Genesis: Historical research - rubric Archeology
Genesis: Historical research
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Mal'chenko O.E. - Acquired Epigraphies on Medieval Gun Barrels pp. 1-60


Abstract: The article is devoted to artillery epigraphies in the XVI - XIX centuries. The author underlines the low information capacity of artillery epigraphies as the primary source of historical data. The author also describes different types of acquired epigraphies depending on the information they contained. The author's classification includes the accounting details, technical specifications, epigraphies when the owner of the weapon was changed (trophy, gift, purchase), descriptive epigraphies and graffiti. The author also gives examples of inscriptions on gun barrels and explains why they were created. For the first time in literature the author introduces the definition of 'gun barrel graffiti'. The author also proves why the term 'graffiti' also applies to illegitimate inscriptions on artillery gan barrels. Gan barrel graffiti is viewed as an informal form of communication of the military community in conflictogenic situations. The author also makes an attemp to create a classification of gan barrel graffiti based on the analysis of inscribed gan barrels from the museums in Eurasia, Northern and Central America. The author critisizes some approaches to studying gan barrel graffiti. Much attention is paid to the 'magical', integrative and spatial functions of gan barrel graffiti. The conclusion is that this type of epigraphy material can be useful for studying the history of artillery based on the anthropocentric approach. 
Stavitsky V.V. - At the Sources of Ethnogenesis of Ancient Mordovians pp. 1-13


Abstract: Article is devoted to studying of background and early stages of ethnogenesis of an ancient mordva. The author analyzes the traditional points of view on process of formation of the Mordovian ethnos. Verification of the autochthonic concept of an origin of a mordva is carried out. Possible specific weight of various groups of the ancient population which took part in its ethnogenesis becomes clear: carriers of gorodetsky, penalty-abyzsky and pyanoborsky cultures, vostochnobaltskikh of tribes and Sarmatians. The question of the possible reason of their migrations on the territory of Sursko-Oksky Entre Rios is brought up. The main stages and chronology of ethnogenesis of a mordva are considered. The methodology of research is based on the analysis of archaeological sources: burial grounds, settlements and ancient settlements. At interpretation of data of archeology data on linguistics and written sources are used. In article the conclusion that the population of gorodetsky culture, contrary to the traditional point of view didn't play a noticeable role formation of the Mordovian ethnos is drawn. Addition of an ancient mordva results from population shift of pyanoborsky and penalty-abyzsky cultures from the territory of the left-bank basin of the river. Béla. It is possible that vostochnobaltsky tribes also took part in ethnogenesis of Mordivians.
Grigorev A. - Forts as a class of defensive structures on the example of fortifications of the distant Chersonese Hora pp. 1-20


Abstract: The article examines the monuments of ancient fortification, which historically belonged to the distant choir of the Chersonese state since the second half of the IV century BC. Urban and rural settlements with various defensive structures stand out among them. This circumstance is connected with the wide territorial expansion of Chersonesos on the territory of the North-Western Crimea. To date, the interpretation of some monuments remains controversial due to the lack of a thorough analysis of the functions of certain structures and planning structures of fortified settlements. In addition, the role of the fortified settlements of the far Khora of the Chersonese state in the development of vast territories of the Northwestern Crimea remains controversial. The main objective of this study is to examine ancient fortifications from the point of view of the existing archaeological classification and written sources. To correlate the Chersonese fortifications with the existing sections of the archaeological classification, in particular with the concept of "fort", an analysis of defensive functions is used, which, in turn, are manifested in architectural planning solutions and military tactical techniques provided by ancient architects, which we can observe in architectural remains. Based on the results of the study, the author suggests the most versatile integrated approach to the analysis of architectural structures, which opens up opportunities for new historical reconstructions of the defense system of the Hora.
Akhatov A.T. - Old Ivanovskoe cemetery of Ufa: historical-archaeological research pp. 1-17


Abstract: The subject of this article is the Old Ivanovskoe cemetery that existed in the territory of Ufa. The goal consists in examination of the key stages in development of this necropolis since the moment was sketched in the city plan in 1819 until its complete destruction in the 1950s. Special attention is given to localization of this burial ground in Ufa town planning patter in accordance with the data of cartographic materials of the XIX – middle of the XX centuries, and history of its archaeological research conducted in 1990 and 2002. The novelty of this work consists in introduction into the scientific discourse of new archival documents, systematization of cartographic and published materials on the history of Old Ivanovskoe cemetery, as well as Ioanno-Predtechensky Cathedral that functioned on its territory. Analysis of the existing sources and literature allow concluding that the history of necropolis prior to the Revolution of 1917 was closely related to the development of spatial structure of Ufa, while after the Revolution – with the sociopolitical processes that unfolded throughout the country. Thanks to archaeological research, Old Ivanovskoye cemetery, even after its destruction, elaborates representations on the material and spiritual culture, anthropological and paleopathological characteristics of the Ufa population in the past. Therefore, the author raises the question on the need to publish the materials acquired during the excavations in full, and preserve necropolis as the object of archaeological heritage of the Late Middle Ages and Modern Age.
Astashova N. - The peculiarities of Anatolian pottery: based on the materials from excavation of the Panticapaeum pp. 8-15


Abstract: The subject of this research is the painted pottery of Central Anatolia. This category of archeological materials was determined fairly recently among the findings discovered during the excavation of the city of Panticapaeum. The majority of fragments, in accordance with the opinion of the leader of the Bosporan (Panticapaeum) archeological expedition V. P. Tolstikov, refer to the time foundation of the apoikia (late VII – early VI century BC); and therefore, the found samples of Anatolian pottery belong to the late Iron Age of Anatolia. The formal-stylistic analysis demonstrated that this group has a number of characteristic features: technological (color and composition of clay; glazing the surface), morphological (atypical for the archaic Greek pottery form of vessels), and purely stylistic. Among the latter, the author notes the common for the Phrygian pottery polychrome painting over the layer of white primer, as well as monochrome and bichrome painting with matt ink, typical for the cultures of central regions of Anatolia. This category of archeological materials is practically unknown artifact of the Northern Black Sea Region, and thus the topic of the peculiarities of Anatolian pottery remains relevant. The main goal of this work is to familiarize a wide range of experts, especially archeologists, working in the field, with the new type of pottery.
Nikolaev E.N. - New materials on ferrous metallurgy of Yakuts in the XV-XVII centuries pp. 16-23


Abstract: This article contains the materials of excavations of the metallurgy production sites. Records of iron smelting were discovered in the territory of 2nd Zhemkonsky Nasleg of Khangalassky District of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia). The explored objects represent a set of smelters for bloomery process. During the field season of 2017, the indicated objects were explored by the archeological expedition of Institute of Humanitarian Research and Indigenous Peoples of the North of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Three metallurgical complexes that contained smelting furnace and slag wastes were inspected. Methodological foundation contains theoretical insights into the research of the traditional economic and cultural complexes and industrial arts, based on the general scientific principles of historicism, systematicity and scientific objectivity. The scientific novelty consists in closing the existing historiographical gap, associated with insufficiency of target-oriented research of metallurgical production of Yakutia. The author describes the defining characteristics of the explored metallurgical furnaces, as well as provides the schematic reconstruction. Based on radiocarbon dating of samples, the time of existence of smelter constructs was determined. The acquired data allow concluding that the ancient metallurgies of Yakutia in the XV-XVII centuries used the small adobe furnaces with stone facing, built inside the piled elevation.
Baitileu D.A., Ankushev M.N. - To the question of raw material sources of mining and smelting centers of the Paleometal Epoch in Central Kazakhstan pp. 19-27


Abstract: The subject of this research is the copper deposits, copper-ore resource, and sources of alloying raw materials for mining and smelting production of the Paleometal Epoch in Central Kazakhstan, namely within the Kazakhstan mining and smelting region and Zhezkazgan-Ulytau mining and smelting center. The article provides the interim results of comprehensive research of geoarchaeological production facilities in the territory of copper deposits within the Zhezkazgan-Ulytau mining and smelting center, which allow determining the peculiarities of metallogenic complexes that used to be potential objects of the development of copper-ore reserves during the establishment of copper metallurgy, as well as making a predictive assessment of mineral raw materials potential of the region. The initial premise of this research lies in the authors' pursuit to integrate natural scientific methods of research into the field of humanities to the maximum effect via studying smelting slags and ore relics from the ancient settlements of the region for the purpose of reconstructing the mining and smelting process of the Bronze Age in Central Kazakhstan. The authors offer the variants of localization of the mineral raw materials complex of Zhezkazgan-Ulytau mining and smelting center within the Kazakhstan mining and smelting region. Based on examination of the ores and smelting slags of Bronze Age settlements in Central Kazakhstan, the authors believe that the main copper raw materials in the Zhezkazgan-Ulytau region were the oxidized malachite-azurite and rich sulfide ores, as well as the zones of secondary sulfide enrichment of copper sandstones of the Zhezkazgan ore region. The conducted research allow to get closer to establishing patterns of localization of various types of copper deposits and development of copper-ore resources for mining and smelting production of Zhezkazgan-Ulytau region during the Paleometal Epoch.
Samashev Z., Chotbaev A.E., Kurganov N.S., Pankin D.V., Povolotskaya A.V., Kurochkin A.V., Kitov E.P., Kitova A.O. - Natural scientific methods in exploration of reference monuments of the Saka Culture in Kazakh Altai pp. 21-31


Abstract: This article explores the ancient gold jewelry with inlay, which were discovered in the process of archeological studies conducted in Summer 2018 of grave complexes located on the Eleke Sazy Plateau, Tarbagatay Ridge in East Kazakhstan Region in the burial of a young man belonging to aristocratic ancestry. It refers to the Saka culture, and dates back to approximately VIII-VII centuries BC. Among the discovered objects were garments embroidered with gold, quiver with arrows, and a bronze dagger in gold scabbard. This work studied the golden scabbard for dagger. The scabbard consists of several parts attached to a wooden base and decorated with granulation and inlay. In many cases, only traces of inlay remain. Some gems changed in color in the process of degradation, and currently look grey. Micro-samples for the research were selected from the crumbling fragments of inlay obtained in the process of restoration of the item. Modern natural scientific methods allow studying the material component of the objects of cultural heritage. The identification procedure is now available even based on the remaining particles with characteristic sizes that do not exceed tens of microns. Within the framework this research, the author examined the possibility of selecting such micro-samples with subsequent identification. Application of the Raman spectroscopic technique allowed examining the selected micro-samples on the next stage. The complementary methods imply Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy for studying organic substances the inlay was attached to.
Akhatov A.T. - Factors of cultural genesis in the Southern Urals in the Late Middle Ages and Modern Times (based on archaeological materials of the Republic of Bashkortostan) pp. 34-42



Abstract: The object of the study is cultural genesis in the Southern Urals in the Late Middle Ages and Modern Times. The subject of the study is the factors influencing its development, which are considered through the prism of studying the archaeological material obtained during reconnaissance work on the monuments of the XVI early XX centuries. This problem was not the object of special study. At the same time, its solution, on the one hand, fills in the gaps in the analysis of the processes of cultural genesis in the region as a whole, and on the other hand, contributes to the study of the peculiarities of the ethnocultural development of individual ethnic groups living here in the past. The theoretical basis of the research is the researches of Russian scientists in the field of cultural genesis, containing conceptual and theoretical developments. The information base of the study was the factual material on the problem under study, obtained during archaeological research on the territory of the Republic of Bashkortostan, including by the author himself, interdisciplinary and systematic approaches were used in the work for a comprehensive analysis of the designated problem, theoretical modeling, generalization, comparative historical, comparative typological methods were also used in the work. The scientific novelty of the study is due to the fact that for the first time the factors of cultural development in the Southern Urals in the Late Middle Ages and Modern Times were systematized and analyzed, which were considered in the context of the archaeological direction of cultural genesis research. It was revealed that the development of culture in the Southern Urals in the XVI early XX centuries was influenced by both external (natural-geographical, anthropogenic, colonization, etc.) and internal (ethnic, religious, etc.) factors, which are recorded to varying degrees by the cultural layers of urban and rural settlements, fortifications and factories, cemeteries , etc. At the same time, speaking about the factors of cultural genesis, it should be borne in mind that they are so closely interrelated that it is often difficult to determine whether a change in culture is the result of the influence of one or another factor or several at the same time.
Antonov I.V. - Bashkir-Berkut burials in the Historical and cultural heritage of Bashkortostan: on the question of the ethnicity of burials in the decks pp. 42-53


Abstract: The object of the study is the burials in the decks of medieval nomads of the Eurasian steppes. Only eight such burials are known in Bashkortostan. The subject of the study is the Bashkir-Berkut burial ground in the Kugarchinsky district. The author examines in detail such aspects of the topic as the funeral rite, inventory, dating. The monument was investigated by N. A. Mazhitov: in 1968 two earthen mounds containing one burial in a wooden block with the orientation of a person with his head to the west were opened, in 1969 another earthen mound containing a similar burial with the orientation of a person with his head to the northeast was opened. All three burials with belongings did not contain horse bones. The monument dates from the second half of the XIII first half of the XIV century. Special attention is paid to the wide distribution of burials in decks among the Turkic and Mongolian tribes of Southern Siberia of the late I early and middle II millenniums. A special contribution of the author to the study of the topic is the conclusion that according to all the main features of the funeral rite and clothing inventory, the Bashkir-Berkut mounds are close to the mounds of the Kipchaks of the Middle Irtysh region of the XI-XII centuries. The novelty of the research lies in establishing the connection of the Bashkir-Berkut burial ground with the Polovtsian tribe of Turkic-Mongolian origin Toksaba. The burial ground is located in the area of settlement of the southern group of Kipchak clans as part of the Bashkirs, the basis of this group is the Kara-Kipchak clan, dating back to the Toksobichi, whose horde in the XII century roamed the steppes between the Volga and the Dnieper, and in the XIII century entered into an alliance with the Mongols. The resettlement of the Kipchaks from the right to the left bank of the Volga is reported by Shezhere, legends and legends of the Bashkirs. The migration of the Polovtsians to the Southern Urals could be connected with the return of the Mongols from the campaign to Europe and the suppression of the uprising of local peoples.
Chotbaev A.E. - Preliminary results of archaeological research of monuments of the Kazakh Altai in 2020 pp. 55-66


Abstract: Archaeological research in the context of scientific understanding was carried out in the region in pre-revolutionary times and continues to this day. As a result of research conducted for the third century, we have a rich source base of archaeological material and solid literature devoted to various aspects of the life of the ancient population of the region. The first research here began in 1960 by the South Altai Archaeological expedition. S. S. Sorokin conducted reconnaissance work along the Bukhtarma from Katon-Karagai to the Kurtu River, as a result of which 15 monuments were discovered, one of which is the Kurtu burial ground. After S. S. Sorokin 's research , work on the monument stopped and only half a century later they were resumed in 2019 .       One of the results of the conducted research is the clarification of the topo-landscape situation of the Tautekeli necropolis, as a result, we were able to reasonably divide the Kurtu necropolis previously studied by S.S. Sorokin, which included the Tautekeli group. Also, the historical name of the Salt–belki necropolis - Topkayyn was introduced into scientific circulation. Until today, archaeological science has known that the Topkayyn and Tautekeli burial grounds consist only of funeral and memorial complexes of the beginning of the formation of the nomadic era, i.e. the Early Saka time. As a result of archaeological research on these monuments, materials have been obtained that, in chronological terms, relate to the transitional time from the Mayemer period to the Pazyryk period. In general, unique materials have been obtained, in which various knowledge about the funeral rite of the population is hidden, important among them are the subject complex consisting of a complex of weapons and horse equipment, as well as the burial of the horses themselves.
Kolonskikh A.G. - Medieval materials of the Ufa-III hillfort (based on excavations conducted by M. H. Sadykova in 1969) pp. 72-83


Abstract: This article represents a publication of materials of the stationary excavations of Ufa-III hillfort conducted by M. H. Sadykova in 1969. The object of this research is the ceramic collection of the monument, referred to the early Middle Ages. Special attention is given to the history of examination of the monument, as well as its localization. The article uses the currently available information about the Ufa-III hillfort, based in which the author attempts to identify the lifetime of the monument, cultural attribution of materials of the medieval layer of the hillfort, as well as its role within the structure of synchronic monuments of the Ufa Peninsula. The typology of ceramic series of the indicated object is carried out on the basis of morphological peculiarities of the jars, variety of ornamental compositions, as well as the structure of puddle clay. The Ufa-III hillfort is located in the historical center of modern metropolis, and this is why it has been almost completely destroyed by dense urban development. The monument was discovered in the middle of the XX century; however, there is still not a single publication of its materials. Therefore, the generalization and introduction of the data from stationary excavations of M. H. Sadykova into the scientific discourse is a relevant objective of this research.
Syrovatskiy V.V. - Burial of Vladimirovka (XVII century): a new monument with secondary burial rite in Central Yakutia pp. 77-83


Abstract: The object of this research is the Yakut burial rite of the XVII century. The subject of this research is the ritually disturbed burials of Yakuts. The article presents a detailed review of the types of ritually disturbed burials. The author makes an attempt of interpretation of the materials of earthen burial of Vladimirovka, explored in the course of fieldwork of Srednelensky archeological expedition crew from the Institute for Humanities Research and Indigenous Studies of the North of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences within the limits of Yakutsk. This burial is referred to one of the types of ritually disturbed gravesites, namely secondary burial, which was widespread during the Late Middle Ages in Yakutia. The archeological data is compared to the ethnographic records, historical sources and natural scientific methods. The scientific novelty lies in the fact that the rite of secondary burial is rarely reflected in the archeological materials and is rather considered as deviation. Moreover, the use of natural scientific methods of age determination allows identifying the specifics of burial rite and help in further dating of other monuments with similar features. The author puts forward a hypothesis on secondary burial on the monument, related to the changes in traditional beliefs of the people due to arrival of Russian population in the XVII century. Special attention is given to determination of social status of the buried based on the comparison with the existing data on burial rites of the Yakuts.
Antonov I.V. - Chiyalik culture and the Golden Horde pp. 82-94


Abstract: The object of this research is the interaction of the forest and forest-steppe habitat of Eastern Europe during the Golden Horde. The subject of this research is the interaction of the Chiyalik culture, formed in the forest-steppe zone of Volga-Ural region and the Golden Horde culture formed in the steppe zone of Western Eurasia. The monuments of Chiyalik culture – subsoil burial grounds and ancient settlements – are located in the valleys of the Rivers Kama, Belaya, Ika, Dema, Chermasan, Suni and other rivers in the eastern parts of modern Tatarstan and northwestern parts of the modern Bashkortostan, dating back from XII–XIV centuries. The bearers of Chiyalik culture were Ugric by origin, who have undergone Turkization and Islamization. The article explores the narrative sources that contain records on the relations between Uralic Ugric Peoples and Mongols, archaeological data on the objects of the Golden Horde import found on the monuments of Chiyalik culture. Special attention is given to the comparative analysis of narrative sources and archaeological data on the problem of interaction of Chiyalik culture and the Golden Horde as the synchronous historical phenomena. Narrative sources indicate the conquest of the territory of Chiyalik culture by the Mongols, tribute and labor conscriptions carried out by the local population in favor of the conquerors. The objects of the Golden Horde were detected on the settlement monuments: silver earrings and coins were found in Ufa-II settlement; copper coins were found in Iske–aul settlement; pottery and copper coins were found in Podymalovo-I settlement. Silver Golden Horde coins were found in the Taktalachuk and Azmetyevsky burial grounds. The author’s special contribution to this research lies in the conclusion that the paucity of findings is explained by the absence of large settlements, and the Muslim funeral rite. The novelty consists in establishment of the fact of the unilateral impact of the Golden Horde culture upon the Chiyalik culture: in exchange for the items of the Golden Horde import, were exported the raw materials, items of cattle breeding, hunting and beekeeping.
Pererva E.V., Kapinus Y.O. - Injuries among the population of timber-grave time of Volga Region (based on anthropological materials of III and IV Krasnosamarsky gravesites) pp. 98-108


Abstract:   The bone relics of 103 individuals from the burial sites Krasnosamarsky III and IV served as the material for this research. Archeological complexes Krasnosamarsky III and IV are located in territory of Kinelsky municipal districts of Samara Region. The explored bone relics belong to the timber-grave culture of Bronze Age; out of 103 individuals, there were 21 skeletons of men, 15 of women, 63 of children and 3 of teenagers. In the course of working with anthropological material, the authors applied the standard program for assessing pathological occurrences on the bones of postcranial skeleton and skull, developed by A. P. Buzhilova (1995, 1998). The injury rate among the population buried in the mounds of III and IV Krasnosamarsky gravesites was factored by frequency of the records of injuries on the skull and bones of postcranial skeleton. Usage of the method of recording pathologies on the human bone relics, as the foundation for conducting reconstruction of lifestyle of the ancient societies, gains population in the modern historical and biological science in Russia and abroad. Most frequently identified pathologies in exploring anthropological collections are injuries and deformations of different etiology on the scull, dentition, and bones of postcranial skeleton. The goal of this research consists in the analysis and assessment of the nature of injuries discovered in the bone relics of population buried in the mounds of III and IV Krasnosamarsky gravesites, dating back to the Late Bronze Age  
Petrov D.M. - Tumuli of the Basin of Vilyuy River: little known artifacts of funeral rites of the Yakuts in the XVII early XX centuries pp. 102-111


Abstract: The goal of this research is to confirm the existence of tumuli tradition in funeral rites of the Yakuts. The subject of this article is the funeral rites of the Yakuts; the object is the timuli discovered in the Basin of Vilyuy River in Western Yakutia during the field archeological excavations of various years. The author steps back in history of the topic under consideration, describes the constructive peculiarities of the Yakut tumuli, reviews the gender-age and social components of the burials. The chronological framework of the study are substantiated by the dating of the discovered archeological artifacts. It is assumed that the examination of such types of artifacts will play a significant role in conducting of ethnocultural reconstructions. The research method is based on the analysis and generalization of archeological data, archival materials and scientific literature. The scientific novelty consists in articulation of problem regarding the existence of tumuli tradition among the Yakut people in the past. This article is first to introduce into the scientific discourse the materials on the topic acquired during the field archeological excavations in the Basin of Vilyuy River. Having analyzes the archeological data, archival materials and scientific literature, the author concludes on the presence of the practice of tumuli in funeral rites of the Yakuts during the XVII – early XX centuries. The existence of such practice in the culture of Vilyuyan Yakuts is determines as a part of their ethno-local specificity.
Bekseitov G.T., Tulegenov T.Z., Ivanov S.S., Kitov E.P., Kitova A.O. - Exploration of the Rahat tomb of the Semirechye from the early Iron Age pp. 108-123


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the research published on the Rakhat tomb excavation in the Semirechye territory (the Republic of Kazakhstan). The authors published the burials that refer to the era of early nomads. In the course of excavations was acquired interesting material about the burial traditions and partly the material culture of ancient population of the region over early Iron Age and Medieval Period. The majority of burial mounds in this necropolis belongs to the Saka culture. The authors also determined the inlet burial referring to early Middle Ages. The research is based on the archeological reconnaissance of burial mounds, as well as analysis of the acquired artefacts. The authors collected paleoanthropological material, which allowed receiving additional information on craniology, osteology and pathologies of the ancient population of Semirechye of the period of early nomads. The rare subjects of auxiliary inventory, such as ceramic dishware and households items, allowed determining the chronological framework of the examined burial mounds of the late V – early II centuries BC and refer them to the typical Saka culture.
Bravina R., Prokopeva A.N., Petrov D.M., Syrovatskiy V.V. - Cremation rites At Batyran III and Kuuduk III in Erkeeni Valley of the upper Lena River (XIV XVIII centuries) pp. 109-123


Abstract: The traditional Yakut culture preserved the rituals rooted in the Ancient Turkic era of Southern Siberia. Particular interest arouses the burial rite of Yakut people, among which was cremation of the deceased. In legends, this ritual is associated to the ancient tribe Kyrgys that lived well ahead of the arrival of the ancestors of Yakut people to the middle Lena River – Omogoya and Ellyaya. Noteworthy is that accordant to the Chinese manuscripts, this ritual is also known among ancient Turkic and Yenisei Kyrgyz people. Records on the existence of isolated instances of cremation of the deceased among Yakut people of the northern suburbs occur all the way until ethnographic modernity. The article applies the authentic historical sources, as well as the interdisciplinary research data in the field of forensic medicine, ethnography and folklore, which allow examining the materials on both, historiographical and interpretational levels. The goal of this work lies in the description and analysis of cremation rite and burial objects At Batyran III and Kuuduk III in the XIV – XVIII centuries, discovered and explored in one of the three valleys of middle Lena River – Erkeeni. The author assumes that at the end of first millennium AD, some part of Yenisei Kyrgyz people arrived to the territories of Lena River, and having gradually adjusted to the local environment, became a part of the forming Yakut nation.
Orfinskaya O.V., Zozulya S.S. - Spun, knit and woven textiles from the archeological site Bolshoe Timerevo in collection of the State Historical Museum pp. 118-135


Abstract: The object of this research is the archeological materials obtained in excavation of the burial site Bolshoe Timerevo in different years and preserved in collections of the State Historical Museum. The subject of this research is the spun, knit, and woven textiles. Approximately 14 out of 472 kurgans excavated in the necropolis during the period from 1872 to 1990 contained textile items. The assortment is quite wide – the strings of the scale, fragments of costume, elements of trimming of collars and outwear sleeves. This study employs methodology development in the Center for Studying Historical and Traditional Technologies of the Scientific Research Institute for Cultural and Natural Heritage named after Dmitry Likhachev under the authority of Ph.D. in Biological Science V. P. Golikov. The description of results was conducted in accordance with standard scheme of requirements of the International Textile Center CIETA. The structure of textile materials and characteristics of threads was determined via microscopic methods in reflected unnpolarized light. For detection of the nature of textile materials, as well as the level of contamination and damage of fibers was applied the method of microscopy in translucent polarized light. The majority of fabrics and their décor elements from the archeological site Bolshoe Timerevo finds a wide variety of analogies on the territory of Western Europe and Scandinavia of the Viking Age. As a result of the conducted research, the textiles made out of plant, wool and silk fibers were discovered. The author also recorded the unique combination of woven textiles.
Orfinskaya O.V. - From Egypt to China: methodological approach towards preservation of a special object of heritage the historical textile technologies pp. 121-138


Abstract: The subject of this research is the methodological approach aimed at preservation of archeological textile, which is an extremely fragile material and require delicate care. It is insufficient just to find textile, but it needs to be preserved throughout the entire chain – from the area of finding to sending over to restoration. Information that can be obtained as a result of further research is comprehensive: textile itself, costume, trade relations, development level of textile technologies in a particular society. The article reveals a chain of actions that must be acknowledged by an archeologist not to miss the archeological textile. The main conclusion consists in the statement that an archeologists must be prepared for finding textile, possess certain skill for its proper extraction, packaging and delivering to the nearest scientific and restoration laboratory. The author demonstrates which information can be lost at each state in an archeologist lacks knowledge on the subject matter.
Orfinskaya O.V., Chutkina S.S., Titova L.A. - Studies of pre-Mongolian embroidery based on archaeological excavations of 1966 1974 years in the city of Staraya Russa of Novgorod Region pp. 127-143


Abstract: The subject of this research is the archeological textile material (XVII – XV centuries) discovered during the 1966 – 1974 archeological excavations in the city of Staraya Russa, which is divided into four compositions and stored in Novgorod open-air museum for over 30 years, and later, due to the unsatisfactory condition, has undergone restoration and exploration. The main goal of this research lies in determination of a number of the survived textile products, identification of the nature of fabrics, as well as the connection between the preserved artifacts – narrow golden ribbon and fragments of embroidery, which were earlier considered as part of the collar (necklace). It was established the most likely that origin of the golden ribbons is Mediterranean; the used fabrics has a distinct dense texture, and was brought from, perhaps, Byzantine Empire, as an expensive goods. All of the golden threads in the samples had identical characteristic (thin, with dense golden strip winding), which allowed suggesting that the ribbons alongside the finished embroidery “has come” from the same place.
Ataev G.D., Malashev V.Y., Saipudinov M.S. - Burials of the Late Middle and Early Late Bronze Age Burial Mound No. 1 of the Gudermess Burial Mounds No. 1 pp. 131-148



Abstract: The article is devoted to the burials of the late Middle and early Late Bronze Age burial mound No. 1 of the Gudermes Burial Mounds No. 1, excavated in 2017. Burials in the mound belong to three cultural and chronological groups. The earliest is burial No. 18 of the late stage of the Maikop culture. The main group is the entrance burials of the early stage of the Middle Bronze Age. The burials of the late Middle and early Late Bronze Age considered in the article are let into the eastern and southern sectors of the mound, sometimes with the disassembly of the shell stones. They are committed in a strongly crouched position. In the inventory of late burials, as well as in the funeral rite, there are features characteristic of burials of the early stage of the Middle Bronze Age belonging to the North Caucasian culture, and for the inventory of monuments of the Kayakent-Khorochoy culture of Eastern Chechnya and Dagestan. Sporadically, they also penetrate into the territory of Eastern Chechnya and Northern Dagestan. The newcomer North Caucasian population played a significant role in the ethno-cultural processes on the territory of the North-Eastern Caucasus, but later in the second quarter of the II millennium BC. differences between individual population groups disappear as a result of assimilation of alien tribes by local ones. gradually, signs of a new Kayakent-Khorochoy culture are beginning to mature, as evidenced by the funeral rite and inventory of the monument under consideration.
Turova N. - Clay figurine of an owl of the Lower Pritobolye pp. 133-146


Abstract: The object of this research is the clay figurine of an owl discovered in the course of archaeological excavations in the Yurtobor 9 hillfort on the right bank of the Tobol River. The goal lies in introduction of in the scientific discourse of the new unique sample of small clay plastic, as well as in preliminary determination of the functional purpose of the item. The following tasks were set: morphological and stylistic description of the item; description of the context of discovery of the figurine; establishment of the chronological framework of existence of the item, its cultural affiliation; familiarization with the history of studying the regional clay figurines in the Russian archaeological science; search for analogies in the archaeological sites of Siberia and other territories; assessment of the semantic connotation of the image of an owl in the traditional culture of Ob Ugrians (Khanty and Mansi). To article employs the traditional methods, such as comparative-historical, typological, comparative-typological, formal-stylistic, semantic methods, as well as method of analogies. As a result of the conducted research, the clay figurine of an owl is attributed to the Yudinskaya archaeological culture and dated within the framework of the XI – XII centuries. It is established that it is the only item in Western Siberian region depicting a bird in the technique of small clay plastic. Based on the analysis of ethnographic literature and medieval archaeological finds, it is established that for a long period of time, the image of an owl had positive semantic connotation due to its high sacred status. The author assumes on the use of figurine of an owl in religious rites associated with hearth and home.
Pashkova A.Y. - On the History of Religious Cults of Pisidia: rock votive reliefs pp. 134-145



Abstract: This article examines a group of religious images, namely votive reliefs carved in rocks, discovered during field research in Pisidia, through the prism of the collective memory of religious cults. Our goal is, on the one hand, to better understand their significance in the local cult, and on the other hand, to consider some ways of perceiving and studying such reliefs over time. The object of consideration in this article will be the rock votive reliefs of Pisidia, which will clarify some aspects of the evolution of religious cults of Pisidia in connection with its history, starting from Hellenistic and ending with Roman times. Religious cults are a topic of great importance for researchers who study ancient religion and history, as well as engage in archaeological excavations. Each of the components of this problem acts as a useful basis for conducting research, but in the process of their joint consideration, they become a powerful tool for understanding the human relationship with the divine. Based on the study of rock votive reliefs, it can be concluded that the functions possessed by the cult and ritual practices of Roman Pisidia were directly related to the audience. These functions inevitably changed over time and could be interpreted differently by different people or even by the same people in different cases.
Adamov A.A., Turova N. - Potchevashsky ceramic complex from the Dolgovskoye 1 settlement (based on the materials of the 1997 excavations) pp. 142-154



Abstract: The object of the study was a representative collection of ceramic vessels (324 specimens) of the Potchevash culture of the VIIX centuries, obtained during archaeological research in 1997 at the Dolgovskoye 1 settlement in the Tobolsk Irtysh region. The purpose of the study: to determine the main morphological and decorative features of the ceramic complex of the Potchevash culture based on the materials of the collection of the Dolgovskoye 1 settlement, to determine the place of the ceramic complex of the settlement in the system of archaeological cultures of Western Siberia. Based on the purpose of the study, the following tasks were put forward: characterization of the main morphological, decorative and stylistic characteristics of the ceramic collection; comparison with the materials of synchronous monuments of adjacent territories, determination of the degree of their similarities and differences. The relevance of the work is determined by the small number of publications in which statistical calculations on Potchevash ceramics are given. To solve the tasks set in the work, traditional research methods are used for historical science: comparative-historical, typological, comparative-typological, formal-stylistic, descriptive method of analyzing material sources, the method of analogies. As a result of the study, it was found that the dominant features of the studied complex include the numerical predominance of pot-shaped vessels with a high neck and a sharp transition to a slightly expanded body; the ornamentation is characterized by a combination of dimpled pearl decor, combed stamp and horizontal drawn grooves, as well as a small proportion of curly stamps. A comparative analysis showed the proximity of the ceramics of the Dolgovskoye 1 settlement with the collections of a number of Potchevash monuments of the South Taiga Irtysh region and the Barabinsk forest-steppe, as well as its significant difference from both the Potchevash ceramic complexes from the Priishimye region and ceramics from the monuments of the Zelenogorsky stage from the Surgut Ob region. A certain similarity with the ceramics of the Kuchiminsky stage, which is expressed in the rare use of figured stamps, a large proportion of grooves, fixed on ceramics from the 1997 excavation from the Dolgovskoye 1 settlement, allows us to suggest its synchronicity with the Kuchiminskaya and date it within the VIIIIX centuries AD.
Tabarev A., Gladyshev S. - Microcleavage in the complexes of early Upper Paleolithic of Northern Mongolia pp. 144-154


Abstract: The subject of this research is the technology of microcleavage in the complexes of early Upper Paleolithic of Northern Mongolia. Microcleavage implies that the assemblage of stone artefacts associates with the procedure on manufacturing small-size blanks – microliths. Such combination contains micronucleuses, specially prepared cores for preparation of microliths. It is not the depleted nucleuses, but a particular independent group of the cores, which can be justifiable called micronucleuses. Moreover, microcleavage also includes microliths and their fragments. There have not been found any tools made out of microliths in the materials of the explored complexes. The research applies the traditional to archeological studies methodology: technical-typological and morphological analysis of stone inventory belonging to microcleavage of micronucleuses and microliths. Until present time, microcleavage has not been examined as an independent direction of development of stone processing technology in the early Upper Paleolithic of the eastern part of Central Asia. This is the first attempt on the example of the materials of Northern Mongolia to trace the facts of existence of microcleavage already at early stages of Upper Paleolithic (37,000 to 27,000 years ago).
Kulakov V.I. - Prussian belts of the time of Teutonic Order pp. 147-158


Abstract: The subject of this research is the Prussian belts of the early Medieval era. As demonstrated by the archeological data of the Southeastern Baltics, the Prussian belts of the XIII-XIV centuries were either of local origin (buckles – derivations from the Central European manufactures) or created by the example of Teutonic Order. The latter, in turn, could have the square-shape cover plates with the cross, which were borrowed by the Teutonic jewelers from the ancient population of modern Latvia. The presences of imitations of chivalric belts in burials of the Prussian nobles does not mean the acceptance of knighthood. The research is carried out by determination of the unique elements of these belts and comparison with other belts, as well as creation of a dynamic picture of development of this construct and details of Prussian belts in the Teutonic time. Until the present time, Prussian belts were not subjected to special examination in Europe. This article is the first experience of introducing into the scientific discourse of the unique discoveries, represented by the Prussian belts of Teutonic Order.
Nikolaev E.N. - Kuogastaakh: a new landmark of iron-smelting production in Tyung River Valley of Verkhnevilyuysk district of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) pp. 181-190


Abstract: The subject of this study is the metallurgy of the Yakuts. The article provides the research results of iron-making factory, discovered during the survey of slag clusters in Kentinsky Nasleg of Verkhnevilyuysky District of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia). Kentinsky Nasleg is considered one of the centers of the traditional Yakut metallurgy and blacksmithing. Accessible sources of crude ore and lumber contributed to the formation of the unique center of metallurgy, which products were widely known far beyond it. Attention is given to the various aspects of iron production. Metallurgy of the Yakuts is viewed from the perspective of ethnoarcheology. Archeological testimonies are compared to ethnographic data and historical records on iron production. The scientific novelty lies in the fact that this article is dedicated to virtually unstudied topic such as iron-making industry of the Yakuts, The new sources on the subject are introduced into the scientific discourse; their comprehensive analysis is conducted. Based on the used archeological, ethnographic and historical sources, the author attempts to interpret the testimonies of iron-making industry discovered in Kuogastaakh locality of Verkhnevilyuysky District of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia).
Danilov P.G. - Cultural layer of the city of Tobolsk as the object of cultural heritage pp. 189-197


Abstract: The subject of this research is the state protection and use of the archaeological monument “Cultural layer of the city of Tobolsk”. The article examines the need for preservation of sites that are of historical and cultural value in the modern conditions of the development of urban infrastructure on the example of Tobolsk. The goal of this article lies in studying the question of conservation of archaeological heritage of Tobolsk within the framework of the current federal legislation. Longstanding archaeological excavations in Tobolsk indicate that its cultural layer is well preserved and saturated with the remnants of structures and artifacts of different historical periods. For solution of the set tasks, the author employs the research methods traditional for historical science: descriptive, comparative-historical, historical-systemic, historical-legal, and method of analogies. The archaeological monument “Cultural layer of the city of Tobolsk” presently has the status of the “discovered site of cultural heritage”. The scientific novelty lies in the fact that based on the analysis of current situation, the question is raised on the problem of conservation of archaeological heritage of the city of Tobolsk. The conclusion is made on the need for the measures of state protection of the archaeological monument “Cultural layer of the city of Tobolsk”, which implies submitting a request to the federal body for the protection of cultural heritage sites to include the object into the single state register as the site of cultural heritage of regional or federal importance.
Yachmenev O.Y., Vlasenko D.E., Garmaeva A.V., Vikulova N.O. - Rock art of Titovskaya Sopka: the results of the latest research pp. 190-208



Abstract: The article presents the results of field work carried out in 2022-2023, during which the rock art monuments of the Titovskaya hill were reexamined - Sokhatinyi Kamen, Sukhotino13 and Titovskaya Hill, presumably dating from the II millennium BC. The first millennium A.D. A new pisanitsa Gorge was discovered with two groups represented by images of lines and a zoomorphic figure. Much attention is paid by the authors to the recently discovered groups with ancient images on the planes of the Sokhatina Stone and Sukhotino-13, as well as to the analysis of the semantics and dating of all the monuments of rock art of the Titovskaya Hill. In the course of the study, the authors came to the conclusion that rock carvings, mainly on the Sokhatin Stone, were systematically applied by nomadic pastoral tribes, and could be used as ritual complexes. At the same time, the problem of preservation of monuments and their further museification within the framework of the Ethno-Archeopark "Sukhotino" is being raised. To clarify the more accurate chronology and semantics of the drawings, further research is needed using various interdisciplinary methods, such as ethnography, as well as natural science, which will allow for a more detailed study of these objects in terms of dating and cultural affiliation.
Tikhonov R.V. - Tagora from the Dabilcurgan in Northern Bactria pp. 191-197


Abstract: The subject of the research in this article is tagora, discovered during archaeological excavations of the Kushano-Sasanian cultural layer (III-IV ..) in the settlement of Dabilkurgan in Northern Bactria. It has a conical shape of the body with widely divergent walls and a thickened rim, with the profiled inner side of the three grooves and ledges. A characteristic feature of the tagora is the presence of floral ornament applied by the burnishing engobe on the inner surface of the vessel. In the upper part the composition made up of images of flowers, which are interconnected by a U-shaped line. At the bottom of the ornament is a slanted crossing line. During the study, emphasis was placed on careful analysis of the stratigraphy of the Kushano-Sasanian cultural layer, as well as the study of typology tagora and «iconographic» features are presented ornamental compositions. During the conducted research the author came to the following conclusions. First, form the dining area enough tagora of the Dabilkurgan typical of Bactria Kushano-Sasanian period, which indicates some standardization in the pottery craft. Secondly, the technique of ornamentation is unique to the ceramic complex of the country, as was primarily made on wet clay ornament and stamp. Thirdly, the analysis of ornamental compositions revealed that the motif, the «flowers», appeared in connection with the antique effect, which has undergone a number of changes on Bactrian soil.
Syrovatskiy V.V. - Isolated burial Maganskoye cemetery (XVII century) in Central Yakutia pp. 191-199


Abstract: The main goal of this research is the interpretation of burial materials Maganskoye cemetery, explored by the Srednelensky squad of archeological expedition Institute for Humanitarian Research and North Indigenous Peoples Problems of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences in the city of Yakutsk. The object of this research is the burial rite of Late Medieval population of Central Yakutia. The subject of this research is the isolated burial Maganskoye cemetery. The full review is conducted on location of the memorial, intra-burial construct and subjects of auxiliary inventory. Special attention is given to determination of social status of the buried based on comparative analysis with other memorials of the region under consideration. Interdisciplinary approach is used in the course of the research, Archeological data are juxtaposed to the ethnographic records and folklore sources. The novelty consists in peculiarities of the burial rite, which is considered deviant. The damages found on the bones of the deceased, as well as the folklore sources, allow interpreting the memorial as a reflection in archeological source of the warrior sacrificial offerings in the medieval Yakut society. The research results may serve as a theoretical foundation for further reconstructions dedicated to studying burial rite of the Ancient Yakuts.
Zagvazdina Y.G. - Porcelain dolls from Neudachiny estate in Tobolsk pp. 198-206


Abstract: The object of this research is the finds of porcelain dolls discovered by L. N. Sladkova in 1998 during the excavations of Neudachiny estate in Tobolsk. The goal lies in studying two pieces of porcelain dolls, which most likely were imported and symbolize material wealth for the majority of Tobolsk resident in the late XIX – early XX centuries. Having explored the items from other collections of the Tobolsk Historical and Architectural Museum-Reserve, the author attempts to determine the prevalence of such porcelain dolls in Tobolsk in the late XIX – XX centuries, and which social classes could afford them. The relevance of this work is substantiated by the absence of publications dedicated to archaeological finds of the imported porcelain dolls in the territory of Western Siberia, as well as Russian-language literature on attribution and study of this category of toys of the XI – early XX century. The author carries out the attribution of porcelain dolls found on the territory of the Neudachiny estate, and concludes that such finds are imported and manufactured in the late XIX – early XX centuries. The preserved hallmark allowed establishing that one of the dolls was manufactured in Germany at Armand Marseill factory. In correlation of the income of different categories of residents with the cost of porcelain dolls, the author indicates that not all segments of urban population could afford such porcelain dolls. The items may also contain information on commercial ties, as well as peculiarities of the childhood of Tobolsk residents of that time.
Zagvazdin E.P. - New finds of crosses from the churchyard of the Church of the Savior in Tobolsk pp. 209-218



Abstract: The subject of the study in the presented article is two crosses from the graves of the Spassky cemetery of Tobolsk. They were discovered during the rescue archaeological excavations in 2022. The range of analogies of the considered finds, as well as their territorial distribution, is considered. A number of issues related to their dating based on typologically identical finds, as well as the chronology of the existence of the churchyard at this church, are touched upon. One of the illustrative specimens in the collection was a rare type of white bronze alloy cross with a crucifixion of Christ on the obverse and an image of an angel on the reverse, originating from burial No. 4. On this cross, the attributes of the Passion Cycle are considered. The analysis showed that such a find, although it has analogies, is still not completely identical to them. It is concluded that the studied type of cross has iconographic origins in the works of European masters. Baroque secular art also had a great influence on the further development of the forms and content of such crosses.The author findings are based on typologies developed by E.P. Vinokurova and V.I. Molodin. The finds were compared with a circle of typologically similar crosses from the territory of Russia and Ukraine, and their chronology was clarified. Identification and comparative analysis of the attributes of the Passion Cycle have been carried out. On the basis of a set of features, their common and distinctive features are revealed. Over the past decades of archaeological research in Tobolsk, a number of archaeologists have collected a representative database of objects of personal piety. For a number of reasons, these findings are not always promptly and fully published, which creates gaps in the source database. The scientific novelty of the presented article is the contribution to the stavrographic collection from the excavations of the churchyard of the Church of the Savior in 2022. Of particular interest is the well-preserved cross No. 4 with a crucifixion, which had not previously been found during excavations in Tobolsk and its surroundings. It is concluded that the studied crosses have iconographic origins in the works of European masters. The further development of the forms and content of such crosses was also greatly influenced by Baroque secular art.
Pererva E.V., Bityushkova A.A., Mataev V.V. - Anthropological peculiarities of the population of the Late Bronze Age buried in the solitary mound Krasnaya Dubrava pp. 353-369


Abstract: The subject of this research is the anthropological materials acquired in the course of archaeological excavations of the solitary burial mound “Krasnaya Dubrava”, located in the Ilovlinsky district of Volgograd Region. The conduct of archaeological excavations revealed eleven burials and bone remains from 12 individuals. The anthropological materials were poorly preserved. The burials are attributed to the Late Bronze Age, possibly to the periods of Srubnaya or Pokrovskaya cultures. In the course research, the author determined the gender and age of the buried individual, as well as the occurrence of discrete-varying traits. The paleopathological analysis employed the survey method developed by A. P. Buzhilova (1995, 1998). The examination of small-numbered and poorly preserved series presented in this research is of major significance. First of all, there is no opportunity for craniological and osteological research of individuals from the burial mound of Krasnaya Dubrava, therefore, pathological and gender-age analysis allow including the anthropological materials from this archaeological site into the scientific discourse, Secondly, the acquired results broaden the representations of lifestyle peculiarities of the population of the Late Bronze Age of the Lower Volga Region. The solitary burial mound of Krasnaya Dubrava is characterized by a large number of children burials under 4 years of age, and early mortality of adults at young age. The most common teeth pathologies indicate mineralized deposits due to the absence of oral hygiene. The studied individuals also mark the diseases of metabolic nature due famine. Most likely, these factors led to the early death of children and adults. The absence of traumatic injuries on the bone remains of the population buried in the mound of Krasnaya Dubrava testifies to peaceful lifestyle of this group.
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