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Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue є 08/2022
Contents of Issue є 08/2022
History and Economics
Ganin M.A. - Historiography of industrial technology transfer in the first third of the XX century. pp. 1-14

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.8.38605

EDN: PQYAYQ

Abstract: The article examines the historiography of the transfer of industrial technologies in the first third of the XX century. This historical period is of particular interest to researchers. It was at this time that the Soviet model of forced industrial modernization was taking shape. In order to achieve the set goals in the shortest possible time, the Soviet state most actively used the mechanisms of scientific and technical cooperation with foreign countries. Thanks to the scientific and technical policy pursued by him, this cooperation soon acquired a complex, systematic character and, ultimately, took a stable form of technology transfer. The work is based on the provisions of modernization theory, according to which technology transfer is considered as one of the key mechanisms of technological modernization of production. The scientific novelty of the study lies in the fact that no detailed research of historiography on the topic has been conducted to date. The author attempts to eliminate this obvious gap. In addition, one of the goals of this study is to promote the further development of the concept of technological transfer, which involves the transition to a systematic analysis of certain facts of scientific and technical cooperation of the USSR with foreign countries. The paper concludes that despite the extensive historiography on the topic, there are still numerous gaps that have yet to be filled by scientists. At the same time, at the current stage, of particular importance is not the search for factual material itself, which is already very extensive, but the reinterpretation of existing facts from the point of view of the provisions of the theory of modernization and the concept of technological transfer. This will make it possible to bring a systematic approach to the ongoing research on the topic and to make a comprehensive study of the state's scientific and technical policy in the first third of the XX century.
History and Politics
Zaitcev A. - The Rule of the Nehru-Gandhi political dynasty as a phenomenon of the Political Life of Independent India (based on the materials of domestic and Indian historiography) pp. 15-28

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.8.38396

EDN: PREIXF

Abstract: The author considers the problem of the Nehru-Gandhi family rule as a phenomenon of the political history of modern, postcolonial India. The purpose of this work is to identify the main aspects of this phenomenon identified by domestic and Indian specialists. The main research methods were comparative-historical, which allowed to compare the scientific publications of domestic scientists, taking into account the Soviet and post-Soviet periods of the history of our country with the publications of Indian specialists, and cultural-anthropological, which involves the study of the positions of the authors of scientific publications in the formulation of the problem and the selection of arguments in defense of their point of view; the relationship of domestic and Indian scientists to the object of research. The relevance of the work is explained by the fact that the Nehru-Gandhi family and currently actively participates in the political life of the Republic of India, still have a significant political influence, holding leadership positions in the Indian National Congress Party. In addition, their political activities in 1947-1991 continue to be the subject of discussion in the scientific and intellectual community both in our country and in India. The novelty of the work is explained by the insufficient study of the designated problem in domestic and Indian historiography. The main conclusion is that the phenomenon of Nehru-Gandhi rule was formed on the basis of many political and socio-cultural factors described in the work, which are described in detail by domestic and Indian experts.
Interdisciplinary research
Ivanova E.S. - Interdisciplinary approaches in Roman Family Studies: heuristic potential and possible limitations pp. 29-35

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.8.38645

EDN: RWSMMY

Abstract: Family relations are the basic "structures of everyday life" and therefore act as part of the macro-context of the life of the past. In addition, it is within the framework of the institution of the family that the gender roles of a certain society, its economic and cultural traditions and norms are most clearly manifested. Therefore, by studying family relations in the multi-ethnic military community of the Roman Empire, we have the opportunity to eventually get information about various layers of culture of the Roman civilization. Nevertheless, the versatility of such a subject of research requires a special approach and new methods in the study. The article uses the example of three disciplines Ч gender archaeology, historical demography and the history of emotions Ч to prove the need for an interdisciplinary approach in the study of the ancient Roman family. The object of the research is significant scientific works for these disciplines. The subject of the study is the methodology of these works. The author considers the fundamental works (p. Alison, T. Parkin, K. Kreineker) of the named directions, examples of studies are given in which the methods developed in key works were successfully used, shortcomings and possible limitations of each direction are identified separately and ways to overcome them with the help of interdisciplinary synthesis are proposed. The novelty of the research lies in the appeal exclusively to modern foreign historiography and new directions of historical science. The author comes to the conclusion that the interdisciplinary approach allows overcoming the limitations set by the source base, building new hypotheses and generally contributes to the increment of historical knowledge in the field of the study of the ancient Roman family.
History of regions of Russia
Tesaev Z.A., Suleimanov Z.Z. - On the Issue of the State of the Study of the narrative of Azdi Vazar (1395-1460) pp. 36-45

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.8.38654

EDN: WAEYGG

Abstract: The article discusses the abstract compiled by the Jordanian military and researcher Ц Abd-ul-Ghani Hassan al-Shiishani (1924-2001) Ц to the manuscript of the medieval theologian and preacher Azdi Wazar, kept in the archive of Sheikh Bahal Tolmirzi az-Zandaki (1784-1884). The text of the Arabic-language document was sent in 1990 by letter to the Chechen ethnographer and writer A. S. Suleymanov, stored in the manuscript fund of the museum of the same name. According to the contents of the document, Azdi Vazar (1395-1460) was born in the family of the Tatar officer Vazar Andarbi, studied in the countries of the East and visited Chechnya with a preaching purpose. † The text lists forty-eight sub-ethnonyms, declared as a list of tribes known to Azdi Vazar at the time of his arrival in his homeland. A number of toponyms are given, as well as brief background information on the religious picture and geographical boundaries of the region. The document is being introduced into scientific circulation for the first time. The article is divided into three parts and represents the history of the document, the comments of the author of the publication regarding certain points from the annotation and the actual text of the translation of the annotation by A.-G. H. Ash-Shiyshani. Some points reflect additional information gleaned from his own (Al-Shiishani) Chechen-language translation of the Arabic annotation.
History of ethnicities, peoples, nations
Malov M.A. - Ethnic minorities in the Middle East: realities and prospects of status transformation in the Geopolitical system pp. 46-56

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.8.38657

EDN: USKOLK

Abstract: The subject of the study is the direction and nature of the change in the status of small ethnic groups and ethnic confessions stationed in the Middle East for a long time. The article analyzes the development of the political and legal situation of small ethnic groups of Middle Eastern countries, affecting international relations, reveals the main positions of preservation and development of small peoples of Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Syria, Israel, which is relevant due to the artificial creation of most states of the Middle East and the ethnic diversity of this region. The author separately examines such aspects of the topic as the interference of external actors in the politics of the Middle East countries with the help of ethnic groups and diasporas. The novelty of the study lies in the comprehensive consideration of a wide range of factors affecting the relationship of small ethnic groups and states of the Middle East. The main conclusions of the study are that now, when the North-South dichotomy and the division into developed and developing countries is blurring, and outside actors cannot fully influence the situation with their authority, the states of the Middle East themselves need to choose a strategy for modernizing and transforming the status of their small ethnic groups in accordance with both their requirements and the general socio-cultural situation in this country and the requirements of the international agenda.
Osipov E.A. - The activities of the organization "SOS Racism" in the framework of French migration policy. 1983-1989. pp. 57-66

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.8.38659

EDN: VAJNPX

Abstract: The article analyzes the French state policy on the preservation of national and religious identity in the period from the march for equality and against racism in 1983 to the first scandal with the wearing of religious clothing in a public educational institution in 1989. "SOS Racism" was created in 1984. with the support of the ruling Socialist Party in France at that time and thanks to the attention of the major media, he quickly became the most famous anti-racist organization in France, turning into a symbol of French policy towards migrants of Muslim faith. † The article, based on modern French historiography and memoirs of direct participants in the events, shows that the main activity of "SOS Racism" was aimed at working with university students and lyceum students in order to consolidate left-wing political views among young people to counter the growing popularity of the National Front, and not at improving the lives of migrants in the difficult suburbs of large French cities. Over time, SOS Racism increasingly turned from a public to a political organization, which became especially noticeable during the pre-election campaign before the presidential elections of 1988, when SOS Racism held large-scale events in support of F. Mitterrand. As a result, a power vacuum appeared in the suburbs of large cities, which was quickly filled by Muslim organizations, some of which were radical, fundamentalist in nature and almost all of them existed on foreign money. Thus, the rise in popularity of the Salafists and the Muslim Brotherhood, which began in the 1980s, largely determining the agenda of radical Islam in the modern Fifth Republic, was, among other things, a consequence of the unsuccessful work of the "SOS Racism" with the migrant community of France.
Beliefs, religions, churches
Balin M.A. - Missionary Practices of the Russian Orthodox Church in the eastern Outskirts of the Russian Empire in the second half of the XIX Ц early XX centuries (based on the materials of the Orthodox missions of the Tobolsk Diocese) pp. 67-77

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.8.38615

EDN: UGKGTH

Abstract: The article is devoted to the actual problem of the organization of missionary practices of the Russian Orthodox Church and the functioning of Orthodox missions of the Tobolsk diocese, which entered in the second half of the XIX Ц early XX century as an actor of colonization of the eastern outskirts of the Russian Empire. The object of this work is the communicative space of the activity of the Russian Orthodox Church in the second half of the XIX Ц early XX century. The subject of the study is the missionary practices of the Russian Orthodox Church as an actor of colonization of the eastern outskirts of the Russian Empire in the second half of the XIX Ц early XX centuries (based on the materials of the Orthodox missions of the Tobolsk diocese). The purpose of the article is to identify and characterize the missionary practices of the Russian Orthodox Church in the territorial borders of the Tobolsk province as part of a vast and ethno-confessional mosaic of the West Siberian region, within whose boundaries missionary societies positioned themselves as a force that performed important colonization tasks of the State. In methodological terms, the formulation of the problem, its solution and conclusions are provided by the application of a socio-cultural approach and appeals to the practices of a new local history. The source base of the work consisted of a wide range of materials of a clerical and regulatory legal nature, published statistical information, publications in the periodical diocesan press, certificates of personal origin, which ensured the representativeness of conclusions regarding practices in the activities of the missions of the Tobolsk diocese in the chronological boundaries of the second half of the XIX Ц early XX centuries. The article concludes that the missionary work of the Russian Orthodox Church in Western Siberia and, in particular, the Tobolsk province becomes an effective tool of internal colonization and is constructed within the framework of the foreign policy of the Russian Empire on the eastern outskirts, which was based on the principles of paternalism and the idea of creating conditions for the "maturation" of indigenous peoples.
History of law and state
Dondokov Z.D. - The problem of the legal status of state bodies: the history of civil thought pp. 78-87

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.8.38581

EDN: TXLLUV

Abstract: The State has been a participant in economic relations since immemorial times, but it has always been expressed through a system of its organs and organizations. The modern problem of the legal status of state bodies remains relevant even after the extreme reform of civil legislation, since many aspects of such a status remain unclear to the science of civil law. One of the reasons is that the issue is at the intersection of private and public law. The author, using the comparative historical method of research, on the basis of a systematic approach, tries to establish the continuity of approaches to determining the civil status of state bodies at different stages of the development of the state and law. Thus, the author comes to the conclusion that the pre-revolutionary and Soviet stage of the development of civili law thought is characterized by the consideration of state bodies as integral parts of the entire state, in which they play the role of representatives of the latter. At the same time, with the justification in Soviet law of the formal separation of the property of state bodies from the treasury in the civil legislation of the early stage of modern Russian law, individual state bodies are given the independent status of legal entities. However, this trend is not caused either historically or formally legally. As the author shows, it is caused by an attempt to shift the Soviet system of management of socialist property to the modern conditions of a free economy, when the state acts as an equal participant in the market. In conclusion of his research, the author comes to the conclusion that the problem of the participation of state bodies in civil legal relations is rather characteristic of the modern stage of the development of civil law and is due to the desire to limit the civil liability of the state for the actions of its bodies.
History of science and technology
Vladzymyrskyy A.V. - Scientific and technical Development of transtelephone Electrocardiography in foreign Countries during the 60-80s of the twentieth Century pp. 88-112

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.8.38532

EDN: TWOFEN

Abstract: In the context of the scientific and technical history of electrocardiography, the development of transtelephone electrocardiography (tele-ECG) remains unexplored - as a set of technical and methodological aspects of remote ECG transmission via telecommunication. This direction played a significant role in medical science and practice in the middle of the twentieth century, in many ways it remains relevant to this day. The task of the study. To identify and systematize the patterns of development of scientific knowledge related to the creation and use of transtelephone electrocardiography technologies in the period of the 1960s-1980s in Europe, Asia, North America and Australia. Results. From the point of view of technical sciences, there were two main trends in scientific research: a) the design of hardware solutions for broadcasting and receiving ECG via cable or radio channels; b) the development of algorithms for computer analysis of ECG. From the point of view of medical sciences: a) clinical trials, including an assessment of the technical reliability of equipment; b) evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of remote (both "human" and machine) interpretation of ECG; c) study of the clinical significance of tele-ECG. When comparing the trends of scientific and technological development of transtelephone electrocardiography in foreign countries, it is obvious that the countries of Europe and Asia follow in the wake of medical science in the USA. In the studies of scientists from Eastern Europe, the influence of medical science of the USSR in the form of the use of tele-ECG in occupational medicine is noted. Conclusions. In the period of the 1960s-1980s, the scientific and technical development of transtelephone electrocardiography took place in many countries of the world, but the activity and significance of these processes seriously differed. The emergence of affordable and reliable technologies for remote counseling, as well as automated analysis of electrocardiography results, has become significant. The overall result was the emergence of clinically significant remote diagnostics techniques and new models of medical care organization based on them.
History of public institutions
Tkachenko I.Y. - Creation of a Provision order and local bodies for providing troops in the XVIII century . pp. 113-124

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.8.36283

EDN: XJJIXV

Abstract: The article describes the reasons for the creation of the department of centralized provision of troops, decisions taken at the stages of the formation of the Provision Order, local management bodies of the armed forces. From the very beginning, the organizational principles of the new department were also defined. This step was due to the need to centralize the supply of food to the army and navy, as well as the creation of a special management and control body for the activities of local food authorities. The article also tells about the work of the proviantmasters - the first administrators of the food department, about the activities of the Provision Commissions and their contribution to the development of the army supply system. During the formation of the Provision Order, many different decisions were made on this problem. As a result of the study, the processes that formed a new department for the Russian state were identified. The sources of the article are mainly archival materials of the Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts (RGADA), as well as literary sources. During the creation of the Provision Service, the main tasks that the department faced, including the military, were highlighted Ч the formation of a provision corps, the construction of military structures, the formation of food establishments, the provision of food for troops, the formation of food warehouses and the provision of soldiers' food.
Social history
Kreitsberga K.A. - The Role of the League of Education in the Formation of the pedological Movement. pp. 125-138

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.8.38667

EDN: UMWLBH

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to reconstruct the interaction of the League of Education with the pedological community, which will reveal its role in the formation of pedological experience, subsequently applied in the 20-30s of the XX century in the USSR. The subject of the study is a community created by the League of Education and implementing pedological experiments in the educational space of the beginning of the century. The author pays special attention to the results of the League of Education on the example of Petrograd. The connection between the scientific heritage of the members of the Society and the use of these materials in the later period of the existence of the pedological movement, after 1917, is revealed. The paper analyzes the projects of the League of Education on the radical transformation of the school space, taking into account social and historical aspects. The period of existence of the pedological current before 1917 has been little studied in a historical way. The same should be noted regarding the study and analysis of the activities of the League of Education. This organization is described in most sources in several general paragraphs. The novelty of the research lies in the development and analysis of archival materials related to the organization and activities of the League of Education (the study was conducted on the basis of documents of the Central State Administration of St. Petersburg, TsGIA St. Petersburg, TSGAIPD St. Petersburg). The League of Education played a significant role not only in the analytical study of the educational space, the accumulation of pedological experience, the search for leading pedagogical developments, but also in the replication of these materials. The activities of the organization and its societies were widely covered in publications. Despite the successful and productive activities, the government refused the League of Education. And this is primarily due to the political context, from which, initially, according to the Charter of the organization, members of the society had to be abstracted. The specialists in question in the study continued their work in other institutions and created the foundation of Soviet pedology.
Merkureva V.S. - Children of War: on the issue of providing assistance to children evacuated to the Stalingrad region in 1941 Ц early 1942. pp. 139-148

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.8.36264

EDN: ZSXZRH

Abstract: The object of the study is the social policy of the USSR during the Great Patriotic War. The subject of the study is social policy measures aimed at protecting childhood in the period under review. The methodological basis of the article is the principles of objectivity, historicism and determinism, which allow us to consider the content and significance of all the events that took place related to the creation of a system of measures aimed at protecting children, to show the multidimensionality of the events taking place, a holistic historical picture of a specific chronological period, consisting of a set of facts and their interaction. The author presents a comprehensive analysis of measures aimed at evacuating children from frontline areas to the rear, providing assistance to evacuated children's institutions, transferring orphaned children to foster families. † The author draws attention to the changes in the legislative framework, the purpose of which was to more effectively regulate issues related to the provision of assistance to children. The article examines the initiatives of local authorities implemented within the framework of the state policy for the protection of childhood at the initial stage of the war. The materials of the regional archive are introduced into scientific circulation, which allow illustrating issues related to the evacuation of children to Stalingrad and the mechanisms of interaction between the authorities and society in the process of helping children. The author concludes that there are a number of difficulties associated with the placement of evacuated children's institutions and the possibilities of overcoming them, despite the difficult conditions of wartime.
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