Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Rubric "Historical facts, events, phenomena"
Historical facts, events, phenomena
Levshenko M.T. - The Shroud of Turin a Solution is Found: "Solar" Image Formation Mechanism pp. 1-24


Abstract: Discussed in the scientific literature, possible mechanisms of «image» formation on a linen cloth of the Shroud of Turin were considered. It was shown how this «image» on the cloth was formed in a natural way and how much energy did it require. Oil traces of the body imprint on the white cloth which contain particles of myrrh plant ointment and hydrophilic substances from aloe juice, which could fall on the cloth together with the oil from the liniment applied for the body when buried, under the influence of the energy of the southern solar rays, caused oxidation and dehydration of the cellulose fiber of the shroud cloth. This gave the appearance of visible effects of the «image» formation on the cloth.Experimental data of linen cloth heating, on which a handprint (oiled with the liniment) was previously applied, are shown. The results of the heating of such cloth with the light energy of xenon lamp (which is an analogue of solar rays ) have shown that the «image» of the palm consisting of vague yellowish spots without visible borders has come out. This image was caused by a slight darkening of a surface of the cloth fibers.
Butenko Y.N. - The Main Aspects of the Relation Between Vatican and Russia During Pontificate of John Paul II pp. 1-16


Abstract: The second half of the XX century is characterized with the global political transformations and the crisis of ideologies that had been dominating throughout the century. Ideologies were replaced with religion and religion started to play a significant role as never before. One of the main global actors was the Catholic Church represented by Vatican. Vatican gained its status of the global 'moral' leader during the pontificate of John Paul II who took an active part in the life of the global community. During his pontificate that lasted since 1978 till 2005, the Eastern Europe became one of the main targets of the foreign policy followed by the Holy See. Political and religious interest of Vatican in the dialogue with the states of the region was mostly caused by the deepening of the integration processes in Europe and associated ecumenism-related policy of the Pope.  Vatican's political relations with Russia after the breakup of the Soviet Union were in the sidelines while the inter-confessional relations prevailed. Vatican had rather unstable and unsuccessful relations wit the Orthodox Church. The author of the article analyzes the obstacles interfering with the dialogue between the leading Christian churches in Europe. The long-term pontificate of John Paul II made a number of serious changes in the relation between Vatican and Russia. However, a number of issues related to their relation was still left unsolved. 
Loshchilova T.N., Nosova E.S. - Good King Henry: to the history of one myth pp. 1-23


Abstract: The object of this research is the image of Henry IV de Bourbon as the “Good King Henry” that was born in the consciousness of French society in the early XVII century and became one of the elements of the new dynasty’s legitimation process, which substantiated a significant consolidation of the royal power during the country’s recovery from economic, social, political and cultural crisis. The subject of this research is the methods, means and circumstances of forming the concept about the “Good King Henry”. The article examines the pivotal stages in establishment of the image  through the prism of the representation of power. Methodological foundation contains the works of foreign and Russia medievalists aimed at studying the problems of representation of the royal power and “potestary imagology” in the various spheres of political culture. The scientific novelty consist in analyzing the image of the “Good King Henry” from the interdisciplinary perspective. Examination of the representation of power and political symbolism, within the framework of potestary imagology, is a dynamically developing vector in historical science. Of particular interest are the kings who were able to grasp the benefits of public self-representation and role of the images of power for successful governance.
Androsov D.P. - Western German terrorism and mass media in the 1960s-1980: assessments of the Professor Andreas Elter pp. 9-17


Abstract: The subject of this research is the interrelations between the terrorist organization “Red Army Faction” and mass media in the Federative Republic of Germany. Special attention is given to the research in this area conducted by Andreas Elter – German Professor of the University of Cologne. Since the late 1960’s, left wing radical groups of FRG began to actively use mass media to influence the citizens of the republic via self-positioning and self-expression, as well to be a communication channel for delivering their messages. The author analyzes the content of Andreas Elter’s book "Propaganda der Tat. Die RAF und die Medien" and draws conclusions based on the scholar’s reasoning. The author determines and reveals the hidden, but mutually beneficial interconnections, established between the functioning and the principles of operation of mass media as the commercial structures, and the members of “Red Army Faction” terrorist organization in West Germany, who most vividly manifested themselves in 1970’s during the time of the acute political crisis, known as the “German Autumn”.
Panenkov A.A. - Coordination of Mutual Actions of Prosecutor and Head of Administration A. Kadyrov on Anti-Terrorism Effort pp. 17-52


Abstract: In article the author addresses to the period of an active phase of a counter-terrorist operation in the Chechen Republic, focuses attention on features of public prosecutor's activity in extreme conditions. On the basis of personal observations tells about coordination and interaction of the management of prosecutor's office with the First President of the Chechen Republic A.A. Kadyrov in fight against terrorism. Gives the interesting facts which weren't published earlier and wide publicity wasn't given. In the conditions of an aggravation of a situation around Ukraine, terrorist manifestations on its territories, participation of leaders of the organized international terrorist organizations in intensity forcing, demands coherence of actions of all government institutions for repelling possible aggression. The author used the following scientific methods: the analysis of events of a counter-terrorist operation (WHO) studying and supervision of the occurring stages WHO in dynamics the events which are Earlier stated in article weren't published anywhere in the Chechen Republic which participant he was together with other prosecutors. The option of a statement of actions of participants offered by the author allows on new to look at events of an active phase of a counter-terrorist operation, to allocate not only office, but also human character of the relations between the management of prosecutor's office and the Head of administration of the Chechen Republic
Petrov Y.I. - The Problems of the Establishment and Development of the Institution of Assessors in Russia in the Late XIX Century pp. 72-103


Abstract: The article is devoted to the historical background of Nicolay Bunge's tax reform. The author of the article describes particular activities and measures aimed at elimination of the old taxes and introduction of the new taxes that would increase the taxation efficiency, expand the scope of persons paying taxes and change the social composition of taxpayers. The author also analyzes the status of fiscal management in Russia of the late XIX century. He underlines that the tax control was quite weak in those times and this is why the institution of assessors was created. The author describes the process of formation of the institution as a local financial control body. He also analyzes the legal base of activities performed by the new institution and touches upon the changes in its structure as well as the reasons causing these changes. Special attention is paid to human resources at such institutions, education of assessors as well as their service, promotion in rank and incentives. Much emphasis is mae on the question about the process of interaction between assessors and other local executive authorities. The author underlines the peculiar role and great significance of assessors in achieving targets of tax reforms in the late XIX - early XX centuries. 
Belozerova V. - The development of Chinese calligraphic tradition in the works of Huang Qi (1914-2005) pp. 91-99


Abstract: The subject of this research is the creative stylistics of the traditionalist direction in modern Chinese calligraphy. The object of this research is the works of the prominent calligraphist Huang Qi (1914-2005, PRC), who was able to retain the ethical and aesthetic valued of calligraphic tradition through the historical cataclysms of the XX century. The goal of this article consists in the analysis of artistic principles that defined the creative work of Huang Qi, as well as characterizing the peculiarities of writing techniques of the maestro in various scripts. Psychotechnique of his creative process is explained through the traditional task of “nurturing life” (yang sheng). The example of the oeuvres created throughout the last two decades of Huang QI’ life demonstrates how the artistic expressiveness of calligraphy is interpreted and complements the content of the written texts. The picturesque scroll of the maestro are notable for calligraphic technique of arm manipulation and calligraphic structure of the picturesque shape, which corresponds with the fundamental for the Chinese visual art tradition principle of the initial unity of these two arts. The art methodology couples with the methods of semiotics, hermeneutics, and culturological analysis. The scientific novelty of the acquired results consists in examination of works of the remarkable representative of traditionalist direction that is yet insufficiently studies in the Western art history. The author reveals the factors of sustainable development of calligraphic tradition during the era of emergency modernization of China’s cultural space in the last quarter of the XX century, which opens the prospect for reconsideration of the importance of avant-garde directions known in the West.
Babich I.L. - Monastery of the Ascension of David Desert: beginning of journey (XVI XVII centuries) pp. 94-105


Abstract: The subject of this research is the peculiarities of monastery construction in Russia over the period of the XVI – XVII centuries. The object is the history of one of monasteries outside of Moscow – the Ascension of David Desert. This period signified the change in ideological paradigms: the Russian Orthodox ideology, which takes its roots in the history of ancient Byzantium, shifts towards the Western influences and trends. This is also the beginning of monastery colonization of Russia, when in the overall monastery’s decline have emerged many medium-sized monasteries. The goal of this article lies in examination of the questions related to the Russian power (princely and imperial) and monastery construction, as well as the status of Monastery of the Ascension of David Desert, claustral rule, specificities of allodial possessions, establishment and church construction. The works is prepared on the basis of materials from the three archives: Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts, Central State Archive, and archive of documents preserved in the Monastery of the Ascension of David Desert; the method of historical reconstruction was applied for analyzing these materials. The beginning of monastic life in the David Desert along with its establishment during the first two centuries (XVI – XVII) yet remains a little-known part of history, which defines the relevance of this article.
Ryazanov S.M. - Ural police in pursuit of the mythical airplanes during the World War I pp. 159-168


Abstract: The object of this research is the appearance of the phantom enemy flying machines during the World War I, recorded within the significant distance from the area of combat operations. The subject of this research is the activity of Ural police in countering the nonexistent “airplanes”. The author focuses attention on what caused the perception by the authorities, police, and population of “flying machines” as an actual threat to national security, as well as the course of measures aimed at investigating the first-hand accounts and search for “aeronautical stations”. The main conclusion lies in the fact that besides the actual extension of police functions, its resources were sufficiently weakened by fighting the nonexistent airplanes. The scientific novelty is defined by introduction into the scientific discourse of the new sources from the State Archives of Orenburg Region and Perm Region, as well as National Archive of the Republic of Bashkortostan.
Bredikhin V.E. - Regulation of the composition of Komsomol in the late 1930s the early 1940s pp. 186-208


Abstract: The subject of this research is the policy of regulation of the composition of Komsomol during the prewar years as a way of strengthening of social and human resource base of Stalin’s dictatorship. The author examines the peculiarities of the enrollment into the union, as well as the institution of exclusion from Komsomol as the means of increasing of the quality of its composition. In the context of regulation of the composition of Komsomol, the author analyzes the purges of the “Great Terror” period of 1937-1938.  For the first time in the new historiography of the strengthening of the regime of Stalin’s dictatorship, the author analyzes the practice of regulation of the quantitative and qualitative composition of the union in the late 1930’s through the mechanism of inclusion/exclusion of its members. The practice of inclusion of the late 1930’s significantly differed from the preceding period: the majority of the enrolled was comprised not by the labor people, but the students, which contributed into the growth of educational potential of the union. The mass inclusion of the youth produced a well-known negative effect: in form of increase of the portion of passive members, which decreased the organizational-executive quality of the Komsomol as the assistant of the party. The sanction policy in the union primarily supported the government interests, which substantiated the high percentage of exclusion of the Komsomol members based on political grounds.
Gotsulenko A.V. - The role of the national security authorities in the pre-election campaign and elections of the 1937-1938 (based on the Ural region) pp. 209-219


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the activity of the national security authorities of USSR aimed at information awareness of the leadership of the country during the pre-election campaign and elections of the 1937-1938. The author analyzes the normative legal acts of the described period, as well as the archive materials (including the introduced into the scientific discourse for the first time) for the purpose of determination of the main legal moments in the activity of the employees of the law enforcement agencies on implementation of the aforementioned direction of activity. The article raises questions with regards to the correspondence of the certain methods of criminal repressions to the realities of the described period, as well as the increase of the efficiency of law enforcement activity of the government authorities in the 1930’s. The scientific novelty is defined by the introduction into the scientific circulation of the new archive materials, as well as the conducted comparative legal analysis of the normative legal acts, which regulated one of the directions of the national security branches of USSR on protection of the constitutional structure in the 1930’s, and the achieved results.  The author attempted to comprehensively examine large volume of historical and legal sources, be as ideologically unbiased in analyzing these phenomena and processes as possible, and based on that substantiate the conclusions.
Slezin A.A. - Post-congress syndrome in Komsomol pp. 231-239


Abstract:  The subject of this research is the situation inside the nationalized youth union – Komsomol after the XX Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Based on the archive materials and documental publications, the author examines the public moods of the Komsomol members, caused by the “debunking” of N. S. Khrushchev and inconsistency of the actions of party leadership during the congress and shortly after. The relevance of the selected topic is substantiated by a number of circumstances: firstly, the need for a comprehensive study of the experience of formation and specific features of social consciousness of the Soviet youth; secondly, the importance of cognition of the historical role of Komsomol in the process of transformation of public moods of the young generation; thirdly, the pending question on the controversial role of the XX Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union regarding the evolution of political culture of the Soviet society. Komsomol is being viewed as a sociocultural phenomenon. Big importance consists in recognition of the bases of the concept of I. M. Ilyinsky, who emphasized the necessity to form among the young generation the ability to survive, develop and grow spiritually, but not retrograde. The scientific novelty is associated with focusing attention of the manifestations of trends towards diversion from traditionalism at Komsomol sessions and conferences of the late 1950’s. Special attention is turned to an acute reaction of the party and Komsomol leadership upon the originating strive for destruction of Komsomol’s monopoly in the youth movement of the country.  
Sulimin A.N. - Soviet military advisers in North Korea during the Korean War of 1950-1953 pp. 446-457


Abstract: This article examines the role of the Soviet advisers in Korea during the Korean War. In the early 1950’s on the Korean Peninsula emerged the largest after the World War II armed conflict between the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) and the Republic of Korea (South Korea). The Soviet Union positioned itself as a neutral side, however provided the North Korean armed forces with the Russian military advisers. For a long period of time the details of the Soviet participation in the Korean War was classified. The scientific novelty of this work consists in the fact that according to the modern historical researches written based on the declassified archive data, we can determine the details on the participation of the Soviet military advisers on the side of North Korea during the Korean War of 1950-1953. The author emphasizes that a significant contribution into the success of the North Korean armed forces was made by the Soviet ambassadors in Pyongyang, as well as Stalin who was coordinating their activity.
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