Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue 04/2021
Contents of Issue 04/2021
Historical facts, events, phenomena
Bogdanov A.P. - Philhellenes and Latinists in the XVII century: texts in the context pp. 1-46

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.4.32317

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the disputes on the enlightenment of Russia in the early 1680s. They emerged and continued due to the idea of Tsar Fyodor Alekseevich to open an Academy in Moscow: an autonomous university from the state and church authorities for preparing secular and religious personnel, which would teach in Polish, Greek, Latin and Russian languages. The article examines the positions of Russian and Greek Philhellenes. Some of them insisted on studying solely Greek language for preventing the distribution of knowledge in Latin and other languages. Others proved the advantage of Greek language in the educational system in all languages of science of that time. The author notes that the initiator of the Academy Sylvester Medvedev, who was later declared a “Latinist heretic”, took the second approach as the basis. The article refutes the modern attempts to change the perspective on dating, content and meaning of the primary sources, beginning with the Privilege of the Academy. The author substantiates that the Privilege was not a figment of Medvedev's imagination, but a Charter approved by the Tsar, which established the basic principles of the new university, namely the functions of faith protection were delegated by the tsar to the academic council. The implementation of measures against heresies, sorcery, etc., which were sternly formulated in the legislation,  since now on required the scholars’ examination. The objections of colleagues to the “harshness” of these measures, allegedly invented by Medvedev, were associated with legal ignorance. A substantial part of the article is aimed at familiarization of the colleagues with the legal, political, cultural and literary context, which contributes to the analysis of the sources.
History and Politics
Belukhin N.E. - Rebellious Parliament: period of the policy of reservations in Denmark-NATO Relations (1982-1988) pp. 47-57

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.4.35530

Abstract: The object of this research is the foreign policy of Denmark in the 1980s. The subject of this research on the one hand is the ideological foundations of Denmark's foreign policy during this period, which were strongly affected by the ideas of European social democracy, and on the other hand – the influence of the Danish Parliament (Folketing) upon the formation of Denmark’s official position on the issues of European security discussed within the framework of NATO. Denmark’s refutation of neutrality after the World War II and its entry into NATO in many ways determined the foreign policy position of Denmark throughout the Cold War as a small European state that perceived the Soviet Union as a threat to national security. At the same time, the desire of Denmark of maintain maximum flexibility and avoid making far-reaching commitments within the framework of NATO, led to the fact that Denmark was often perceived as an unreliable and inconvenient ally. The period from 1982 to 1988 indicates the Atlantic dissidence of Denmark and simultaneous improvement of relations with the Soviet Union), when Denmark’s representatives in the NATO sessions, being obliged to take into account the position of the parliamentary majority in the Folketing, were forced to make reservations to the final documents of the sessions, expressing disagreement or criticism of implemented measures. Among the Russian scholars dealing with the history of Denmark, this period has not yet received wide coverage. This article is an attempt to describe and explain the causes and consequences of the period of the “policy of reservations” for Denmark’s foreign policy in the context of the end of Cold War and in the conditions of transition towards the post-bipolar system of international relations.
History of regions of Russia
Bashirov M.S. - On the History and ethnogenesis of Salatavia and Western Dagestan (Prisulak) societies pp. 58-74

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.4.35573

Abstract: This article examines the question of continuous presence of ethnic Chechens in the territory of historical region of Salatavia (the Republic of Dagestan), as well as substantial part of Western Dagestan (Prisulak regions), at the very least since the turn of the XIV – XV centuries and later. The author explores extensive material that is based on the documental, written and ethnographic sources of the XVIII – XXI centuries, as well as toponymy of the designated region – materials on the region of Salatavia, society Koisubu (Hindalal), Didoi (Tsezy), Andia, Gumbet, Ahvakh (Sada-Kilidu), Terek-Sulak interfluve (including Aukh and such centers as Endirey), coastal settlements of Sulak (Chir-Yurtsk), etc.. Based on the aforementioned sources, the author indicates the most considerable role and participation of Chechens in the ethnogenesis of population of these regions and settlements. The article traces the sequence of sources of the XIX – early XX centuries in reflection of ethnic affiliation of the local population and its closeness to the Chechens. Leaning on the data from various sources, the author reveals the Chechen origin of the first rulers of Salatavia from the privileged Sala-Uzdeni social class. The author determines the change in the ethnic balance of the region, which took place under the influence of various factors, including military and political. The conducted analysis  is proven by extensive bibliographical sources that testify to the ethnic commonality of the region throughout the early and late medieval periods. The author notes the migration of ethnic Chechens from Dagestan to Chechnya, perhaps under the pressure of other ethnoses during the XIV – XVI centuries. This process comes to an end by the time of Shamil’s rule. The research presents a fundamentally new perspective upon the ethnogenesis of the societies under review.
Kalenichenko M.V. - Production of popular science films in Leningrad: late 1940s 1960s pp. 75-85

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.4.35594

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the history of the Soviet popular science cinematography on the example of the Leningrad film studio “Lentekhfilm” / “Lennauchfilm"” during the late 1940s – 1960s.The goal of this work consists in tracing the development and production stages of popular science films at the Leningrad film studio “Lennauchfilm”.  The author sets the following tasks: follow the work of the film studio “Lennauchfilm” based on the archival materials, as well as determine the main plotlines of popular science films of the period under review. The article employs archival documents stored in the fund No. 243 of the St. Petersburg Central State Archive of Literature and Art. Namely, based on the materials of the annual financial and production reports of the film studio, using the quantitative methods, the author carries out the sampling of films that were classified as popular science. The author also applies the problem-chronological method for studying the stages of operation of the film studio. The novelty of this research consists in determination of production volumes of popular science films at a particular film studio, as well as their main themes. As a result, the author highlights six main plotlines: natural sciences, geography of the country, industry and agriculture, education of children and adolescents, history of culture and art, historical-revolutionary. The conclusion is made that the Soviet popular science cinematography was aimed not only at popularization of scientific knowledge (as follows from the definition of the term “popular science film” given in the Great Soviet Encyclopedia), but also performed the important political and civic functions on youth education, distribution of technical knowledge, as well as illustration of the achievements of the Soviet Union in economic and social policy.
World history: Eras and seasons
Medvedev A.D. - Punishment of the collaborationists in Vichy and other French regions (1944 1945) pp. 86-93

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.4.35401

Abstract: The goal of this article lies in examination of the process of preventing collaborationism in the former capital of the French state, as well as in determination of whether the process of suppressing cooperation with the German occupier has any peculiarities associated with the special position of Vichy in relation to other departments. The author examines such aspects of the topic as spontaneous and organized violence in Vichy and other French regions during the postwar period (1944 – 1945). Special attention is given to reprisal against the collaborationists in Vichy and the formation of representation on the unity of France during the occupation imbued by the Gaullist state. The main conclusions of this research consists in the two interpretations of the purges that took place in the postwar years in France. The situation in the agglomeration has several similarities with the situation in multiple departments: shaving of women; government branches responsible for repressions; urgent purges. However, the fact that namely Vichy was the seat of the French government has its own peculiarities:  weak first phase of the extrajudicial purge due to the presence of law enforcement forces during the occupation and opposition, and on the other hand, the cruelty of spontaneous violence in June of 1945,  numerous arrests in the first two weeks after the liberation, excessive city residents representation in the Court and  Civil Chamber, as well as severity of the sentences.
Medvedev A.D. - The political history of France in reflection of the national cinematography (1960s 1970s) pp. 94-103

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.4.35473

Abstract: The goal of this research consists in determination of the place and role of French cinematography of 1960s – 1970s in the political history of postwar France. The object of this research is the process of transformation of political discourse in the context of transfer of power from Charles de Gaulle to Georges Pompidou. The subject of is reflection of the history of collaborationism in the films “Sadness and Pity” (1969) and “Lacombe Lucien” (1973). The author examines such aspect of the topic as reflection of the political and cultural elites on the Vichy regime. Special attention is given to the political consequences of the screening of films about collusion of the Nazi to French citizens. The scientific lies in the analytical overview of the popular films of French national cinematography of 1960s – 1970s, which interpret the phenomenon of “collaborationism” and “opposition" of the period of German occupation. As a result, it is proven that these films distorted the silence on collusion of a number of citizens to the occupier that prevailed in the French political and public discourse. The author notes that resign of Charles de Gaulle as the head of the French Republic led to the emergence of the products of popular culture that revise the previous interpretations of the military past and have a capacity to change the political situation in the country.
West - Russia - East
Lapteva E.V. - The Imperial mentality of Russia and Anglo-American research in Russian Studies of the 1980s and 2000s pp. 104-111

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.4.35367

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the reflection of the topic of the Russian imperial spirit and its manifestations in the Anglo-American historiography of 1970 – 2000. The article relies on the works of the representatives of American Russian studies, from its major figures (Z. Brzeziński and R. Pipes) to modern representatives (A. Grigas). The author reviews the key positions of American researchers of Russia on the general characteristic of the imperial mentality that are inherent to the Russian people and determine their political and life behavior. Reference to the manifestations of the imperial spirit and its analysis in the modern period is important, as it allows seeing the history of Russia from an outside perspective, as well as carrying out a political-sociological and historical-chronological analysis to avoid similar mistakes in the future. The main conclusions are based on the works of Anglo-American Russian studies, which indicate that the study of imperial mentality, traditions, life and political behavior of Russia remains popular in the Western sector of Russian studies. On the one hand, it continues the tradition of American Soviet studies, while on other – separates from it and delves into the local and culturological research. However, the politological component retains its positions, and searches for the new topics and approaches. The author believes that these two trends would continue to be viewed in parallel in the Anglo-American Russian studies for a long time.
Issues of war and peace
Khodorov O.I. - The role of the steamship Grand Duke Konstantin in the liberation of Abkhazia and forced crossing of the Gagra Gorge by the Sochi detachment in August 1877 pp. 112-130

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.4.32728

Abstract: The object of this research is the military actions on the Caucasus-Asia Minor Theatre of the Russo-Turkish War in 1877. The subject is the participation of the steamship “Grand Duke Konstantin” under the command of Stepan Osipovich Makarov in the liberation of Abkhazia from Turkish occupation and aid to the Sochi detachment of Shelkovnikov Boris Martynovich in forced crossing the Gagra Gorge. The goal of this research lies in comprehensive examination of the actions of Makarov and his team during cruising at the east coast of the Black Sea, as well as in determination the role and importance of their participation in the military actions in the beginning of August 1877. The conclusion is made that successful actions of Makarov helped the Sochi detachment to avoid heavy losses in Gagra; and that damages inflicted on the Turkish warship “Asar-i Tevfik” during Makarov’s night attack suspended it from evacuation of the Turks from Sukhumi. The reconstruction of the results of torpedo attack and comparison of the tactical and technical characteristics of ships draw particular interest. The author concludes that the Turkish warship that attacked by Makarov at Gagra, was not “Asar-i Şevket”, as described in the pre-revolutionary, Soviet and modern Russian historiography.
Vasilchenko M.A., Zakharov A.M. - A Foreign City: Dr. František Langer and the battles for Kazan in August September 1918 pp. 131-137

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.4.35379

Abstract:  The object of this research is the participation of the soldiers and officers of Czechoslovak Corps on the Volga front of the Russian Civil War reflected in the documentary novel by F. Langer. The goal of this work consists in the analysis of evolution of the relations of Czechoslovak legionnaires on the Russian events in the context of the large-scale socioeconomic crisis. The research is based on the novel by F. Langer, which was written in 1920 but became available for scholarly reflection almost a century later. This novel introduces new records on the events of 1918 in Kazan, which became a turning point in the battle for the Volga Region, and allows revising the chronology of protest moods within the Czechoslovak Corps. The most well-known manifestation of the refusal from participation in combat operations is the actions of the personnel of the 1st regiment of the corps under the command of the Colonel Y. Shvets, who committed suicide in the late autumn of 1918. This fact is regarded as most striking manifestation of demoralization of the military personnel; however, these symptoms could be traced in September if referred to the text of F. Langer’s chronicles, which has not previously become the subject of scientific analysis. The documentary novel expand the boundaries of protest moods in the soldier environment; it forms a solid representation on the intrapersonal conflict among the participants of the events back in the early September of 1918, which adds more details on the motivation of the participants of combat operations. The conclusion is made that the Czechoslovak Corps, solving virtually pointless battlefield tasks, not only suffered heavy losses, but also lost the meaning of its actions in general. The work of F. Langer indicates the first protest moods among the soldiers in the early autumn of 1918. 
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