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Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue є 02/2021
Contents of Issue є 02/2021
Personality in history
Babich I.L. - Muslim documents from the French archive of Alimardan Topchubashov pp. 1-7

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.2.32216

Abstract: This article analyzes the archival materials of France, which belonged to the Caucasian emigrants (after the October Revolution). Having immigrated to Europe, they took with them the archives, which contained the documents that covered various aspects of history of the Russian Empire. This is the first article in Russia that carries out an analysis of all the documents on the topic. The goal consists in examination of the documents from the archive of the prominent Azerbaijani figure Alimardan Topchubashov (Paris, France), which reflect life of the Russian Muslims prior to the 1917 Revolution. Before the Revolution, Topchubashov i (having a degree in Law) was one of the active supporters of modernization of Islamic life in the Caucasus; therefore, his archive contains the materials on this aspect of life of the citizens of the Russian Empire (deputy to the State Duma in 1906, initiator of creation of the Muslim faction in State Duma, initiator of the Muslim congresses in Russia). The aforementioned documents are analyzed in the Islamic context of the Russian history for the first time. The conclusion is made that the Muslim part of the archive of Alimardan Topchubashov is a unique compilation of primary sources, which give an general outlook on life of the Muslims in the Russian Empire, including Caucasus over the period from 1890 to 1917. The author unites these documents into three groups. The developed by Alimardan Topchubashov program of the fundamental changes in life of the Muslims is described in these documents.
History and Ideology
Bulatov I.A. - National Association of Russian Explorers: brief history pp. 8-17

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.2.35110

Abstract: The subject of this research is the history of development of the National Association of Russian Explorers (NORR) – one of the youth organizations of White émigré. NORR was founded in 1928, and in the 1930s became the largest emigrant youth organization. However, after the World War II it basically ceased its activity. The first members of NORR came from the Scout movement, founding their ideology on the criticism of parent organization. Nevertheless, it did not prevent them from borrowing the most effective methods of scouting and adapt them to their ideology. The ideology was based on the Russian nationalism of imperial type, patriotism and militarism. Peter the Great was selected as the symbol of all the ideas. Leaning on the wide variety of source, including the materials introduced into the scientific discourse for the first time, the article examines the phenomenon of national upbringing in extracurricular organizations. The main conclusion consists in the thesis that the burst in popularity and subsequent decline of the National Association of Russian Explorers were associated namely with the national-patriotic component of upbringing, which was of crucial in the conditions of emigration. The fact that the leader of this association P. N. Bogdanovich, was able to offer a system of Russian national upbringing to general emigrant community was the key factor of its initial success. After World War II, NORR has lost many of its active members and winded down its activity; and the Russian Scouts implemented more national elements into their work, attracting patriotic youth. This brought the activity of NORR to an end.
Historical sources and artifacts
Dmitriev A.V. - On the fiefs of Swedish and Scottish nobility in Ingria during the 1582 Ц 1589 pp. 18-33

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.2.32530

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the question of landholdings of the Swedish and Scottish nobility in Ingria during the 1582 – 1589, relying on the documents of compilation “Baltiska fogderäkenskaper”. The relevance of this topic is substantiated by the insufficient study of these sources, both in Russia and abroad, as well as absence of the national toponymic research using these materials. The article also provides a brief biographical description of multiple Swedish and Scottish landholders, the majority of whom are the unknown names in the Russian prosopography The article employs the narrative, historical-comparative, typological, structural, prosopographical methods. All of them underlie the prosopographical and historical-geographical research, which allow determining the particular types of historical figures. The scientific novelty consists in consideration of the problem of formation of landholdings in Ingria during the 1582 – 1589. This question is not covered in modern historiography. The author explores the unique historical, historical-geographical and toponymic material that reveals the prerequisites for the historical, political, economic, territorial and linguistic transformations that found reflection in Ingria of post-Stolbovo period, and established for almost a century. The presented materials are of practical importance for the toponymists and historians dealing with Russia-Sweden relations of the XVI – XVII centuries.
World of ideas and world of the mundane
van Haaske L.A. - Accusatory discourse of the Salem witch trial: the experience of imagological analysis pp. 34-46

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.2.35055

Abstract: The object of this research is the imagery underlying the accusation of witchcraft within the framework of the Salem witch trial (colonial Massachusetts, 1692). The author reviews the imagery that is directly related to the witchcraft discourse, as well as the general principles of accusations of witchcraft. Emphasis is placed on the impact of such imagery upon the collective consciousness of the Puritan community in North America in the XVII century. Special attention is turned to the mythological symbols reflected in the discourse of justice. The article is prepared within the framework of the authorial project on studying the influence of the imagery of fear on social behavior in history. The fact of randomness of accusations was established. The leading imagery, which was the cause for the accusation of witchcraft, is revealed. The ultimate role of fear of supernatural influence in this trial is recognized. The author notes the prime importance of fear as an actor of collective action and the importance of studying this phenomenon in the context of historical science. The conclusion is drawn on impossibility of interpretation of the Salem trial as an instance of aggression towards the persons who have a special (socioeconomic, religious, or marginal) status within the community. The novelty of this research consists in the use of formal legal sources in the analysis of cultural space in the imagological context.
Samelik Y.L., Nikitina O.A. - The image of occultist and esoteric scientist in France and Russia at the turn of the XIX Ц XX centuries: the experience of reconstruction based on autobiographical sources (egodocuments) pp. 47-60

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.2.35088

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the images of occultists and esoteric scientists recorded in the Russian diaries of the turn of the XIX – XX centuries – image of the French occultist Clarence and the Russian esoteric scientist Alexander Navrotsky. An attempt is made to reconstruct the images and the underlying cogitative paradigms. Having analyzed not only the image of personality as it is described in the sources, but also the characteristics of its description, as well as having compared the image of the same personality in the diaries of different authors, the author determines the similar traits that unite these two characters in their unlikeness as personalities. As a result, the author reveals the similarity of not only the occult-esoteric cogitative paradigms that existed in two different countries during the same time period, but also the similarity of their perception by the “uninitiated” authors of the diaries. The article verifies the hypothesis, according to which the occult-esoteric views, despite their internal incoherence, are organically fit into personalities of the representatives of various social groups in the epoch-making historical periods. Egodocuments are examined in the context of studies on esotericism and the image of esoteric scientists for the first time. The acquired results can be valuable in further research of analogous phenomena related to the similar crisis periods in history, as well as for drawing parallels between them.
Historical facts, events, phenomena
Khil'chenko M.V. - History of emergence of Freemasonry in the early XVIII Ц late XIX centuries pp. 61-71

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.2.32403

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the history of emergence of the Masonic lodge in England and disclosure of the concept of “freemason”. The author reveals and describes the peculiarities of the emergence of Freemasonry, tracing its evolution from the antiquity until the XIX century. Its ancient history is divided into the two main periods (prior and after 1717, i.e. the creation of the Grand Lodge in England). The article describes such events from the history of Freemasonry as the establishment of the First Grand Lodge in England; creation of the Premier Lodge, Anderson’s Constitutions, and the Third Degree; the Great Schism of Freemasonry that tool place 1877; the Taxil hoax. Analysis is conducted on the relationship between the English and French factions of Freemasonry. The obtained results are accurate, since the analysis of the history of Freemasonry was carried based on the wide range of historical facts. The comprehensive analysis of the history of emergence of Freemasonry is carried out for the first time within the Russian-language historical literature, which defines the scientific novelty of this work. The author outlines the further prospects for studying the history of Freemasonry, such as accumulation of the reliable scientific information on the early history of the lodge, examination of the history of other Masonic factions (French, Italian, etc.), as well as the origin of Freemasonry in Russia.
Kontsevoi I.A. - Ideological conflicts between Bolsheviks and Left Social Revolutionaries in the regional government branches pp. 72-83

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.2.32252

Abstract: This article examines the interaction between the representatives of Bolsheviks and Left Social Revolutionaries in the regional government branches during the first half of 1918. The subject of this research is the ideological conflicts that emerged between the members of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the Left Social Revolutionaries in their joint activity. Considerable attention is given to classification of the ideological conflicts, as well as to identification of their causes and consequences for interaction of the representatives of both parties on the local level. These conflicts were an integral part of the Soviet bipartite system. Their manifestation began since dissolution of the government coalition of Bolsheviks and Left Social Revolutionaries. Based on the analysis of archival documents and published sources, the author describes the interaction between Bolsheviks and Left Social Revolutionaries in the local soviets. The novelty consists in classification of the conflicts between Bolsheviks and Left Social Revolutionaries, as well as in introduction into the scientific discourse of certain archival documents. The conclusion is made that despite the joint activity of the two parties aimed at strengthening of the Soviet regime, the ideological conflicts demonstrated a different perspective of Bolsheviks and Left Social Revolutionaries upon the political course of the country, as well as the methods of local governance. The escalating antagonism between the two Soviet parties eventually led to instability in the bipartite system and its collapse.
Conferences, roundtables, symposia: reviews and materials
Vasilchenko M.A., Galyamichev A.N. - XV All-Russian Scientific Readings in memory of Professor A. I. Ozolin pp. 84-90

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.2.35132

Abstract:  The object of this research is the information on the results of the XV All-Russian Scientific Readings in memory of Professor A. I. Ozolin, which are held annually at the premises of Saratov Chernyshevsky State University. In 2021, it will be 15 years since this conference was held for the first time within the walls of the faculty of History upon the initiative of the Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor A. N. Galyamichev. The main goal of this article is to recap the work of the All-Russian conference, give an overview on the basic forms of preservation of historical memory of the prominent representatives of the academic staff, such as A. I. Ozolin. He was one of the remarkable personas on the faculty of History, who read a general course on the medieval history of Southern and Western Slavs, as well as a number of subjects within the specialty on the department of History of the Middle Ages. Planners of the conference sought to ensure that his legacy would continue to live in the memory of Saratov historians, as well as contribute to preservation and consolidation of their best traditions. Another case for holding these readings was the desire to revive and institutionalize the historical Slavic studies as an important vector of research of the Saratov historians. The readings in memory of A. I. Ozolin united the efforts of Saratov Slavists and created prerequisites for the revival of “Slavic Collection” and turning it into a scientific annuary. The majority of speakers are the staff members and postgraduates of the Institute of History and International Relations of Saratov State University, engaged in Slavic history; however, the conference draws attention of the scholars (specifically young) from other Russian regions. Reflecting on the results of conference, the participants outlined the key areas for further work, hoping to continue this tradition, which filled the niche in scientific life of the Institute of History and International Relations of Saratov State University. 
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