Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue 07/2022
Contents of Issue 07/2022
History and Politics
Zaitcev A. - The activity of the Nehru-Gandhi political dynasty in Modern Indian English-language Historiography (from 1991 to the present) pp. 1-13



Abstract: The article analyzes Indian English-language publications devoted to the Nehru-Gandhi dynasty, written and published after 1991, which became a turning point in the history of independent India, this is the subject of this study. The purpose of this work is to determine the nature of scientific assessments of the role of the Nehru-Gandhi dynasty in the political history of India in the second half of the XX century in English-language publications of Indian authors after 1991. The main method used in the work was cultural-anthropological, as it involves the study of the positions of the authors of scientific publications in the formulation of the problem and the selection of arguments in defense of their point of view; the attitude of Indian scientists to the object of research, as well as the identification of political preferences of researchers, the features of scientific schools and trends in historical science that they represent. The relevance of the work is explained by the fact that the Nehru-Gandhi family and currently actively participates in the political life of the Republic of India, still have a significant political influence, holding leadership positions in the Indian National Congress Party. In addition, their political activities in 1947-1991 continue to be the subject of discussion in the scientific and intellectual community of India. The novelty of the work is explained by the insufficient study of Indian historiography devoted to the history of the country after independence in 1947. The main conclusion is that due to the large-scale political changes in India that began after the death of Rajiv Gandhi in 1991, more and more criticism of the political dynasty can be found in the works of Indian specialists, but at the same time there is no consensus in Indian science about the Nehru-Gandhi dynasty at the present time, pluralism of opinions has very wide and polar range. This can be considered the main feature of Indian historiography.
Social history
Ivanova E.S. - "For each time I remind myself of you, neither do I eat, nor do I drink, but I cry": family relations of Roman soldiers according to papyri pp. 14-20



Abstract: The unique conditions of everyday life as well as special military traditions and mentality made family relations of Roman soldiers quite specific. Besides, the "marriage ban" or the lack of legal recognition of marriage contributed to the difficulties of militaries family life. Nevertheless, according to the data of epigraphy and papyrology, family played a key role in the life of Roman militaries. In this paper, the author's attention is focused on the information provided by papyrological sources. The object of the study is the papyrological letters of Roman soldiers to relatives. The subject of the study is the feelings and emotions of soldiers expressed in letters in relation to their family. The author also notes some practical issues of military family life, in particular, the problem of placing family members of a soldier on the territory of a military camp. Among the results of the study, it is worth noting the special sentimentalism of soldiers' letters revealed by the author. This feature should not be considered as a mere formality. The large numbers of emotional phrases are explained by the context of the era when most of people began to reflect on their duties and everyday being. In particular, they thought about the proper relationships between parents and children, husband and wife. Interestingly, one of the moral obligations in the relationships between close people became the presence of love. Moreover, this love should have been expressed in letters. Thus, despite the influence of the military ethos and other factors on the marital life of military personnel, the latter remained part of Roman society, for which family relations were one of the main values.
History and Economics
Zykin I. - Timber industry activity of the GULAG correctional labor camps of the OGPU-NKVD of the USSR in the late 1920s - 1937 pp. 21-33



Abstract: The article examines the activity of correctional labor camps specializing in timber industry in the Soviet Union in the period from the late 1920s to 1937, singled out as the first stage of development of this group of camp complexes. The definition of the concept of "forest" correctional labor camps is given. For the first time, an analysis of the timber industry activity of the camps was undertaken. "Forest" camps functioned in the areas of the largest Soviet cities (Moscow and Leningrad), in the European North, the Urals and Siberia. Their main function was reduced to the development of woodlands, timber harvesting, mechanical processing of forest resources developed to a lesser extent. Conclusions are drawn about the gradual expansion of the scale of the timber industry activity of correctional labor camps in the period from the late 1920s to 1937. However, at this stage, the volumes of harvesting and mechanical processing of wood by "forest" camps were insignificant against the background of the development of the forest industry in the country. The first multiindustry "forest" camp appeared - the White Sea-Baltic Combine, which had a strong influence on the development of the timber industry in the autonomous Karelian Republic. With the help of prisoners' labor, the construction of a pulp and paper enterprise in the Urals was carried out. The experience of using prisoners in the timber industry in the period from the late 1920s to 1937 was a significant groundwork for further enhancing the role of the Main Directorate of Camps of the NKVD of the USSR in the industry.
Kulbidiuk R.V. - Problems of the formation of the industrial potential of Pridnestrovie (1917 - 1940). pp. 34-48



Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of the problems of the formation of the industry of Pridnestrovie in the period after the Revolution of 1917 and before the creation of the MSSR in August 1940. The purpose of the study is to characterize the actions of local authorities to restore and establish industrial enterprises on the territory of the MASSR, as well as to identify the main directions of industrial development of the region during this period, the features of the formation of industrial potential, the analysis of attracted resources, comparison with the industry of the occupied part of Moldova - Bessarabia. The study used such methods of historical research as retrospective analysis, comparative analysis, as well as a systematic approach and the method of expert assessments. As a result of the research, the author came to the following conclusion: the industry of modern Pridnestrovie is characterized by a broad industry structure due to the titanic work on its creation in the era when the territory of the modern PMR was part of the MASSR/ MSSR, as well as the needs of the internal market of the USSR in the interwar period. Its foundation was laid under the leadership of the Communist Party and thanks to the help of the fraternal peoples of the USSR in 1920-1930. Against the background of the impoverished Bessarabia, the MASSR, relying on the historically developed specialization of the region, created a developed industry in a relatively short time, and also formed a working class of many thousands. During the same period in Bessarabia, as a result of a sharp decline in the number of industrial enterprises, the working class also declined, the agrarian character of the region became even more pronounced. The economy of Bessarabia during the years of occupation by Boyar Romania was brought to a complete decline and got a chance to recover only after the creation of the MSSR. After the reunification of both banks of the Dniester, the industrial potential of the MASSR became the basis for the development of the united Soviet Moldavia. According to the results of the study, the assessment of the process of formation and development of industrial enterprises of the region, the specifics of their functioning, helped to better understand the process of formation and development of self-identity of the region.
History and Politics
Pomelova Y. - The basic principles of the implementation of the religious policy of the People's Republic of China in the period from XVI to XVIII National Congress of the CPC pp. 49-57



Abstract: The subject of the study is the religious policy pursued by the Communist Party of China in the period from the XVI to the XVIII National Congress of the CPC (2002-2012). During the reign of the "fourth generation" of party and state leaders, the approach to solving internal problems of the People's Republic of China has become more complex, the issue of regulating religious activities has received special attention in determining the further social development of the People's Republic of China. The key role in the work is assigned to the consideration of the main trends of religious policy: the tasks of religious policy, legal regulation, party-state control bodies, the relationship of religious policy with the concept of a "harmonious society", the role of Confucianism. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of the triple "religious market" model, which conditionally divides religious practice in China into legal, illegal and "shadow" categories. The novelty of the research lies in the consideration of religious policy as a management process with systemic properties. Based on the sources, the main changes in the implementation of religious policy that occurred during the "fourth generation" of party and state leaders were traced. The work is based on the method of system analysis, which allowed analyzing the principles of the construction and operation of the political system of the People's Republic of China as a whole and studying the features of all components of the system, their interdependence and internal patterns of development. The article substantiates the position that religious policy consisted in a comprehensive detailed regulation of the religious sphere of public life. The pragmatic goals of the policy were the separation between legal and illegal religious activities, control over patriotic religious associations and, importantly, bringing society to a state of "harmony", emphasizing neo-Confucian principles in the identity of the Chinese nation.
History of economy and business
Dimoni T.M., Beznin M.A. - The processes of the development of Russian society in the 1930s-1980s pp. 58-72



Abstract: The subject of the study is one of the most significant trends in the social transformation of Russia in the Soviet period - the process of formation of workers. The relevance of the study is due to the need to study the social revolution in Russia that occurred during the Soviet period. The article pays attention to both quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the process of working. As quantitative characteristics, the number of the working class of Russia in different periods of the 1930s - 1980s is considered. Among the qualitative characteristics, the main place is occupied by the study of the denaturalization of the family budget, the formation of wage mechanisms of exploitation, changes in living conditions (type of housing, communal infrastructure), the features of the worldview. The novelty of the study lies in the fact that the authors, based on a large statistical, analytical and sociological material, note the most important processes in the development of Soviet society. The article presents the results of a comparative analysis of the processes of processing urban and rural society, raises the question of the unevenness of this process in different spheres of socio-economic life. Special attention is paid in the article to the question of the sources of the formation of the working class of the country. Among these sources, a special role was played by the process of raskrestyanivaniya, which developed rapidly in the 1930s and 1960s. The article concludes about the growth of qualitative indicators of the process of working in Russian society, including the prevalence of wages in the formation of the budget of families, the growing interest in consumption, non-peasant socio-psychological characteristics and lifestyle of urban and rural workers.
History of science and technology
Kreitsberga K.A. - Formation of the Leningrad Institute of Pedology and Defectology in the 20s of the XX century. pp. 73-81



Abstract: The subject of the study is the historical aspect of the formation of the Institute of Pedology and Defectology. The object of the study are the archival materials of the Central State Administration of St. Petersburg, the Central State Educational Institution of St. Petersburg, the GARF (resolutions, minutes of meetings, reports, circulars, notes and other documents of the Psychoneurological Academy, the Petrograd Pedological Institute, the Institute of Preschool Education, the Petrograd Pedagogical Institute of Social Education of Normal and Defective Children, and, directly, the Institute of Pedology and Defectology). The author examines in detail the controversial points in the work of these institutions, attempts to explain the mergers and "consolidation" of departments and universities under study into unified educational organizations. The aim of the work is to reconstruct the process of integration of educational institutions of higher education on the example of the Institute of Pedology and Defectology. The main conclusions of the study, conducted using methods of historical analysis, systematization of factual material of documents, are: inconsistency of activities within educational institutions with a wide range of departments, the emergence of numerous educational organizations with similar functions (after 1918, the opportunity to organize an educational institution, the main activity of which will be in the field of social engineering and concern the development of the child did not leave labor, since there was a need to work with children's groups), frequent changes of subordinate organizations to monitor the activities of universities, inconsistency of financial support from the state and the results offered by institutions and organizations, an attempt to standardize the educational space to improve the quality of education by senior management after 1921 (Decree on the management of universities), formal execution of orders, etc. A special contribution of the author is an appeal to the business correspondence of the institutions under study.
Historical sources and artifacts
Kostrikova K.E. - The structure of information and the sources of the "Trade and Industrial Newspaper" (the 90s of the XIX - early XX century) pp. 82-92



Abstract: The subject of research in this article is the "Commercial and Industrial Newspaper" published by the Ministry of Finance of Imperial Russia, the circumstances and process of its appearance, the goals and objectives set for its editorial office, the structure, content and quality of the information published in it, the place and role of the newspaper among other periodicals of the Ministry of Finance and similar Russian periodicals of the period under review (The 90s of the XIX century 1906). As an object of research, the structure of information in the "Trade and Industrial Newspaper", its content and changes, as well as sources of obtaining this information are considered. The purpose of the study is to show how the "Trade and Industrial Newspaper", thanks to the published materials, the extensive and multilateral information provided by it, contributed to the development of the domestic trade and industrial sphere, the formation of an economically educated Russian entrepreneurial class, its selfawareness and consolidation. The role of the newspaper in ensuring the professional and class interests of the Russian bourgeoisie, in carrying out the state information policy is considered. The "Trade and Industrial Newspaper", which emerged as a publication of a specific professional direction, over time turned out to be one of the most innovative, energetic, knowledgeable, in-demand mass media bodies, which had a great influence not only on the similar publications that were being formed, but also on the information policy of the Russian state.
Philosophy of history, historiography, chronology/source studies
Nikitin D. - The Indian National Movement in the Works of A. E. Snesarev pp. 93-99



Abstract: The subject of the study is the reflection of the activities of the Indian National Congress and the national movement in India in the works of A. E. Snesarev, a Russian and Soviet military commander and orientalist. The article examines the history of the study of the Indian national movement in Russia by A. E. Snesarev's predecessors in this field - I. P. Minaev and E. Lamansky (1870-1890s). The reasons for A. E. Snesarev's appeal to the development of socio-political and economic thought of British India are analyzed. Special attention is paid in the article to the work "India as the main factor in the Central Asian issue" and the analysis of the attitude of Indian society to British rule carried out in it. In the course of the study, the following conclusions were made: the national movement in India and the activities of the Indian National Congress were not the main subject of research by Russian orientalists in the pre-revolutionary period, however, interest in the development of socio-political thought in British India and the problems of the relationship of Indian society with the British colonial authorities intensified as the confrontation between the Russian and British empires in Central Asia intensified. Asia during the "Big Game", an example of which was the work of A. E. Snesarev, who, despite the limited range of available sources, was one of the first in Russian historiography to turn to the study of Indian nationalism.
Savchuk R.A. - Understanding Church History in monographs and thematic collections in the Ukrainian SSR in the second half of the 1980s. pp. 100-116



Abstract: The subject of the study is the main directions of intellectual search in the field of church history among Ukrainian scientists of the second half of the 1980s, which were reflected in monographs and thematic collections. The Ukrainian national intelligentsia of the era of "perestroika" forms images of the Church, which will be actively interpreted in different approaches of one or another part of society to the construction of church life in Ukraine as an independent state. With the help of historical-genetic and ideographic methods, the publications of Ukrainian scientists of this period concerning the issues of understanding the role and place of the Church in the past and present of the country are analyzed. The analysis undertaken allows us to identify the ideological foundations of various trends in modern Ukrainian historiography concerning church history. The conclusions about the formation of several directions for understanding the church past of the country are substantiated. The first direction should be characterized by the desire to remove church-historical issues from the periphery of scientific research into a full-fledged sphere of scientific research. A separate group includes works whose authors, when considering the issues of the history of the Orthodox Church, largely relied on Marxist methodology and used characteristic scientific tools. Finally, representatives of the third direction are characterized by a focus on the ideological side of historical search and personal experience, which often prevailed over an objective scientific approach.
Personality in history
Bulatov I.A. - The influence of the image of Peter the Great on out-of-school education in the late Russian Empire and in the emigration. pp. 117-124



Abstract: Part of the image of Peter I in the historical memory of the people are his comrades in children's games "funny". Thanks to them, the first emperor of Russia is strongly associated with youth associations. The subject of the study is how this part of the image of Peter the Great influenced the formation and development of youth movements in the Russian Empire and in the interwar Russian diaspora. Russian Russian Scouts (NORR), whose members worked with children in most of the countries of the Russian diaspora, as well as the senior wing of this organization, the Petrovsky Union, pay special attention to the organization of the Funny ones, created in the spring of 1909 in Bakhmut, and the National Organization of Russian Scouts (NORR), whose members worked with children in most of the countries of the Russian dispersion. The paper concludes that the appeal to the image of Peter the Great in the Russian Empire was logical, since there are no other children's organizations left in the historical memory of the Russian people except funny ones. And their connection with the Guards regiments only increased the prestige of this image. In emigration, the image of Peter the Great began to play a more significant role. Three factors contributed to this. Firstly, the general emigrant need for unifying symbols has grown. A.S. Pushkin became the main cultural symbol, while Peter I became the most compromising symbol of the statesman. Secondly, the struggle within Russian children's organizations played a role, within which funny ones became in demand again, as an alternative starting point for scouting. The third factor was the personal views of individual leaders of children's and youth organizations.
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