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Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue є 01/2023
Contents of Issue є 01/2023
World history: Eras and seasons
Markhanova T.F. - Buddhism and Imperial States in Medieval China pp. 1-10

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.1.39618

EDN: BOGXXU

Abstract: The subject of the study is Buddhism in the context of the state system of medieval Chinese society. The author examines in detail such aspects of the topic as the place of Buddhism in the traditional Chinese concept of government, as well as in the context of studying the general parameters of the functioning and interaction of religious and secular institutions of government. Special attention is paid to the relationship between the state and Buddhism in medieval China on the example of the analysis of Hui Yuan's polemical treatise "Shamen Bujing wangzhe lun" 沙門 不敬 王者 論 ( A treatise on monks who do not honor the ruler) As a unique monument in the history of ideological thought in China, the main conclusions of the study are that Buddhism was actively used in the politics of the medieval states of China, but it never managed to subdue the state, but on the contrary, it itself turned into an auxiliary means of government. The analysis of Hui Yuan's treatise "Shamen bujing wangzhe lun" was made for the first time" 沙門 不敬 王者 論 ( A treatise on monks who do not honor the ruler). Hui Yuan tried to prove to the Chinese authorities the Sangha's right to autonomy. The treatise provides a theoretical justification for the autonomy of the Buddhist community, Hui Yuan even managed to convince opponents to preserve the monastic sangha's right to independent governance, but Buddhist monasticism in subsequent eras could not maintain its position in imperial China.
History of regions of Russia
Kopyrina S.N. - Factory Settlements of State-Owned Enterprises in Ural in the 20-50s of the XVIII Century. pp. 11-25

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.1.39645

EDN: BCQHZK

Abstract: The subject of the study are residents of factory settlements of state-owned factories in the Urals. The aim of the study is to reconstruct the social and living conditions of living and working conditions of employees and factory workers. The basis of the study is the office documents of the Siberian Oberbergamt (Office of the Chief Executive of the Board since 1734), stored in the State Archive of the Sverdlovsk region. Special attention is paid to the conditions of the formation of settlements around the factories, the main categories of the population and their quantitative composition are determined. The duration of working hours, occupations of residents on weekends and holidays are considered. The system of receiving salaries of the officer mining corps, employees, the amount of remuneration of the main categories of workers has been studied. The analysis of prices for basic foodstuffs, clothing, shoes, household economy, living conditions of residents of factory settlements is presented. The novelty of the study is to identify the average wage for various categories of workers. The available materials on the living conditions of the inhabitants of the mining Urals allow us to conclude that the population of factory settlements was heterogeneous in social structure. The population of factory settlements mainly had their own housing, which varied by category of positions held. The remuneration of most of the factory workers varied from 18 to 30 rubles. The household economy of the population of factory settlements was also under the management of the Office, which kept records of pasture lands. The number of holidays and days off for factory workers was regulated by the provisions of the Instructions to the Factory commissioner dated October 16, 1723. A special contribution of the author in the study of the topic is the compilation of summary tables on the number of population of state-owned factories in the Urals, identifying the features of the activities of V.I. Gennin and V.N. Tatishchev on the organization of working hours and rest time of factory workers.
Beliefs, religions, churches
Iskhakova R.R., Kolcherin A.S. - The Russian Orthodox Church and the School: View through the Century pp. 26-36

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.1.39656

EDN: BWNMCP

Abstract: In the modern educational space, the task of forming a civic personality as a result of the educational process is invariably relevant. The study of the historical experience of the 19th century shows that during this period there was a model of the educational process, the purpose of which was the formation of personality, its further socialization in accordance with a given place in hierarchically and class-organized Russian society. Orthodoxy and the Church played a decisive role. The article analyzes the main stages of interaction and mutual influence of the Russian Orthodox Church and the Ministry of Public Education in the field of formation of primary public schools. Conclusions are drawn that the internal policy of the government and the social movement in the country had a significant impact on public education. The leading discipline of the elementary folk school was the Law of God, the article reveals its place in the educational process. In the first half of the 19th century. The ROC became an important factor in the formation of a mass primary school, during the period of liberal reforms, the ROC weakened its position under the influence of a number of factors, including as a result of the appearance of the zemstvo and city schools. In 1880, a network of CPSH was created, which is a notable phenomenon and has had a significant impact on the development of education in the country.
History and historical science
Akkieva S.I. - Soviet Policy in the Field of Education in the 20s of the XX Century on the Territory of the North Caucasus pp. 37-44

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.1.39434

EDN: CLQRQY

Abstract: The subject of the article is Soviet educational policy in the 1920s. The methodological basis of the research is the principle of historicism. The Bolsheviks considered one of their most important tasks in the region to be the formation of secular education and the enlightenment of the population. Many peoples of the North Caucasus did not have a written language, there were few literate people. There was a priority of Islamic education over secular education in the region. There were Tibetan schools attached to every mosque, and there were few secular schools. In the 1920s, the peoples who did not have a written tradition received writing, schools were opened, teachers were trained, the education system was formed in their native languages. In Dagestan, the issue of language was the most acute and therefore a project was being implemented there, according to which the national school system was formed in three languages: native, Turkic (Kumyk) and Russian. But the project was not very successful and was soon curtailed. The authorities of the republics of the North Caucasus placed special emphasis on the elimination of illiteracy of the population and the education of women. The article emphasizes that all these measures in a fairly short period of time contributed to the strengthening of the position of secular Soviet education in this region of Russia and the displacement of religious education from its socio-cultural space, reducing distrust of the new government and the formation of Soviet identity.
History and Politics
Gogaev S.I. - The role of Thomas Jefferson's political activity in the history of American statehood. pp. 45-61

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.1.37249

EDN: CCXWKM

Abstract: The subject of the study is the results, results and consequences of the political activity of Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826). Jefferson was the author of the Declaration of Independence and the third president of the United States, considered one of the founding fathers of the United States. The first American president to hold the posts of Secretary of State, Vice President and President of the United States successively. The article examines the political ideas of Jefferson, who was one of the first political figures who spoke and justified the idea of separating its North American colonies from Great Britain. His political ideas and decisions as a statesman and politician were timely and brought much benefit to his country. As the author of the Declaration of Independence of the United States, he made a huge contribution to the creation of the United States. Its adoption meant the formation of a new state - the United States. For him, the principles of the declaration were to create a free American state based on the principles of democracy and civil liberty. The Declaration defined the social and legal status of a person in society. Declaring the people the only source of power, she put them on a par with the great ideologists of the Enlightenment. As Ambassador to France, he managed to secure a number of trade agreements with European countries. His merits as president undoubtedly lie in the acquisition of Louisiana and the establishment of diplomatic relations with Russia, as well as the pacification of relations with Great Britain.
History and Economics
Kulbidiuk R.V. - Problems of the Formation of the Industrial Potential of Pridnestrovie as Part of Molodavia (1940 Ц 1941) pp. 62-75

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.1.38863

EDN: CNOVVO

Abstract: The author discusses the first steps of the Soviet government to restore and create the industrial complex of Moldovia after the liberation of the right-bank regions of Moldavia Ц Bessarabia - from the power of Royal Romania in the period from June 28, 1940 to June 1941. The purpose of the study is to characterize and evaluate the actions of central and local authorities in the first months after reunification on the nationalization of fixed assets and collectivization of agriculture, restoration, launch and establishment of industrial enterprises in the territory of the MSSR, as well as to identify the main directions of industrial development in the region during this period, the features of the formation of industrial potential taking into account the ongoing nationalization, the analysis of attracted resources and their characteristics, comparison with the industry of Royal Romania. The author presents an analysis of the main activities of local authorities on nationalization, as well as identifies the main financial sources allocated for the development of industry. The initial economic and cultural level, from which the formation of a new way of life for the Moldovan people began, after the reunification of the population of Bessarabia with the population of Transnistria (MASSR), is analyzed. The conducted research allowed us to conclude that it was the help of the peoples of the USSR that allowed the population of the republic to eliminate inequality in economic, political, cultural and other areas of life in a historically short period of time. According to the results of the study, the fundamental role of Pridnestrovie (MASSR), on whose socio-political and economic basis the reunited Soviet Moldavia was formed, also became obvious. The diverse production base created earlier in Pridnestrovie (MASSR) from scratch, together with thousands of trained highly qualified workers, provided invaluable assistance in the state, economic and cultural revival of Bessarabia. The study used such methods of historical research as retrospective analysis, comparative analysis, as well as a systematic approach and the method of expert assessments.
Culture and cultures in historical context
Sivkina N.Y., Mozherovtseva A.D. - The cult of Sarapis in Hellenistic Egypt as a continuation of the policy of "merging peoples" pp. 76-84

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.1.37361

EDN: KMVOLU

Abstract: As part of their policy aimed at creating a strong Hellenistic Egypt, the Ptolemies created and maintained the syncretic cult of Sarapis. Ancient sources have preserved several beautiful stories and legends about the appearance of this god and his cult in Egypt. The purpose of this work is to clarify the political role of this cult in Egypt, the peculiarities of its perception by different segments of the population, which ultimately influenced the change in the Ptolemaic policy towards the local population. The main research methods are both general philosophical methods Ц analysis and synthesis, and special Ц comparative-historical and comparative-genetic methods. † In the modern world, there are a large number of countries (including Russia) in which different peoples live, having different traditions and beliefs. The study of the Egyptian version of the policy of "merging peoples" and the cult of Sarapis, as one of its components, helps to understand what factors should be avoided in an attempt to smooth out contradictions and create a strong interethnic association, which determines the relevance and novelty of the study. According to the creators, the cult of Sarapis should have been understandable and close to both Greeks and Egyptians. Therefore, the image of God, traditions and rituals included Greek and Egyptian elements, which was supposed to bring the population closer together on the basis of worship of this god and contribute to strengthening the central government. But in reality it turned out that in Egypt itself the cult of Sarapis did not become popular with either the Hellenes or the local population. The policy of uniting different ethnic groups on the basis of the religious factor without carrying out the same policy of rapprochement in other spheres (military, administrative, etc.) was doomed to failure.
Issues of war and peace
Shchegolikhina S.N. - The Impact of World War II on the Status of European Monarchies pp. 85-94

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.1.39473

EDN: CQSTZW

Abstract: World wars were the key moments that had a significant impact on the transformation of monarchical rule in the twentieth century. They served as catalysts in the process of changing the European political system, determining the direction of development. The subject of the study are the European monarchies. The object of the study is the transformation of the traditional form of government in the countries of Europe. Using the historical-anthropological method, as well as historical-systemic and historical-comparative approaches, the question of general and special in the process of transformation of monarchical rule in the middle of the twentieth century is considered. The author focuses on the question - Is the tendency of monarchies to leave the historical scene objective, colored by national peculiarities, or depends on the specific situation and the particular ruler? After World War I, the revision of government affected all parts of the world. The Second World War was a new challenge to the historic system of governance. As a result, the transformation of centuries-old interaction between the state and society has become irreversible. It has institutionalized democratic royalism as the main social and political perception of traditional forms of government. Only as long as the monarch follows the established rules will the monarchy exist. It has lost most of its key characteristics, remaining only a historical and cultural symbol - without real power or significance for political and social life, depending on social and political sentiments.
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