Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue № 05/2022
Contents of Issue № 05/2022
Interdisciplinary research
Semenov A.S., Kazenkov O.Y. - Results of determination of the Y-DNA haplogroup for an individual from the Nikultsinsky burial ground of the Gavrilov-Yamsky district of the Yaroslavl region pp. 1-9


Abstract: The purpose of the study of this article is to establish, through DNA analysis, the Y-chromosome haplogroup of an ancient burial found within the location of the famous Nikultsinsky burial ground (Fatyanovo culture) in the Gavrilov-Yamsky district of the Yaroslavl region on the right-bank plateau of the Vondel river. The article describes the archaeological context and the history of the site discovery. The predicted belonging of the individual to the Y-haplogroup R1a and the observed borderline position of the haplotype between the variants R1a-Z280 and R1a-Z93 does not allow rejecting the hypothesis that the described remains belong to the Fatyanovo culture of the Bronze Age III-II thousand BC. At the moment, Y-haplotypes of carriers of the Fatyanovo culture have not yet been cited in scientific articles. Only one work is known in which SNPs of a "high level" were given, which is not enough to identify the genesis and connections of the Fatyanovo culture. In addition, the task of dating and archaeological attribution of the described burial found within the Nikultsinsky burial ground in the zone of its destruction is important. This is due to the fact that the Fatyanovo burials are rare and of high scientific value. The resulting data on the Y-STR haplotype does not contradict the results obtained earlier, and does not allow us rejecting the hypothesis about the Fatyanovo character of this burial.
Issues of war and peace
Ogorodnikova S.V. - Patriotism of the nobility during the Patriotic War of 1812 pp. 10-18


Abstract: Examples of military patriotism on the battlefields are considered in detail in the literature, and much less attention is paid to the study of the patriotism of the civilian population. The object of research is literary and archival sources describing the life of nobles during the War of 1812. The subject of study and classification is the manifestation of patriotism of representatives of the nobility in the period under review. The paper provides a comprehensive assessment of various sources devoted to the manifestation of patriotic feelings of the nobility. A critical analysis and comparison of historical documents and their assessments made by scientists has been carried out. The peculiarities of the manifestation of patriotism of representatives of the noble class, taking into account age and gender groups: men, women, children, are shown. The ways of manifestation of secular and religious patriotism are considered.   The models of patriotic behavior characteristic of nobles are singled out and described, which is the novelty of this study. The main strategies of behavior are: 1) participation in hostilities as part of military units organized from their serfs; 2) donations to the front in cash and in kind; 3) support for male defenders of the Motherland; 4) indirect participation in patriotic events; 5) personal participation, consisting in interaction with the wounded, orphans and other groups of the population, suffered during the war. The implementation of various patriotic behavioral strategies is shown by the example of specific historical figures: Nadezhda Durova, Margarita Tuchkova, the Konovnitsyn family, the Rayevsky family.
Khizhnyak A.V. - Military cooperation of Russia with the Syrian Arab Republic as an instrument of the Russia's New Middle East Policy (2000-2008) pp. 19-29


Abstract: The article examines the key aspects of military-technical cooperation between the Russian Federation and the Syrian Arab Republic in the first two terms of Vladimir Putin's tenure as President of Russia. Relations between Moscow and Damascus in the sphere of arms and special equipment supplies are considered in the general context of the updated foreign policy of the Russian Federation, initiated by Vladimir Putin, and which implied, among other things, the return of Russia's position as an active geopolitical player in the Middle East. Having long-standing political and economic ties with Moscow, Syria was rightly considered by the Russian leadership as the most suitable ally in solving the task mentioned above. Analyzing the history of supplies to Syria of the main articles of Russian military products, the author comes to the conclusion that during the period under review, Moscow managed to lay a new solid foundation for bilateral relations, even though it had to be done to a certain extent with an eye to the position of other regional players and, above all, the countries of the collective West. When building its political course towards the SAR in the period under review, the Kremlin adhered primarily to the principle of restraint and pragmatism, taking into account the realities of international relations in the Middle East region and setting as its main goal the counteraction of the hegemonic claims of the United States, which sought to turn this already conflictogenic point of the planet into a zone of "controlled chaos".
World of ideas and world of the mundane
Kolpakov M.Y., Mikheev D.V. - The everyday life of the Pskov borderland at the dawn of the Peter the Great era pp. 30-42


Abstract: The subject of the study is the daily routine of the Pskov border region in the description of foreign travelers who visited the Russian state at the beginning of the reign of Peter the Great. The testimonies of travelers, diplomats and the military allow to trace the first changes related to the road infrastructure, the attitude towards foreigners and the way of life of the local population observed in the last quarter of the XVII century. The impression that the Pskov road made on travelers often left its indelible imprint on the entire perception of the Russian state by foreigners, and through numerous letters, diaries and reports, the image of Russia in Europe was laid on the eve of large-scale Peter's reforms. Up until the beginning of the Great Northern War, the foundation of St. Petersburg and the expansion of the borders of the Russian state, the roads of the Pskov border played an extremely important role in maintaining contacts with European countries, which led to increased attention to them both from the tsarist administration and foreign travelers. The quality of roads and related infrastructure in the border region continued to improve during the period under review. Travelers compared the sections of their route to the roads after crossing the border. Many foreign travelers noted the best quality of the road in the possessions of the Russian tsar in comparison with Polish and even Swedish possessions.
Social history
Borodina E.V., Kus'kalo Y.V. - Women's Movement and attempts to organize the National Women's Council in Russia at the beginning of the XX century. pp. 43-55


Abstract: The subject of this study is the organization of the National Women's Council in Russia at the beginning of the XX century. The study was conducted using a gender approach in history (historical feminology). In addition, the problems under consideration were studied using the methods of source studies, mainly internal criticism of historical sources. The source base of the article was made up of both documentary (legislation and materials of women's congresses and organizations) and narrative sources. First of all, these are the documents of the A.I. Filosofov Foundation: draft charters of women's organizations, letters of petition, responses of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and others. Of considerable interest is also the women's periodical press, which published reports and resolutions of women's congresses, memorable articles about representatives of the women's movement. The scientific novelty of the research lies both in the inclusion of new source complexes into scientific circulation, and in the reconstruction of the process of creating the All-Russian Women's Council, an organization that was seen as the coordinating center of the Russian women's movement. As a result of the analysis of sources and historiography, the authors came to the conclusion that at the beginning of the XX century the women's movement in Russia focused on the struggle for civil and political rights, for which it was necessary to unite the maximum possible number of women who aspired to equality. For this purpose, along with the creation of women's organizations and the publication of regular periodicals, women's congresses are beginning to be held. The First All-Russian Women's Congress for the first time raised the issue of creating a National Women's Council to unite all women's societies and organizations. Attempts to create the organization continued for 20 years, but were crowned with success only in 1917. However, Russian feminism has not been able to create an international organization. Despite the progressive nature of the activities of women's movement activists, the civil war in Russia interrupted the work of the organization.
History and Economics
Anshin D.V. - Historical stages of the evolution of state regulation of banking activity in the USSR: 1920s - early 1930s pp. 56-72


Abstract: The article examines the evolution of state regulation of the banking sector in the initial period of socialist construction in the USSR. The development of the monetary system and the banking sector is considered in relation to the tasks facing the national economy of the country in the 1920s and 30s. The dynamics of these tasks determined the development of regulatory influences, the emergence of appropriate forms and mechanisms. The stages of the implementation of the credit reform of 1930s and its results are analyzed. The sequence of preparatory measures of the reform is considered, which concerned both the creation of prerequisites for the transition of enterprises to work in new monetary conditions, and the strengthening of the role of the State Bank as the main conductor of the reform. The analysis of the dynamics of the sectoral structure of lending and the changes that occurred as a result of the transition of the economy to new operating conditions. From the standpoint of a systematic approach, the structure of the system of state regulation of banking activity after the completion of the credit reform is studied. This structure is considered on the basis of the proposed organizational and functional model. The layout of the organizational and functional modeling of state banking regulation proposed by the author allows to consider the forms and mechanisms of regulation and interaction of participants in this process from the standpoint of a systematic approach. The Soviet experience of creating a system of state regulation is also interesting with a certain sequence of transformations: the preparation of preliminary measures distributed over time, then the implementation of a radical basic transformation (credit reform proper), the adjustment of decisions and practices based on the analysis of the actual results of transformations. Such an approach and aspect of the reform has been little studied in historical studies, but its understanding for modern Russian realities could be useful.
History of law and state
Dergunov A.A. - Historical and legal analysis of the genesis of pre-emptive law as a general theoretical phenomenon pp. 73-86


Abstract: The object of the study is social relations taken in historical retrospect, arising, changing and developing under the influence of the advantages of some subjects over others. The subject of the study is the preferential rights taken in historical retrospect. The purpose of the presented research is to form the foundations of the concept of the legislative category of preemptive right. Based on the genesis of the preemptive right, the conclusion is made about the dominance of the objective component in this phenomenon, which implies the possibility of having an additional benefit in comparison with other subjects. It is noted that there is a need to distinguish the pre-emptive right from related categories, primarily privileges and benefits. Dialectical materialism has been chosen as the basic method of scientific cognition, which makes it possible to study objective and subjective factors in the essence of pre-emptive law in dynamics. The historical method is actively used, which makes it possible to highlight the genesis of the pre-emptive right at various stages of historical development. A comparative legal method is used to investigate the evolution of the pre-emptive right in the legislation of various states of the world. The scientific novelty of the work lies in the very formulation of the problem of the need for scientific analysis of the genesis of pre-emptive law as an objective and universal phenomenon, implemented not only in normative acts regulating civil legal relations, but also finding its expression in almost all branches of modern legislation. The relevance of the study is determined by the severity of the problems associated with the presence of such a phenomenon as pre-emptive law in the legislation. The prevalence of the latter in regulatory prescriptions can lead to the rights inequality. In turn, the verified establishment and application of this phenomenon makes it possible to optimize the positions of various participants in public relations regulated by law. The historical analysis of the genesis of the preemptive right allows to conclude about the inevitability and permanence of its presence in the legislation, which determines the relevance of the study.
History and Politics
Высочина Е. - The Benghazi Treaty is the unfulfilled foundation of modern Italian-Libyan relations pp. 87-99


Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of the Benghazi Treaty of Friendship, Partnership and Cooperation of 2008, concluded between Italy and Libya. This treaty is of particular interest from the point of view of its retrospective, since less than two years after its entry into force, Italy unilaterally suspended the treaty in order to enable NATO allies to launch airstrikes on Libya from military bases in Italy. The author pays attention to the reasons that necessitated the signing of this agreement, originating from the time of the formation of colonial relations between Italy and Libya. Having determined the significance of the treaty taking into account the historical development of the two countries, with the help of content analysis, the author analyzes the articles of the document in order to determine, confirm or refute the expectations of Italy and Libya from the Benghazi Treaty. Content analysis is carried out in three directions: analysis of the preamble, evaluation of the frequency and percentage in the content of the contract and a summary analysis of the entire content. As a result, the author forms the corresponding summary tables, on the basis of which the content of the agreement is evaluated. As a result, based on a retrospective analysis of the relationship between Italian-Libyan relations, an assessment of the factors that led to the signing of the treaty, a content analysis of its content and an assessment of a number of consequences after its signing, the author concludes that the idea of the Benghazi Treaty is promising, but not implemented in the development of relations between Italy and Libya.
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