Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue 04/2022
Contents of Issue 04/2022
Beliefs, religions, churches
Tatarnikova A.I. - The repressive policy of the Soviet government towards the Church and clergy in 1918-1941 . (on the example of the Tobolsk diocese) pp. 1-13

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.4.37851

Abstract: The article characterizes the influence of political repressions carried out by the Bolsheviks on the situation of the church and clergy in the 1918-1941-ies. on the example of the Tobolsk diocese. The object of the study is the repressive policy of the Soviet government in 1918-1941, the subject is the church and clergy of the Tobolsk diocese. The influence of the anti-religious policy of the Soviet government on the functioning of churches in the country as a whole, its impact on the work of churches and monasteries in the Tobolsk diocese is considered. Special attention is paid to the study of the reflection of the anti-religious policy of the Bolsheviks in the destinies of the clergy and parishioners of the Tobolsk diocese, the analysis of statistical data on the number of victims of repression among the clergy. Conclusions are drawn about the results of the anti-church policy of the Soviet government in the diocese: mass closure of churches, removal of bells, seizure of church valuables, arrests of clergy, deprivation of their voting rights, executions. In the Tyumen region during the years of the "great terror" 176 representatives of the acting or former clergy were shot. Of these, 17% are women, mostly former nuns. The persons against whom the execution sentence was carried out were divided into several age categories, and the average age of the murdered clergy was determined. The results of the study show the scale of the tragedy in the history of the Russian Orthodox Church caused by the irreconcilable position of the new government in relation to religion.
Tesaev Z.A. - The history of the Imams of the Caucasus and the Gunoy community in the collected works of the late 19th century pp. 14-22

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.4.37879

Abstract: The article examines the content of two of the four narratives of the Gunoic collection of works of the late 19th century. The first work devoted to the activities of the three imams Gazi-Muhammad, Gamzat-bek and Shamil received the conditional name History of the Imams; the second is dedicated to the ancestor of the Chechen community Gunoy, his descendants and their movements in the region History of Gunoys. The material is written in Arabic graphics with elements of adjam. Compiled, according to the colophon, in 1316 AH (18981899) for Mazhir Ganukaev, a native of Gunoy. Before the direct translation of the texts of the essays, the author of the article carried out a brief analysis of the content of the sources, based on a comparison of their content with the data of documents or legends. The information in the History of the Imams was compared with the data from the reports of the tsarist officers direct participants in the events described in the essay or the commanders of the Caucasian army and confirmed by them, with the exception of the cases indicated in the author's analysis. The content of the History of the Gunoy is supported by references to other researchers, including pre-revolutionary (Iv. Popov). The publication of the translation and the study of the content of these narratives are being made for the first time. The sources reveal previously known historical information and supplement them with new details, acting as an additional source on the history of the North Caucasus and Chechnya, in particular.
History and historical science
Cherkasov A.V., Kozlov M.N. - Historiographical facts and historiographical sources in the study of the Paleolithic Era of the Crimean region pp. 23-32

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.4.37795

Abstract: The subject of this publication is an analysis of the content and nature of the categories "historical source", "historiographical fact", "historiographical source" in relation to the problems of Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic studies of the Crimean region in the second half of the XIX - XX centuries. The research methodology is based on the complex application of key scientific principles: historicism, logical interrelation, objectivity, comparative historical approach, retrospection. The problem field and structure of the article includes: the specification of the conceptual and categorical tools for the historiographical study of the Stone Age of the Crimean region, the formulation of priority issues of the primitive archeology of the peninsula, as well as a comparative characterization of the corpus of relevant historiographical and historical sources. From the authors' point of view, a historiographical view of the phenomenon of the formation and development of regional primitive archaeology allows us to more accurately describe the process of its genesis, identify and characterize nominational directions in research, give biographical portraits of scientists and researchers of ancient history, identify social, organizational and scientific factors influencing the process of knowledge formation. In other words, the new role of historiography of archaeology, together with the cognitive capabilities of the history as a science, creates a favorable opportunity not only to study the history of Russian archaeological knowledge, but also contributes to clarifying the methodological foundations of this direction.
History of law and state
Khamidullin U. - Patrimonial law of the Bashkirs of the late XVI century – 30s of the XVIII century: the development of the institute, the specifics of legal regulation. pp. 33-45

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.4.37852

Abstract: The article examines the main trends in the development of the Bashkir patrimonial law institute in the period from the end of the XVI century to the 30s of the XVIII century in the conditions of legal pluralism. The question of transformation and its integration into the Russian property law is investigated. Based on the analysis of the Russian patrimonial legislation of the XVI-XVII, normative acts regulating Bashkir land relations, materials of judicial proceedings of the Ufa writ hut and other archival documents, Bashkir legends and chronicles, the author attempts to reconstruct the mechanism of legal regulation of Bashkir patrimonial law, identifying the specifics and logic of its development. As a result of the conducted research , the author comes to the following conclusions: Russian Russian Federation 1) in the conditions of polyuridism that developed in Bashkiria after joining the Russian state, the Moscow authorities, in order to adapt the local law and order, including the order of land ownership, to the new political and legal realities, carried out a legal policy to preserve the patrimonial relations of Bashkirs; the general declarative norms of charters received by Bashkirs from the Russian tsars when accepting citizenship, laid the vector of special legal regulation in the field of Bashkir land rights; 2) the establishment of patrimonial law as an institution of customary law took place through judicial (law enforcement) authorization; 3) a cardinal change in the paradigm of legal regulation of Bashkir patrimonial relations occurred with the adoption of the Decree of February 11, 1736, which legalized the sale of Bashkir patrimonial estates; the introduction of certain elements of the civil property regime it created conditions for the transformation of traditional ancestral land ownership into an institution of collective ownership. Thus, there is an evolution of legal regulation in the field of patrimonial rights of Bashkirs: the former legal policy on the selection of the most optimal mechanism for the adaptation of patrimonial law is replaced by a policy of selection (selection) of customs for the possibility of their application within the framework of a single positive Russian law.
History of regions of Russia
Ryabova O.V., Smirnova I.P. - From the history of the development of tourist and excursion business in Nizhny Novgorod in the 1920s. pp. 46-53

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.4.37850

Abstract: The subject of the study is the study of the development of tourist and excursion business in the Nizhny Novgorod province in the first decade of Soviet power. The purpose of the work is to analyze trends in the development of tourism, contradictions between commercially oriented tourism and the ideology of Soviet power. The article describes the first tourist and sightseeing routes. A detailed description of long-distance excursions to the resorts of the Crimea and the Caucasus, as well as to the industrial centers of the country is given. The role of trade unions in providing benefits when paying for vouchers is indicated. The methodology of the work is based on the principles of historicism and objectivity, as well as a systematic approach that allows a comprehensive examination of the subject under study. The novelty of the scientific work lies in the identification and generalization of historical sources, the involvement in scientific circulation of archival data showing the activities of the Excursion Bureau of the Nizhny Novgorod Province in the period under study. The conducted research showed that tourist and excursion activities, despite its important role in the ideological propaganda of the Soviet government, were characterized by insufficient funding. Attempts to commercialize this type of activity, to achieve the possibility of making a profit have not been successful. The reason for this was the low incomes of the population (therefore, trade unions had to subsidize tourist trips), and the ideological orientation of this type of activity. Therefore, with the beginning of the "Stalinist modernization" of the country and the end of the NEP, the concept of the so-called "proletarian tourism", with its idea of organizing a voluntary society of amateur tourism, is becoming increasingly popular.
Personality in history
Mikheeva V.V. - The early years of the biography of Nikolai Kostomarov pp. 54-61

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.4.37231

Abstract: The article is devoted to the early years of Nikolai Kostomarov's biography. The scientific literature still pays little attention to this period in the life of Nikolai Kostomarov. In this study, attention is focused on the early stage of the historian's life. In most cases, pre-revolutionary literature showed interest in this period. Later, the early years of the scientist's biography were presented only in the form of individual episodes. Traditionally, the main attention of researchers has been attracted by the problem of participation in the national liberation movement, its historical and political views. The subject of the study is the initial stage of the formation and development of the socio-political views of N.I. Kostomarov. The methodological basis consists of the principles of historicism and objectivity. The scientific novelty of the study is as follows: the pedigree of the Kostomarov family is partially reconstructed, the conditions in which the personality of the future scientist was formed are shown. The article describes the first seventeen years of the life of the future Russian and Ukrainian historian, ethnographer, writer and literary critic. The conditions in which the development of Kostomarov's personality took place, difficult life circumstances that contributed to the formation of his character are shown. The practical significance of the research lies in the fact that the actual data can be used in generalizing works characterizing the socio-political situation of the Russian Empire of the XIX century, in historiographical studies.
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