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Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue є 01/2022
Contents of Issue є 01/2022
History of regions of Russia
Tatarnikova A.I. - The development of sociocultural infrastructure in rural localities of Tobolsk and Tomsk governorates in the early XX century: comparative analysis pp. 1-8

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.1.37291

Abstract: This article carries out a comparative analysis of the development of sociocultural infrastructure of rural localities in the two Western Siberian governorates – Tobolsk and Tomsk. The object of this research is the rural localities of the region, while the subject is their sociocultural infrastructure represented by religious, educational, medical care, and other institutions. The goal lies in comparative characteristics of the development of infrastructure facilities in Tobolsk and Tomsk rural localities, as well as determination of their common and specific features. The “Lists of Populated Localities” of Tobolsk and Tomsk governorates for 1903 – 1904 and 1911 – 1912 served as the key source for this research. Similar data contained in the aforementioned “Lists” allowed analyzing the statistical data on the number of localities that featured different elements of sociocultural infrastructure in two time samples, as well as tracing changes in the development of settlements in historical dynamics. The conclusion is made that in the level of sociocultural development of rural localities, Tomsk governorate was ahead of Tobolsk governorate. The author notes is a significant difference between the sociocultural development of Russian localities and settlements of the indigenous population of the region (Tatars, Khanty, Mansi, and other). The infrastructure of the indigenous population remained poorly developed. Some of them had only religious facilities, such as mosques, and schools under them. The number of religious, educational, medical care, and postal institutions in Siberian settlements was increasing; however, their network remained scarce, and the slow pace of development did not correspond to the growth rate of the settlement network of the region.
Issues of war and peace
Semenov M.A. - Healthcare in Eastern Siberia during the Great Patriotic War pp. 9-23

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.1.37290

Abstract: The subject of this research lies in examination of the key trends in healthcare development of Eastern Siberia and implemented activity during the Great Patriotic War based on the statistical data extracted from the USSR People's Commissariat of Health of the State Archive of the Russian Federation. The author traces the dynamics of development the network of in-patient, outpatient-polyclinic and sanitary anti-epidemic medical care facilities of the region, and the state of its human resourcing. The data is provided on the number of patients admitted to the in-patient medical institutions and the amount of visits in out-patient medical facilities. The article reveals key results of the Eastern Siberian medicine activity, as well as the mechanism for their achievement. This author is first to analyze the summary data on the development of healthcare in Eastern Siberia. The conclusion is made on the slow development of medical network and difficult situation with its human resourcing. It is established that the due to the deployment of a network of evacuation hospitals in Krasnoyarsk Krai, this regions faced the most challenging situation. The reduced healthcare capacity entailed the decline in rendering medical aid in Eastern Siberia. However, due to the accurate determination of priority tasks abd competent utilization of the available human and material resources, the healthcare system of Eastern Siberia maintained the provision of medical care to the population at the minimum essential level, as well as fought the group of gastrointestinal infections. Therefore, despite the severe wartime conditions, the healthcare system of Eastern Siberia managed to reduce the mortality rate of the population significantly.
Historical sources and artifacts
Nadekhina Y.P., Geokchakyan A.G. - Commercial and industrial world of Moscow and periodical press of the pre-revolutionary Russia pp. 24-32

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.1.37272

Abstract: After St. Petersburg was proclaimed the capital of the Russian Empire, Moscow retained status of the first capital, which gave the city some substantial advantages. On the one hand, this is remoteness of the city from the central government, while on the hand – a well-developed infrastructure of the capital city. These peculiarities strongly affected the development of the Moscow periodical press. The author notes a considerable role of Moscow as one of the leading commercial and industrial centers of the Russian Empire. The goal of this article lies in the analysis of the areas of common interests of the Russian pre-revolutionary journalism and Moscow entrepreneurship. For achieving the set goal, the author analyzes the periodical press, memoirs of the contemporaries, and certain other sources. The conclusion is made that the close interaction between the Russian periodical press and Moscow entrepreneurship begins at the time of development capitalist relations in Russia. The three directions of such cooperation are observed by the early XX century: the press as a branch of entrepreneurship; periodical press as the sociopolitical platform for the representatives of commercial and industrial world of Moscow; and Russian entrepreneurs as the object of publications. Overall, the interaction of the press and Moscow entrepreneurship contributes to the formation of a unique image of pre-revolutionary Moscow.
Social history
Vasil'ev M.A. - The establishment of fire service training in Baikal Region during the 1960s Ц 1980s pp. 33-40

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.1.37172

Abstract: The subject of this research is the peculiarities of establishment of educational institutions of fire service of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR over the period from 1960 to1980 in the territory of Baikal Region. The article provides a brief analysis on the transformation of structural units of instructional training, as well as on the role and list of heads of academic divisions at the stage of establishment and development of Irkutsk Fire Service-Technical School of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR, as well as Irkutsk branch of the Higher Engineering Fire Service-Technical School of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR. Research methodology employs a specific historical approach (M. V. Astakhov, I. D. Kovalchenko, V. F. Kolomiytsev, A. P. Pronstein, etc.), as well as summary, comparison, synthesis, classification, concretization; analysis of archival documents, legislation and scientific literature; retrospective analysis; and method of historical analogies. The scientific novelty consists in detection and generalization of the historical sources and archival data that contain detailed information on the establishment and development of the structure of academic divisions in fire service training schools of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR. The presented material are relevant for wide audience, since the study of academic, structural-organizational and service activity in the fire service educational institutions of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR is crucial for tracing the establishment and development of the system of departmental education of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR in the territory of Baikal Region in the XX century.
History and Economics
Panasuk V.V. - Stolypin land management in Kaluga governorate during the World War I (July 1914 Ц June 1917) pp. 41-52

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.1.37378

Abstract: The object of this research is the implementation of agrarian reforms in Kaluga governorate in the early XX century, while the subject is the analysis of Stolypin land management in the region during the World War I. The chronological framework this research cover the period from the beginning warfare until the end of June 1917, when Stolypin land management has been officially completed. Research methodology leans on the principles of scientific objectivity, historicism, and problematicity, which contributed to establishment of causal links, as well as study of the events, phenomena, and processes in their development. The author concludes that the World War I has interrupted the progressive development of Stolypin land management in Kaluga governorate that was purposed prior to the war. The long-running military conflict led to gradual curtailment of the entire process of land management (formation of homesteads, issuance of loans, etc.), and the Provisional Government that came to power during the February Revolution made the final call on its termination. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that his is the first work within Russian historiography dedicated to this topic. The article introduces new archival materials into the scientific discourse, which allowed reconstructing the course of events, phenomena, and processes, as well as provide their assessment. The acquired results can be valuable for wide audience and historians, used in preparation of lectures on history, textbooks, and practical classes.
History of regions of Russia
Tsyretarova B.B. - The problems of elimination of child homelessness and neglect in Buryatia in the 1920s pp. 53-65

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.1.34818

Abstract: Homelessness is a long-standing and urgent problem in Russia, which affects the social, moral and cultural aspects of life of the population. The subject of this research is the fight against homelessness and neglect of minors in the 1920s in a particular region. Analysis is conducted on the measures aimed at elimination of child homelessness and neglect in the Buryat-Mongolian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. The relevance of this research lies in examination of both positive and negative experience in the process of elimination of homelessness, which can be valuable for solution of the socially acute problems of child homelessness and social orphanhood in the current context. The use of descriptive method allowed analyzing the activity of state institutions and public organizations on the creation of conditions for social protection of homeless children. The historical-systemic method formed a holistic picture of countering child homelessness in the 1920s, as well as illustrated the functional interrelation of various organizational forms. The conducted research demonstrates that social aid to children aimed at overcoming and preventing homelessness is characterized by scarcity of financial resources, absence of consistent actions in this sphere, as well as insufficient assistance received from the public and organizations.
History and Ideology
Ivanov A.A. - Social Institution of religion in the Ideology of Bolshevism pp. 66-72

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.1.34852

Abstract: In the current conditions of a shift in the moral values and ideological focus, the questions of interaction of various social institutions that ensure the integration of society based on the achievements of national culture are gaining relevance. Thus, there is heightened interest in the Church theme, namely the history of relations between the Russian Orthodox Church and the government. Lately, many political leaders alongside the church hierarchs, stand for integrating efforts aimed at countering national and global challenges, as well as developing a consistent system of social norms to overcome legal nihilism and build an effective civil society. In view of this, the study of the historical forms of relations between the Church and the government in Russia would facilitate the indicated processes by taking into account the experience of previous political regimes. The content of social experiments of the Bolsheviks in the territory of the former Russian Empire is explicitly described in the scientific and historical literature; however, the reasons and ideological prerequisites of confrontations between the Church and the government require clarification. This article aims to answer the question on inevitability of this conflict. For solving this problem, analysis was conducted on the works of the founders of Marxism-Leninism, which reveal the specificity of representations of the adherents of this ideology on the religious institutions prior to coming to power in Russia.
Culture and cultures in historical context
Bortnikova Y.A., Naumenko O.N. - Muslim "White Horse" and Ob-Ugric "White Deer": points of intersection in religious culture of the indigenous peoples of the North pp. 73-79

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.1.34712

Abstract: The subject of this research is the written and visual sources on the history of Ob Ugrics, which reflect the images of White Horse and White Deer. The sources include the ethnographic materials and artifacts from the shamanic temples of Ugra with the depiction of horse and deer. The goal of this article lies in drawing parallel between the images of the White Horse in Islamic and Ob Ugric cultures. Research methodology leans on the " Theory of Impoverished living environment" substantiated by the authors in previous research, according to which the severe (impoverished) natural and climatic conditions of Siberia create a psychological foundation for cultural borrowings for the indigenous peoples, when the elements of foreign cultures are being perceived as native. The article employs the comparative-historical method to collate the perception of White Horse among Siberian Tatars and Ob Ugrics. Establishment of the traces of Islam in Ob Ugric culture through examination of the visual sources is new to historical science. The topic of studying the "Tatar-Muslim period" in the history of Finno-Ugric population of Western Siberia, when in the process of religious impact upon the indigenous population, the representatives of Islam did not have competitors in the face of Orthodox missionaries, is poorly studied in Russian history. The conclusion is made that the image of White Horse in Ob Ugric culture is associated with the Tatar-Muslim influence, and reflects the Quranic plotline of ascension of the Prophet Muhammad into heaven on the White Horse Burak.
Auxiliary historical disciplines
Nilogov A.S. - Documentary reconstruction of patrilineal genealogy of V. M. Torosov pp. 80-88

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.1.34938

Abstract: This article explores the topic of documentary reconstruction of patrilineal genealogy of the Khakass public figure Vladislav Mikhailovich Torosov (1937–2018) based on such genealogical sources as church metric books and census lists of Minusinsk district of Yenisei province for the XIX – early XX centuries. The object of this research is the genealogy of Torosov family, while the subject is the archival and documentary reconstruction of their genealogy until the XVIII century. The source base consists of the collections of the State Archive of Krasnoyarsk Region, National Archive of the Republic of Khakassia, archive of the city of Minusinsk, as well as personal papers of V. M. Torosov and his descendants. The scientific novelty lies in the fact that this work is first within Khakass genealogy to reconstruct the patrilineal genealogy of the prominent political figure V. M. Torosov, whose father M. G. Torosov was repressed in 1937 and could not pass on the information on his ancestors to descendants. The interrupted bridge between generations severely affected the family in the desire to restore their history. As a result of genealogical reconstruction of the Torosov family belonging to the Khakass seok "piltyr" that was part of the Beltyrsky Ulus of the Sagay Steppe, the author acquires the scientifically verified data on the direct male ancestors of Torosov family until the mid XVIII century. Recommendation id made on the genetic-genealogical analysis of Torosov family by Y chromosome.
Beliefs, religions, churches
Lugavtsova A.P. - Japanese preachers of Chinese Buddhism during the Edo period (1603Ц1868) - Sen no Rikyū and Tetsugyu Doki pp. 89-98

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.1.36308

Abstract: The Ōbaku School that represents the third major sect of Zen Buddhism along with Rinzai and Sōtō, emerged in Japan during the Edo period due to the arrival of Buddhist monks from China. The article examines the biography of the prominent Japanese Ōbaku monks – Sen no Rikyū and Tetsugyu Doki, which gives a better perspective on the peculiarities of establishment of this school. In light of the Chinese origin and novelty, the Ōbaku teaching initially gained significant popularity in Japan, that adhered to the policy of self-isolation; however, its success is largely the merit of the Japanese followers of the teaching, since the Chinese monks hand neither a command of the language nor permit to travel the country, and this incapable of fully interacting with the local authorities and population. The scientific novelty is substantiated by the absence of special research within the Russian Japanese Studies dedicated to Ōbaku School; therefore, particular attention is given to the works of foreign authors. The conclusion is made that the role of personality greatly contributes to the success of the Ōbaku teaching, since the effective interaction with the government, their financial support, and the growing number of new converts largely depended on reputation and charisma of the prominent Japanese Ōbaku monks Sen no Rikyū and Tetsugyu Doki. They saw a chance to cognize the true Buddhism traditions, which at that time were neglected in Japan. The versatile activity of the monks contributed to surge in the popularity of Ōbaku in Japan, as well as harmonious interaction of the Chinese and Japanese traditions and cultures that left a mark on the unique multifaceted image of the Edo period.
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