Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Rubric "Archeology"
Mal'chenko O.E. - Acquired Epigraphies on Medieval Gun Barrels pp. 1-60


Abstract: The article is devoted to artillery epigraphies in the XVI - XIX centuries. The author underlines the low information capacity of artillery epigraphies as the primary source of historical data. The author also describes different types of acquired epigraphies depending on the information they contained. The author's classification includes the accounting details, technical specifications, epigraphies when the owner of the weapon was changed (trophy, gift, purchase), descriptive epigraphies and graffiti. The author also gives examples of inscriptions on gun barrels and explains why they were created. For the first time in literature the author introduces the definition of 'gun barrel graffiti'. The author also proves why the term 'graffiti' also applies to illegitimate inscriptions on artillery gan barrels. Gan barrel graffiti is viewed as an informal form of communication of the military community in conflictogenic situations. The author also makes an attemp to create a classification of gan barrel graffiti based on the analysis of inscribed gan barrels from the museums in Eurasia, Northern and Central America. The author critisizes some approaches to studying gan barrel graffiti. Much attention is paid to the 'magical', integrative and spatial functions of gan barrel graffiti. The conclusion is that this type of epigraphy material can be useful for studying the history of artillery based on the anthropocentric approach. 
Stavitsky V.V. - At the Sources of Ethnogenesis of Ancient Mordovians pp. 1-13


Abstract: Article is devoted to studying of background and early stages of ethnogenesis of an ancient mordva. The author analyzes the traditional points of view on process of formation of the Mordovian ethnos. Verification of the autochthonic concept of an origin of a mordva is carried out. Possible specific weight of various groups of the ancient population which took part in its ethnogenesis becomes clear: carriers of gorodetsky, penalty-abyzsky and pyanoborsky cultures, vostochnobaltskikh of tribes and Sarmatians. The question of the possible reason of their migrations on the territory of Sursko-Oksky Entre Rios is brought up. The main stages and chronology of ethnogenesis of a mordva are considered. The methodology of research is based on the analysis of archaeological sources: burial grounds, settlements and ancient settlements. At interpretation of data of archeology data on linguistics and written sources are used. In article the conclusion that the population of gorodetsky culture, contrary to the traditional point of view didn't play a noticeable role formation of the Mordovian ethnos is drawn. Addition of an ancient mordva results from population shift of pyanoborsky and penalty-abyzsky cultures from the territory of the left-bank basin of the river. Béla. It is possible that vostochnobaltsky tribes also took part in ethnogenesis of Mordivians.
Astashova N. - The peculiarities of Anatolian pottery: based on the materials from excavation of the Panticapaeum pp. 8-15


Abstract: The subject of this research is the painted pottery of Central Anatolia. This category of archeological materials was determined fairly recently among the findings discovered during the excavation of the city of Panticapaeum. The majority of fragments, in accordance with the opinion of the leader of the Bosporan (Panticapaeum) archeological expedition V. P. Tolstikov, refer to the time foundation of the apoikia (late VII – early VI century BC); and therefore, the found samples of Anatolian pottery belong to the late Iron Age of Anatolia. The formal-stylistic analysis demonstrated that this group has a number of characteristic features: technological (color and composition of clay; glazing the surface), morphological (atypical for the archaic Greek pottery form of vessels), and purely stylistic. Among the latter, the author notes the common for the Phrygian pottery polychrome painting over the layer of white primer, as well as monochrome and bichrome painting with matt ink, typical for the cultures of central regions of Anatolia. This category of archeological materials is practically unknown artifact of the Northern Black Sea Region, and thus the topic of the peculiarities of Anatolian pottery remains relevant. The main goal of this work is to familiarize a wide range of experts, especially archeologists, working in the field, with the new type of pottery.
Nikolaev E.N. - New materials on ferrous metallurgy of Yakuts in the XV-XVII centuries pp. 16-23


Abstract: This article contains the materials of excavations of the metallurgy production sites. Records of iron smelting were discovered in the territory of 2nd Zhemkonsky Nasleg of Khangalassky District of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia). The explored objects represent a set of smelters for bloomery process. During the field season of 2017, the indicated objects were explored by the archeological expedition of Institute of Humanitarian Research and Indigenous Peoples of the North of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Three metallurgical complexes that contained smelting furnace and slag wastes were inspected. Methodological foundation contains theoretical insights into the research of the traditional economic and cultural complexes and industrial arts, based on the general scientific principles of historicism, systematicity and scientific objectivity. The scientific novelty consists in closing the existing historiographical gap, associated with insufficiency of target-oriented research of metallurgical production of Yakutia. The author describes the defining characteristics of the explored metallurgical furnaces, as well as provides the schematic reconstruction. Based on radiocarbon dating of samples, the time of existence of smelter constructs was determined. The acquired data allow concluding that the ancient metallurgies of Yakutia in the XV-XVII centuries used the small adobe furnaces with stone facing, built inside the piled elevation.
Kolonskikh A.G. - Medieval materials of the Ufa-III hillfort (based on excavations conducted by M. H. Sadykova in 1969) pp. 72-83


Abstract: This article represents a publication of materials of the stationary excavations of Ufa-III hillfort conducted by M. H. Sadykova in 1969. The object of this research is the ceramic collection of the monument, referred to the early Middle Ages. Special attention is given to the history of examination of the monument, as well as its localization. The article uses the currently available information about the Ufa-III hillfort, based in which the author attempts to identify the lifetime of the monument, cultural attribution of materials of the medieval layer of the hillfort, as well as its role within the structure of synchronic monuments of the Ufa Peninsula. The typology of ceramic series of the indicated object is carried out on the basis of morphological peculiarities of the jars, variety of ornamental compositions, as well as the structure of puddle clay. The Ufa-III hillfort is located in the historical center of modern metropolis, and this is why it has been almost completely destroyed by dense urban development. The monument was discovered in the middle of the XX century; however, there is still not a single publication of its materials. Therefore, the generalization and introduction of the data from stationary excavations of M. H. Sadykova into the scientific discourse is a relevant objective of this research.
Syrovatskiy V.V. - Burial of Vladimirovka (XVII century): a new monument with secondary burial rite in Central Yakutia pp. 77-83


Abstract: The object of this research is the Yakut burial rite of the XVII century. The subject of this research is the ritually disturbed burials of Yakuts. The article presents a detailed review of the types of ritually disturbed burials. The author makes an attempt of interpretation of the materials of earthen burial of Vladimirovka, explored in the course of fieldwork of Srednelensky archeological expedition crew from the Institute for Humanities Research and Indigenous Studies of the North of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences within the limits of Yakutsk. This burial is referred to one of the types of ritually disturbed gravesites, namely secondary burial, which was widespread during the Late Middle Ages in Yakutia. The archeological data is compared to the ethnographic records, historical sources and natural scientific methods. The scientific novelty lies in the fact that the rite of secondary burial is rarely reflected in the archeological materials and is rather considered as deviation. Moreover, the use of natural scientific methods of age determination allows identifying the specifics of burial rite and help in further dating of other monuments with similar features. The author puts forward a hypothesis on secondary burial on the monument, related to the changes in traditional beliefs of the people due to arrival of Russian population in the XVII century. Special attention is given to determination of social status of the buried based on the comparison with the existing data on burial rites of the Yakuts.
Petrov D.M. - Tumuli of the Basin of Vilyuy River: little known artifacts of funeral rites of the Yakuts in the XVII – early XX centuries pp. 102-111


Abstract: The goal of this research is to confirm the existence of tumuli tradition in funeral rites of the Yakuts. The subject of this article is the funeral rites of the Yakuts; the object is the timuli discovered in the Basin of Vilyuy River in Western Yakutia during the field archeological excavations of various years. The author steps back in history of the topic under consideration, describes the constructive peculiarities of the Yakut tumuli, reviews the gender-age and social components of the burials. The chronological framework of the study are substantiated by the dating of the discovered archeological artifacts. It is assumed that the examination of such types of artifacts will play a significant role in conducting of ethnocultural reconstructions. The research method is based on the analysis and generalization of archeological data, archival materials and scientific literature. The scientific novelty consists in articulation of problem regarding the existence of tumuli tradition among the Yakut people in the past. This article is first to introduce into the scientific discourse the materials on the topic acquired during the field archeological excavations in the Basin of Vilyuy River. Having analyzes the archeological data, archival materials and scientific literature, the author concludes on the presence of the practice of tumuli in funeral rites of the Yakuts during the XVII – early XX centuries. The existence of such practice in the culture of Vilyuyan Yakuts is determines as a part of their ethno-local specificity.
Bekseitov G.T., Tulegenov T.Z., Ivanov S.S., Kitov E.P., Kitova A.O. - Exploration of the Rahat tomb of the Semirechye from the early Iron Age pp. 108-123


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the research published on the Rakhat tomb excavation in the Semirechye territory (the Republic of Kazakhstan). The authors published the burials that refer to the era of early nomads. In the course of excavations was acquired interesting material about the burial traditions and partly the material culture of ancient population of the region over early Iron Age and Medieval Period. The majority of burial mounds in this necropolis belongs to the Saka culture. The authors also determined the inlet burial referring to early Middle Ages. The research is based on the archeological reconnaissance of burial mounds, as well as analysis of the acquired artefacts. The authors collected paleoanthropological material, which allowed receiving additional information on craniology, osteology and pathologies of the ancient population of Semirechye of the period of early nomads. The rare subjects of auxiliary inventory, such as ceramic dishware and households items, allowed determining the chronological framework of the examined burial mounds of the late V – early II centuries BC and refer them to the typical Saka culture.
Orfinskaya O.V., Chutkina S.S., Titova L.A. - Studies of pre-Mongolian embroidery based on archaeological excavations of 1966 – 1974 years in the city of Staraya Russa of Novgorod Region pp. 127-143


Abstract: The subject of this research is the archeological textile material (XVII – XV centuries) discovered during the 1966 – 1974 archeological excavations in the city of Staraya Russa, which is divided into four compositions and stored in Novgorod open-air museum for over 30 years, and later, due to the unsatisfactory condition, has undergone restoration and exploration. The main goal of this research lies in determination of a number of the survived textile products, identification of the nature of fabrics, as well as the connection between the preserved artifacts – narrow golden ribbon and fragments of embroidery, which were earlier considered as part of the collar (necklace). It was established the most likely that origin of the golden ribbons is Mediterranean; the used fabrics has a distinct dense texture, and was brought from, perhaps, Byzantine Empire, as an expensive goods. All of the golden threads in the samples had identical characteristic (thin, with dense golden strip winding), which allowed suggesting that the ribbons alongside the finished embroidery “has come” from the same place.
Tabarev A., Gladyshev S. - Microcleavage in the complexes of early Upper Paleolithic of Northern Mongolia pp. 144-154


Abstract: The subject of this research is the technology of microcleavage in the complexes of early Upper Paleolithic of Northern Mongolia. Microcleavage implies that the assemblage of stone artefacts associates with the procedure on manufacturing small-size blanks – microliths. Such combination contains micronucleuses, specially prepared cores for preparation of microliths. It is not the depleted nucleuses, but a particular independent group of the cores, which can be justifiable called micronucleuses. Moreover, microcleavage also includes microliths and their fragments. There have not been found any tools made out of microliths in the materials of the explored complexes. The research applies the traditional to archeological studies methodology: technical-typological and morphological analysis of stone inventory belonging to microcleavage of micronucleuses and microliths. Until present time, microcleavage has not been examined as an independent direction of development of stone processing technology in the early Upper Paleolithic of the eastern part of Central Asia. This is the first attempt on the example of the materials of Northern Mongolia to trace the facts of existence of microcleavage already at early stages of Upper Paleolithic (37,000 to 27,000 years ago).
Kulakov V.I. - Prussian belts of the time of Teutonic Order pp. 147-158


Abstract: The subject of this research is the Prussian belts of the early Medieval era. As demonstrated by the archeological data of the Southeastern Baltics, the Prussian belts of the XIII-XIV centuries were either of local origin (buckles – derivations from the Central European manufactures) or created by the example of Teutonic Order. The latter, in turn, could have the square-shape cover plates with the cross, which were borrowed by the Teutonic jewelers from the ancient population of modern Latvia. The presences of imitations of chivalric belts in burials of the Prussian nobles does not mean the acceptance of knighthood. The research is carried out by determination of the unique elements of these belts and comparison with other belts, as well as creation of a dynamic picture of development of this construct and details of Prussian belts in the Teutonic time. Until the present time, Prussian belts were not subjected to special examination in Europe. This article is the first experience of introducing into the scientific discourse of the unique discoveries, represented by the Prussian belts of Teutonic Order.
Tikhonov R.V. - Tagora from the Dabilcurgan in Northern Bactria pp. 191-197


Abstract: The subject of the research in this article is tagora, discovered during archaeological excavations of the Kushano-Sasanian cultural layer (III-IV В.С.) in the settlement of Dabilkurgan in Northern Bactria. It has a conical shape of the body with widely divergent walls and a thickened rim, with the profiled inner side of the three grooves and ledges. A characteristic feature of the tagora is the presence of floral ornament applied by the burnishing engobe on the inner surface of the vessel. In the upper part the composition made up of images of flowers, which are interconnected by a U-shaped line. At the bottom of the ornament is a slanted crossing line. During the study, emphasis was placed on careful analysis of the stratigraphy of the Kushano-Sasanian cultural layer, as well as the study of typology tagora and «iconographic» features are presented ornamental compositions. During the conducted research the author came to the following conclusions. First, form the dining area enough tagora of the Dabilkurgan typical of Bactria Kushano-Sasanian period, which indicates some standardization in the pottery craft. Secondly, the technique of ornamentation is unique to the ceramic complex of the country, as was primarily made on wet clay ornament and stamp. Thirdly, the analysis of ornamental compositions revealed that the motif, the «flowers», appeared in connection with the antique effect, which has undergone a number of changes on Bactrian soil.
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