Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue 06/2022
Contents of Issue 06/2022
Issues of war and peace
Kil'yan I.A., Degtyarev A.N., Abramov A.K., Trifonov G.I. - Analysis of the organization of the provision of material resources to the Soviet troops during the repulse of fascist aggression (June 1941 November 1942) pp. 1-15

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.6.36089

Abstract: The subject of the research of the authors of the article is the principles and procedure for organizing the logistics of the workers' and peasants' Red army during the repulse of fascist aggression (June 1941 - November 1942). The authors consider in detail the aspects of the organization of the provision of material resources of the Soviet troops in the early years of the Great Patriotic War. The analysis of the areas of training of troops was carried out, such as material support, provision of ammunition, provision of fuel, provision of food, as well as provision of clothing. Based on the analysis, a conclusion was formed about certain provisions on material support and the work of supply services that were developed before the outbreak of the war. The main conclusion of the study is the understanding that the creation of a new structure of the rear management bodies, the increasing military and economic capabilities of the country, as well as the increase in the capabilities of the rear Center and the transfer of parts of the functions of the operational rear to the Central link of the rear contributed to solving the tasks of supplying troops with material means. The introduction of new material into the practice of providing troops with material means improved the organization of the supply of troops, changed the planning system and made it possible to establish systematic material support of the fronts, obliged the troops to use material resources economically and rationally. At the same time, the shortcomings in the organization of the logistics of the Armed Forces at the beginning of the war are explained by the discrepancy in the composition, organizational structure, technical equipment and combat readiness of the rear to the corresponding indicators of the troops.
West - Russia - East
Novodran E.M. - The attitude of the Russian Diplomacy towards the Western countries' intervention in the Libyan civil confrontation in 2011 pp. 16-33

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.6.38203

Abstract: The article analyzes the position of Russian diplomacy in relation to the interventionist policy of Western countries in Libya during the deployment of the confrontation in this country in 2011. The object of the study is the policy of the Russian Federation in the Middle East during the active phase of the Arab Spring (2011). The subject of the study is the evolution of the Kremlin's position regarding the intervention of Western countries in the internal affairs of the Middle East (on Libya's example). The main purpose of the work is to study the interventionism of the collective West during the internal political crisis in Libya in 2011 as the main factor that influenced the change in the nature of Moscow's Middle East policy as a whole. The presented research is carried out using general scientific methods of analysis and synthesis, and is also based on the principles of historicism and scientific objectivity. In the course of the study, the author attempts to reflect the objective reasons for the refusal of the Russian Federation from formally following the general policy of Western countries in relation to the Arab Spring and the transition to an independent political course in the Middle East, based primarily on the national interests of the Russian state. Special attention is paid to the comparative analysis of the positions of representatives of the Russian political elite in relation to the operation Unified Protector conducted in Libya.
History of regions of Russia
Arkhipova A.I. - "To take all possible measures to eradicate the sale of alcoholic beverages among the foreign population..." pp. 34-41

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.6.38218

Abstract: The research is based on the principles of historicism and scientific objectivity, the methodological basis is made up of general scientific methods of analysis and synthesis, and specially historical: problem-chronological and retrospective. To achieve this goal, a descriptive method was used, which makes it possible to consider the results of the governors' activities. The source base of the research is represented by office documents from the collections of the National Archive of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), legislative acts from the Code of Laws of the Russian Empire, publications of the local periodical "Yakut regional Gazette". In the context of this article, it is important to understand how the local administration saw the solution to the problem and what measures it took. Regulations and announcements of officials and control of their execution are analyzed. The object of the study is the governor as the main administrative person in the region, the subject of the governors' activities aimed at compliance with the legislation of alcohol control in a foreign environment. The purpose of the article is to consider ways to combat the local administration with the spread of alcohol in the region. The governors drew attention to the fact that local peculiarities of the region were not taken into account when solving the issue. In general, the local administration paid great attention to this problem and, within the framework of its official powers, took the necessary measures to solve it. At the same time, they were not effective enough, the geographical factor, among other things, left an imprint on the implementation of control. The novelty lies in the formulation of the problem, and is determined by the lack of elaboration of the problem under consideration on the regional material.
Archeology
Antonov I.V. - Bashkir-Berkut burials in the Historical and cultural heritage of Bashkortostan: on the question of the ethnicity of burials in the decks pp. 42-53

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.6.38211

Abstract: The object of the study is the burials in the decks of medieval nomads of the Eurasian steppes. Only eight such burials are known in Bashkortostan. The subject of the study is the Bashkir-Berkut burial ground in the Kugarchinsky district. The author examines in detail such aspects of the topic as the funeral rite, inventory, dating. The monument was investigated by N. A. Mazhitov: in 1968 two earthen mounds containing one burial in a wooden block with the orientation of a person with his head to the west were opened, in 1969 another earthen mound containing a similar burial with the orientation of a person with his head to the northeast was opened. All three burials with belongings did not contain horse bones. The monument dates from the second half of the XIII first half of the XIV century. Special attention is paid to the wide distribution of burials in decks among the Turkic and Mongolian tribes of Southern Siberia of the late I early and middle II millenniums. A special contribution of the author to the study of the topic is the conclusion that according to all the main features of the funeral rite and clothing inventory, the Bashkir-Berkut mounds are close to the mounds of the Kipchaks of the Middle Irtysh region of the XI-XII centuries. The novelty of the research lies in establishing the connection of the Bashkir-Berkut burial ground with the Polovtsian tribe of Turkic-Mongolian origin Toksaba. The burial ground is located in the area of settlement of the southern group of Kipchak clans as part of the Bashkirs, the basis of this group is the Kara-Kipchak clan, dating back to the Toksobichi, whose horde in the XII century roamed the steppes between the Volga and the Dnieper, and in the XIII century entered into an alliance with the Mongols. The resettlement of the Kipchaks from the right to the left bank of the Volga is reported by Shezhere, legends and legends of the Bashkirs. The migration of the Polovtsians to the Southern Urals could be connected with the return of the Mongols from the campaign to Europe and the suppression of the uprising of local peoples.
Historical facts, events, phenomena
Tokmurzayev B. - Siberian Regionalism as an intellectual and socio-political movement in the epistolary and scientific-journalistic heritage of G.N. Potanin pp. 54-62

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.6.38021

Abstract: The article is devoted to the problem of reception by the leader of the Siberian regionalism G.N. Potanin, factors of formation, circumstances of development and evolution of the regional movement as an ideology that was formed in the conditions of colonization in the outlying (Siberian) regions of the Russian Empire. The object of the research is the socio-political discourse of Russia in the second half of the 19th - early 20th centuries. The subject of the study is Siberian regionalism as an intellectual and socio-political movement in the epistolary and scientific-journalistic heritage of G.N. Potanin. The purpose of this article is to identify the ideas of G.N. Potanin about regionalism as an intellectual and socio-political movement that was formed in the active phase of his life biography. In methodological terms, the formulation of the problem, its solution and conclusions are provided by approaches and practices tested within the framework of the research direction new cultural and intellectual history, one of the problematic fields of which is intellectual biography and discursive practices. Within the framework of this article, the concept of representation is the semantic one, reflecting the subjective interpretation of the historical reality by G.N. Potanin in connection with the functioning of the regional movement as a sociocultural phenomenon. The sources of the research are the scientific and journalistic writings of G.N. Potanin and his extensive epistolary heritage, which captured the ideas of one of the leaders of the regionalists about the evolution of the movement in the wide chronological boundaries of the second half of the 19th - early 20th centuries. The author concludes that the history of regionalism as an intellectual and social movement was closely associated with the biographical context of the fate of the leaders of the movement. This fact, according to G.N. Potanin determined the evolution of the regional ideology, which has come a long way from manifestations of local patriotism, radical political delusions, to the construction of an original concept based on the recognition of Siberia as a colony of Russia.
Historical time and space
Kadyrov R.R. - The outskirts of the Crimean Khanate (on the question of the mainland territories of the Crimean Khanate) pp. 63-71

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.6.38283

Abstract: The article deals with issues related to the development of the possessions of the Crimean Khanate of the XV-XVIII centuries. Located outside the Crimean Peninsula, which, unfortunately, with the exception of a few researches, have not received proper coverage in historical literature. Among them are the processes of expanding territorial borders, the emergence of settlements and issues of administrative management. To cover this topic, materials from written and cartographic sources were involved, as well as the achievements of historians who touched on issues of historical geography were used. In the course of the study, the author comes to the conclusion that, unlike the territory of the Crimean Peninsula, where an agricultural culture was formed, contributing to the development of an administrative system with clear delineations into districts, the mainland possessions of the Khans were inhabited by nomads, in which the traditional order of governance was preserved. Nevertheless, we cannot say that the vast territory from the Dniester to the Don was considered by the Tatars exclusively as a place of nomadic grazing. Analysis of the sources showed the presence of stationary settlements and fortifications on the banks of the Dnieper River, which indicates the cultural development of these lands. For the Crimean Khans, the preservation and expansion of dominance in the forest-steppe zone of Eastern Europe was extremely important, since it strengthened the security of the interior of the country and expanded the military capabilities of the state due to the migration of nomads to these territories. In addition, the Khanate controlled overland trade routes leading to the Black Sea ports on the peninsula.
Regions of the world in the global historical process
Peshkin V.M. - Foreign policy activities of the Visegrad Group in the period 2004-2014 pp. 72-84

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.6.38076

Abstract: The subject of the study is the historical conditions in which the process of designing and implementing the Eastern Partnership program began, which became the only significant foreign policy initiative of the Visegrad Four. The role of Poland, which positioned itself as a link between the EU and part of the post-Soviet space, is considered. The plans of France, Bulgaria and Romania in 2003-2004 for a number of post-Soviet countries, reflecting the ambitions of Paris, Sofia and Bucharest in the Black Sea and Mediterranean region, are presented. But under pressure from the European Commission, these initiatives were not further developed, and a decision was made to implement the Eastern Partnership project. The development tools used by V4 for the implementation of the Eastern Partnership project, due to the limited resource base of the Quartet countries, are considered. The criticism of the Eastern Partnership project is being studied, due to the lack of a common understanding among EU members of what prospects the new project can offer to "partner countries". The novelty of the scientific research in the framework of this article is expressed in the analysis of the "energy crises" and the change in the EU's approaches to the post-Soviet space in the late 2000s, which became the basis for the development and implementation by the Visegrad Group in 2004-2014 of the Eastern Partnership program. In this program, the "four" countries played the role of curators and a link between the EU and the post-Soviet space. The implementation of the project allowed V4 to gain political weight within the European Union. When developing relations with the "partner countries", the Visegrad Group tried to make maximum use of all available mechanisms and tools (for example, the potential and experience of implementing joint projects within the framework of the International Visegrad Foundation). At the same time, our own capabilities and resources (coupled with the ambiguous perception of the Eastern Partnership in the EU) did not allow us to fully implement all the stated strategic goals, which seriously affected the effectiveness of the project and the results obtained.
Evolution, reform, revolution
Fedotova D.Y., Sulimov V.S. - Tobolsk Men's Gymnasium and the revolutionary unrest of 1905-1907. pp. 85-97

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.6.37726

EDN: FWQKFW

Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of the activities of students of the oldest educational institution in Western Siberia the Tobolsk Men's Gymnasium during the revolutionary upheavals of 1905-1907. The subject of the study is the activity of students of the Tobolsk men's gymnasium in 1905-1907. The object of the study is the Tobolsk men's gymnasium. The work is based on the principles of historicism, integrity, objectivity, comprehensiveness. Both general scientific and traditional methods for historical research are used: systematic, historical-comparative, problem-historical.Attention is paid to the analysis of the features of the educational process, reflected in the protocols of pedagogical councils and reports of the director of the gymnasium P. I. Panov. It is noted that despite the control over the behavior of gymnasium students by the director, teachers, classroom teachers and parents, students were gradually drawn into political processes covering the whole country.The authors consider the main requirements put forward by the pupils of the men's gymnasium in the fall of 1905, which were presented to the management of the educational institution in the form of a petition containing 29 points. It should be taken into account that the petition was sent from European Russia to unite the demands of secondary school students to change the educational process. The paper concludes that high school students opposed prohibitions and restrictions, did not have a clear political program and a single plan. Their actions were spontaneous and chaotic. In this article, the authors use a representative source base of unpublished materials from the collections of the State Archives of Tobolsk and Tomsk relating to the history of the Tobolsk Men's Gymnasium.
History of law and state
Bakharev D.V. - "It is impossible not only to provide for all the needs of places of detention caused by overcrowding, but also to feed prisoners": interdepartmental financial disputes on the eve of the birth of the Soviet camp system (1928-1929). pp. 98-111

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.6.38344

EDN: FBDOFY

Abstract: The subject of the study is the financial and economic prerequisites of the hardware confrontation on the strategy and priorities of the development of the Soviet correctional labor system, observed at the turn of the 1920s-1930s. Archival documents of that era are analyzed, indicating that the NKVD of the RSFSR and its subordinate Main Directorate of places of detention in the specified period experienced an acute shortage of funds for the maintenance of constantly an increasing contingent of prisoners. The leadership of the People's Commissariat (V. N. Tolmachev) and GUMZ (E. G. Shirvindt) made significant hardware efforts to eliminate the shortage of monetary resources and, with the support of the SNK of the RSFSR, sometimes even acted bypassing the People's Commissariat of Finance of the RSFSR for these purposes. Therefore, including for this reason, it categorically refused to participate in the financing of measures to create new correctional labor camps under the auspices of the OGPU. At the same time, representatives of the NKVD opposed the very idea of expanding the camp system and transferring other categories of prisoners to the OGPU in addition to those convicted of counterrevolutionary crimes. The article also cites other archival documents, which, together with the rest of the sources analyzed in it, cast doubt on the well-established opinion that the head of the NKVD V. N. Tolmachev was one of the initiators of the project of transition to a mass system of camp organization of forced labor of prisoners in the USSR.
Cultural heritage
Likhodey E.M. - Review of some documents reflecting the activities of women's and children's public organizations in the 1990s, against the background of the transition from the protection of motherhood and childhood to the protection of women's and children's rights in Russian politics pp. 112-129

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.6.36919

EDN: GLUJWW

Abstract: The article is an overview of some documents reflecting the activities of two public organizations dealing with women's issues, and one leading activities in the field of children's issues in the 1990s in Russia. The study of documents of public organizations of that period becomes particularly relevant when studying the transition in the country's policy from the protection of motherhood and childhood to the protection of the rights of women and children, since the activities of such organizations reflect the problems that existed in society. Public organizations were often associated with state authorities, political parties or other political associations, as their representatives actively participated in the activities of the former. In this regard, the study of policy formation in this issue is impossible without studying the activities of public organizations. The article, divided into two semantic headings, examines the goals and objectives of public organizations, the agenda of events held by them, resolutions adopted, possible ways to solve public problems that form the vision of the situation by representatives of public organizations. The scientific novelty of the presented article is determined by the fact that in order to write it, the author managed to attract a range of sources stored in the department of non-traditional press of the SPIB of Russia, and to highlight the activities of public organizations in conjunction with the history of the development of some problems in women's and children's issues in Russian politics, reflected in the documents of public organizations. In addition to these sources, periodical press data and memoirs of the participants of the described events, published by themselves, were also used. The conducted research made it possible to make additions to the process of policy formation in the women's and children's issues in the 1990s from the point of view of history. The results of the research can be used in the preparation of courses on the history of Russia, special courses on the history of state and law, when writing textbooks and textbooks.
Interdisciplinary research
Kreitsberga K.A. - The work of the first laboratories of experimental psychology in the key of the pedagogical community at the beginning of the 20th century. pp. 130-142

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.6.36136

EDN: GXHZKJ

Abstract: The subject of the study is the origin of the first experimental laboratories and their interaction with the pedagogical community. The emphasis is placed on the prerequisites and controversial points of this cooperation, which will become the basis for pedological experiments in the 20s, and the legal functioning of the new, at that time, research space is also taken into account. The object of the study is pedology as a new scientific direction. The author examines in detail such aspects of the topic as socio-economic prerequisites, formation and scientific potential of pedological experiments. Particular attention is paid to specific representatives, their professional activities, and the assessment of a new direction in the pre-revolutionary space of the Russian Empire. The main conclusions of the study are: identification of the "artificiality" of the new trend, generalization of the experience gained, analysis of the assessment of the first successes of the laboratories, the significance of the work of the first pedological laboratory of A. P. Nechaev in St. Petersburg, comparison of the general course of development of the experimental science of pedology with European analogues. A special contribution of the author to the study of the topic is the reconstruction of the mental space of interaction between teachers and leading specialists in the field of pedological experiments, involving archival documents of the Central State Administration of St. Petersburg regarding the history of the first pedological studio in St. Petersburg. The study attempts to trace the scientific path of the dissemination of pedagogical ideas of the new paradigm. The novelty of the study is to identify real changes in the pedagogical community of the early 20th century.
Philosophy of history, historiography, chronology/source studies
Khomenko D.P. - The Problem of the "Russian World": theory and historiography pp. 143-156

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.6.36008

EDN: HCWJQY

Abstract: The article presents the problem of the split of the "Russian World" as a consequence of the collapse of the USSR in 1991. Russian Russian historiography is analyzed by the author, comparing the opinions of experts on the civilizational criterion in the modern history of the Russian people and the "Russian world" in order to create a generalized definition of the concept of "Russian World". The so-called "Putin Doctrine" is considered separately, understood as a set of state measures to consolidate the post-Soviet space on the principles of common security and common interests. The problem of the ongoing split of the "Russian World" due to the Ukrainian crisis is also analyzed. In his work, using historical-systemic and historical-synergetic methods, the author, based on the opinions of specialists from different branches of science, comes to a theoretical result regarding the topic under study. In the modern historiography of the issue, there is still no consensus on the final definition, which indicates the interdisciplinary complexity of the concept. But this especially testifies to the high relevance of the definition of the concept of "Russian World" for the formation of the national security strategy of Russia. The article analyzes the sources of the Russkiy Mir Foundation, the Center for Military and Political Studies of the MGIMO Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, the Izborsky Club, and the Center for Global Interests (Washington, USA). The historiography of the works of doctors of Historical Sciences of Russia Nikonov V.A., Podberezkin A.I., Komarov G.A., Harvard University political scientist Huntington S.F., philosophers Shchedrovitsky P.G., Averyanov V.V. is also analyzed.Russian Russian World In the course of the study, the author presented a generalized definition of the concept of the "Russian World" and the problem of the split of the "Russian World" in the context of modern historical approaches.
History of ethnicities, peoples, nations
Musaeva A.A. - Preservation of ethnic and cultural features by Jordanian Chechens. The role of the Chechen language and the newspaper "Daimohk" in their lives pp. 157-166

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.6.35952

EDN: HHWIYQ

Abstract: The subject of the study is the features of the history of migration processes in Chechnya, considered by the example of the process of migration of Chechens to the territory of the Ottoman Empire in the middle of the XIX century. Considerable attention is paid in the article to the process of integration of Chechen immigrants with the local population, the role of Chechens in the life and development of Arab society is revealed. As an example of successful assimilation and adaptation, data on famous Chechens who held high positions and had honor and respect in Jordan are given. Part of the article is devoted to the current life of Jordanian Chechens and testifies to the success of their preservation of their national traditions and language. The novelty of the research lies in the study of the peculiarities of the preservation of the Jordanian Chechens of their national language in the conditions of bilingualism and biculturalism. A special contribution of the author to the study of this topic is the study of the publications of Jordanian Chechens published in the national newspaper "Daimohk", published on the territory of the Chechen Republic. This publication, being, in fact, the only newspaper in the world printed exclusively in the Chechen language, serves for Jordanian Chechens as a reference point for spelling in their native language and, accordingly, a kind of teacher of the Chechen language. The article also discusses the relationship of Jordanian Chechens with the editorial office of the newspaper "Daimohk" and their joint work on the compilation of the Chechen multi-dictionary.
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