 1918 to November 1920. The subject of this work is the history of involvement of Transbaikal, Orenburg, Yeniseian, Siberian and Ussuri Cossack troops in the Civil War overall and Transbaikal region in particular. The chronological framework cover the period since the moment of the collapse of Soviet regime in Chita in the August 1918 until withdrawal of the White Army from Transbaikal in November 1920. The scientific novelty consists in generalization of information from the various published and little-studied sources for the purpose of restoring the organizational and corps structure of the White Cossack armed forces. The article also examines their engagement in military actions against partisan units of the Red and People’s Revolutionary Army of the Far Eastern Republic, which allows restoring a full picture of the exceptionally dramatic pages in the history of Civil War and foreign military intervention in Transbaikal territory.
Kargovskaia E., Kuznetsova V. - San Blas Rebellion of 1925 pp. 123-132


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the events that received the name of Guna Revolution and led to the autonomy of Comarca Guna Yala that belongs to the Republic of Panama. Guna Indians are one of the few peoples of the American Continent who were able to preserve integrity of their land, their authenticity, traditions, culture and beliefs, although it took them enormous efforts. The goal of this research consists in examination of causes that led to the rebellion, as well as its consequences for the Guna people. The authors of attempt to reconstruct the events and determine the crucial factor that affected successful outcome of the revolt. The scientific novelty is defined by the fact that the history of Guna Indians of the Republic of Panama alongside the events related to their struggle for the autonomy and self-identification did not receive due coverage within the Russian scientific publications. In the current era of globalization, which blurs the boundaries and differences, the preservation of authenticity and integrity of small, and often large, ethnic groups is more relevant than ever. One of the authors was able to visit Comarca Guna Yala and get acquainted with the lifestyle, culture and traditions of its inhabitants, as well as listen to their perspective on the historical events of 1925, which Guna Indians carefully preserve in their folk tradition of chants that sound on the sessions of Guna General Congress.
Ryazanov S.M. - Ural police in pursuit of the mythical airplanes during the World War I pp. 159-168


Abstract: The object of this research is the appearance of the phantom enemy flying machines during the World War I, recorded within the significant distance from the area of combat operations. The subject of this research is the activity of Ural police in countering the nonexistent “airplanes”. The author focuses attention on what caused the perception by the authorities, police, and population of “flying machines” as an actual threat to national security, as well as the course of measures aimed at investigating the first-hand accounts and search for “aeronautical stations”. The main conclusion lies in the fact that besides the actual extension of police functions, its resources were sufficiently weakened by fighting the nonexistent airplanes. The scientific novelty is defined by introduction into the scientific discourse of the new sources from the State Archives of Orenburg Region and Perm Region, as well as National Archive of the Republic of Bashkortostan.
Sennitskaya E.V. - The system of Orthodox fasts in Russia as the means of deterring migration of peasants and the actions of rebel or bandit squads pp. 184-246


Abstract: The object of this research is the Orthodox fasts and customs that prohibited consumption of certain food products. The author examines the history of evolution of fasts, namely the circumstances of emergence of the first printed Charter (Typicon) in 1610; as well as compares the articles on fasts of the Typicons of 1610, 1633, and 1641. The article employs the following methods: 1) geophysical (comparison of the time of fasts with the periods of ice drift, high water, freeze-up, and agricultural cycles in Central Russia); 2) comparative-historical (reveals the logic of prohibitions and their development stages); 3) systemic (prohibition of certain food products is viewed an element of government policy aimed at prevention of migration); 4) ethno-psychological (substantiation of prohibitions); 5) linguistic (analysis of the texts of Typicon). The conclusion is  formulated that the system of fasts set by Typicon of 1610 served the following goals: 1) to consolidate the traditional agricultural practices; 2) to prevent the free movement of rebel bandit squads; 3) to create obstacles for independent sale of agricultural products by peasants and, thus benefit the feudales via wholesale purchase of peasant goods and their sale; 4) to hinder peasant transitions (serfdom). The hypothesis is advanced on the mechanism of enslaving peasants based on toughening the system fasts. The Charter of 1610 itself was passed due to imminent threat for the government Vasiliy IV Shuisky during the Time of Troubles for the purposed of reducing the influx of rebels and impede the transitions of peasants, which deprived the feudales of northern territories with less fertile lands were deprived of workforce, and thus the ability to equip the military at their own expense. The system of prohibitions implied the food obtained by hunting, so the peasants would move solely via river channels controlled by the government. The impact of such prohibitions may explain the irrational river routs Y. Pugachev instead of the road path to Moscow.
Bredikhin V.E. - Regulation of the composition of Komsomol in the late 1930s the early 1940s pp. 186-208


Abstract: The subject of this research is the policy of regulation of the composition of Komsomol during the prewar years as a way of strengthening of social and human resource base of Stalin’s dictatorship. The author examines the peculiarities of the enrollment into the union, as well as the institution of exclusion from Komsomol as the means of increasing of the quality of its composition. In the context of regulation of the composition of Komsomol, the author analyzes the purges of the “Great Terror” period of 1937-1938.  For the first time in the new historiography of the strengthening of the regime of Stalin’s dictatorship, the author analyzes the practice of regulation of the quantitative and qualitative composition of the union in the late 1930’s through the mechanism of inclusion/exclusion of its members. The practice of inclusion of the late 1930’s significantly differed from the preceding period: the majority of the enrolled was comprised not by the labor people, but the students, which contributed into the growth of educational potential of the union. The mass inclusion of the youth produced a well-known negative effect: in form of increase of the portion of passive members, which decreased the organizational-executive quality of the Komsomol as the assistant of the party. The sanction policy in the union primarily supported the government interests, which substantiated the high percentage of exclusion of the Komsomol members based on political grounds.
Gotsulenko A.V. - The role of the national security authorities in the pre-election campaign and elections of the 1937-1938 (based on the Ural region) pp. 209-219


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the activity of the national security authorities of USSR aimed at information awareness of the leadership of the country during the pre-election campaign and elections of the 1937-1938. The author analyzes the normative legal acts of the described period, as well as the archive materials (including the introduced into the scientific discourse for the first time) for the purpose of determination of the main legal moments in the activity of the employees of the law enforcement agencies on implementation of the aforementioned direction of activity. The article raises questions with regards to the correspondence of the certain methods of criminal repressions to the realities of the described period, as well as the increase of the efficiency of law enforcement activity of the government authorities in the 1930’s. The scientific novelty is defined by the introduction into the scientific circulation of the new archive materials, as well as the conducted comparative legal analysis of the normative legal acts, which regulated one of the directions of the national security branches of USSR on protection of the constitutional structure in the 1930’s, and the achieved results.  The author attempted to comprehensively examine large volume of historical and legal sources, be as ideologically unbiased in analyzing these phenomena and processes as possible, and based on that substantiate the conclusions.
Semenov A.S., Gavrilov A.P., Kulakov V.I. - The Origin of the Ryazan-Oka Cruciform Fibulae and the Genesis of the Local Military Elite pp. 227-243



Abstract: The study of the Ryazan-Oka culture has been going on for more than 100 years. Its main area is the Middle Pooch, with a significant tendency to dominate in the Volga-Oka interfluve from the first centuries of our era until the 60s of the VII century AD. With some degree of hypotheticism, the Ryazan-Oka center, along with the Old Ladoga, can be considered as one of the points of laying the foundations of the Old Russian statehood. The author's team sets itself the task of clarifying certain issues of the formation of the Ryazan-Oka elite on the basis of the latest DNA data and studying the most important cultural artifacts - the cross-shaped fibulae of elite warriors.The scientific novelty of the research is the combination of the study of objects of material culture with the latest DNA data. The study showed that the genesis of the most important attribute of the Ryazan-Oka elite - cross-shaped fibulae - can be associated with the shores of the Western Baltic and the North Sea (including Scandinavia). DNA data indicate the possible origin of a part of the military elite from the shores of the Baltic and the Northwestern part of the Eastern European Plain. Thus, it is quite legitimate to raise the question of migrations (of population and material culture) to the Ryazan-Oka area from the northwest. The latter could have an East Germanic, Baltic, Early Slavic, Baltic-Finnish linguistic affiliation.
Slezin A.A. - Post-congress syndrome in Komsomol pp. 231-239


Abstract:   The subject of this research is the situation inside the nationalized youth union – Komsomol after the XX Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Based on the archive materials and documental publications, the author examines the public moods of the Komsomol members, caused by the “debunking” of N. S. Khrushchev and inconsistency of the actions of party leadership during the congress and shortly after. The relevance of the selected topic is substantiated by a number of circumstances: firstly, the need for a comprehensive study of the experience of formation and specific features of social consciousness of the Soviet youth; secondly, the importance of cognition of the historical role of Komsomol in the process of transformation of public moods of the young generation; thirdly, the pending question on the controversial role of the XX Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union regarding the evolution of political culture of the Soviet society. Komsomol is being viewed as a sociocultural phenomenon. Big importance consists in recognition of the bases of the concept of I. M. Ilyinsky, who emphasized the necessity to form among the young generation the ability to survive, develop and grow spiritually, but not retrograde. The scientific novelty is associated with focusing attention of the manifestations of trends towards diversion from traditionalism at Komsomol sessions and conferences of the late 1950’s. Special attention is turned to an acute reaction of the party and Komsomol leadership upon the originating strive for destruction of Komsomol’s monopoly in the youth movement of the country.  
Malygina O.A. - The report on secret activity in the territory of the Trans-Baikal Region in the early XX century pp. 284-290


Abstract: The main mission of the Imperial government in the early XX century consisted in ensuring foreign policy security of the eastern trans-border region. The construction of Trans-Siberian Railway, defeat in the Russo-Japanese War, and the beginning of the World War I in 1914 severely affected the geopolitical situation in Trans-Baikal Region. Thus, in the conditions of the outbreak of the World War I, the question of uninterrupted supply of weapons, food, etc. along the railway line from the east to the center of the country was critical. All this turned Trans-Baikal Region into a special zone for the foreign intelligence agents. Leaning on the materials of the State Archive of Irkutsk Region, description is given to the system of obtaining information from various sources on the attempts of creating secret network, alleged military espionage, and sabotage attempts in the territory of Trans-Baikal Railway. The article also reveals the interaction of command levels in the region and their activity in the event of manifestation of the persuasive threat to foreign policy security. No actual sabotage attempts are detected according to the archival sources. This may be due to absence of such data in the civil archive. However, the archive stores an array of information on the alleged attempts of creating secrent network in the territory of Trans-Baikal Region.
Sulimin A.N. - Soviet military advisers in North Korea during the Korean War of 1950-1953 pp. 446-457


Abstract: This article examines the role of the Soviet advisers in Korea during the Korean War. In the early 1950’s on the Korean Peninsula emerged the largest after the World War II armed conflict between the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) and the Republic of Korea (South Korea). The Soviet Union positioned itself as a neutral side, however provided the North Korean armed forces with the Russian military advisers. For a long period of time the details of the Soviet participation in the Korean War was classified. The scientific novelty of this work consists in the fact that according to the modern historical researches written based on the declassified archive data, we can determine the details on the participation of the Soviet military advisers on the side of North Korea during the Korean War of 1950-1953. The author emphasizes that a significant contribution into the success of the North Korean armed forces was made by the Soviet ambassadors in Pyongyang, as well as Stalin who was coordinating their activity.
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