Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue 12/2021
Contents of Issue 12/2021
History of regions of Russia
Filippova V.V. - Displacement of the indigenous small-numbered peoples of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation neighboring with Yakutia: history and modernity pp. 1-15


Abstract: The subject of this research is displacement of the indigenous small-numbered peoples in the constituent entities of the Russian Federation neighboring with Yakutia. The object is the indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North residing in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Irkutsk Oblast, Zabaykalsky Krai, Amur Oblast, Khabarovsk Krai, Magadan Oblast, and Chukotka Autonomous Okrug. These constituent entities of the Russian Federation have contiguous territories with the Sakha Republic. The author examines the displacement and size of the indigenous population of the regions of the Russian Federation neighboring with Yakutia. Special attention is given to clarification of the places of traditional dwelling of the indigenous small-numbered peoples in the aforementioned regions of the Russian Federation. It is established that the following ethnic groups reside in the territory contiguous to Yakutia: Dolgans, Evenks, Evens, Yukaghirs and Chukchi. The areas of residence of the listed ethnic groups border with the areas of settlement of the corresponding indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North in the territory of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia). The author’s special contribution lies in the analysis of displacement and size of the indigenous population in the regions of the Russian Federation neighboring with Yakutia on the local level. The novelty of consists in the territorial analysis of the places of traditional dwelling of the indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North.
Historical sources and artifacts
Fedotova D.Y., Sulimov V.S., Zaitseva O.S. - Supply of bread to Tobolsk Governorate by the merchants during the period of bad crops at the turn of 1860s 1870s (On the example of the merchant V. D. Zharnikov) pp. 16-27


Abstract: The subject of this research is the supply of bread to Tobolsk Governorate by merchants during the period of bad crops at the turn of 1860s–1870s. The article is based on the principles of historicism, integrity, objectivity, and comprehensiveness; general scientific and traditional methods, such as systemic, historical-comparative, problem-historical. The scientific novelty lies in introduction of the new unpublished archival documents reflecting the role of merchantry in supplying bread to the region during bad crops. The source base is comprised of archival documents of the State Budget Archive of the Tyumen Region in Tobolsk. The statistical and clerical sources, as well as periodicals are also used in the article. The author is first to thoroughly examine the role of the merchant V. D. Zharnikov, who offered the provincial authorities to sell bread to the population at a lower price. Namely his initiative allowed the poor population to purchase bread at affordable prices during the period of bad crops, which mostly affected the residents of northern Tobolsk Governorate. Timely delivery of flour by inland transport to the north of the region has played a significant role. This prevented the rise in bread prices and its shortage. The initiative Vasily Dmitrievich Zharnikov to purchase, deliver and sell bread to northern Tobolsk Governorate at affordable made a crucial difference for the region.
Beliefs, religions, churches
Sennitskaya E.V. - Socioeconomic orientation of Christianity pp. 28-132


Abstract: The subject of this research is the socioeconomic basis of the key characteristics of Christianity: proselytizing nature, refutation of violence, fasts, baptism, support of feudalism, negative stance on nomadic pastoralism, system of monasteries, use of churchyards as burials, as well as special cult symbols. The article employs the following methods: 1) material-cultural (juxtaposition of religious views with the level of technological development of a particular era); 2) geophysical (juxtaposition of religious views reflected in historical sources with natural conditions affecting economic activity and emergence of a particular ideology); 3) systemic (Christianity is viewed as an element of state policy aimed at the development of secured trade routes, unobstructed tax collection and control over population); 4) linguistic (analysis of names); 5) hermeneutical (interpretation of Christian symbols in the context of economic activity of ancient times). The conclusion is made that initially Christianity was aimed at solution of the following tasks by the government: 1) development of navigation and creation of secured trade routes (namely sea routes); 2) alleviation of social tension in coastal fortress cities via adoption of a special code of conduct and reduction of urban population through implementation of the system of monasteries; 3) creation of the system of wayside markers and fortified strongpoints for sailors in form of temples and monasteries; 4) development of agricultural structure (namely through posts) for the procurement of coastal fortress cities and organizing long-term sea and land expeditions; 5) displacement of caravan trade routes with sea routes 6)  registration of population by securing the name given at baptism.
Turova N. - Clay figurine of an owl of the Lower Pritobolye pp. 133-146


Abstract: The object of this research is the clay figurine of an owl discovered in the course of archaeological excavations in the Yurtobor 9 hillfort on the right bank of the Tobol River. The goal lies in introduction of in the scientific discourse of the new unique sample of small clay plastic, as well as in preliminary determination of the functional purpose of the item. The following tasks were set: morphological and stylistic description of the item; description of the context of discovery of the figurine; establishment of the chronological framework of existence of the item, its cultural affiliation; familiarization with the history of studying the regional clay figurines in the Russian archaeological science; search for analogies in the archaeological sites of Siberia and other territories; assessment of the semantic connotation of the image of an owl in the traditional culture of Ob Ugrians (Khanty and Mansi). To article employs the traditional methods, such as comparative-historical, typological, comparative-typological, formal-stylistic, semantic methods, as well as method of analogies. As a result of the conducted research, the clay figurine of an owl is attributed to the Yudinskaya archaeological culture and dated within the framework of the XI – XII centuries. It is established that it is the only item in Western Siberian region depicting a bird in the technique of small clay plastic. Based on the analysis of ethnographic literature and medieval archaeological finds, it is established that for a long period of time, the image of an owl had positive semantic connotation due to its high sacred status. The author assumes on the use of figurine of an owl in religious rites associated with hearth and home.
History of regions of Russia
Arkhipova A.I. - Characteristics of the periodical press of Yakut Region as a communication channel for the local administration in the late XIX century pp. 147-156


Abstract: The topic of studying periodical press as a communication channel in the process of regional administration found its reflection in modern historiography. The object of this research is the Russian-language periodical press “Yakut Eparchial Bulletin” and “Yakut Regional Bulletin” issued in the Yakut Region in the late XIX century. The subject of this research is the content of newspaper periodicals, including decrees and circular letters, announcements and orders of the regional administration. The need for the development of information space of the Yakut region contributed to the development of periodical press. The article examines the activity of the local administration – governors A. D. Lokhvitsky, G. F. Chernyaev, V. Z. Kolenko aimed at opening the official periodical in the Yakut Region. The scientific novelty is determined by the poor degree of development of the topic on the material of Yakut periodical press. Analysis is conducted on the content of the formal part of the “Yakut Eparchial Bulletin” and “Yakut Regional Bulletin”. Characteristics is given to the target audience of the newspaper in the first years of its existence. The author resumes that the governors believed that newspaper is the fastest way for distributing information, which could reduce interdepartmental correspondence and improve the functionality of administrative institutions. In the late XIX century, the “Yakut Regional Bulletin” was used by the administration as a means of informing the officials.
Ethnography and ethnology
Nadyrshin T.M. - School in the Soviet ethnographic research over the period from 1937 to 1953 based on the journal Soviet Ethnography pp. 157-170


Abstract: Examination of the role of school in Soviet ethnography remains a blank spot in the anthropology of education. However, despite the absence of this subdiscipline, the author indicates the interest of Soviet ethnographers in reorganization of educational sphere. Use of the method of content analysis of the journal “Soviet Ethnography” reveals the role of general education on the map of ethnographic science of the era of totalitarianism (1937– 1953). This stage is characterized by one of the major intrusions into science, which is clearly reflected in publications of humanities journals. The author highlights the common semantic structures – patterns and repetitive statements typical for most articles. These statement lead to the following conclusions: criticism of the prerevolutionary system of education, exclusion of religion from the system of education, and exposure of the problems in the system of education of foreign capitalist countries. At the same time, there was the task to emphasize the successes of Soviet education: elimination of illiteracy; growing number of schools, students, and teachers; and the role of schools in cultural development the Soviet Union. In face of ideological restriction, many ethnographers have identified separate issues and offered their recommendations for the Soviet system of education. These unique observations are the contribution made by the Soviet ethnographic science to the cultural interpretation of the school.
History and Economics
Chistyakov Y.F. - Development of the Russian grain imports in the XIX early XX centuries pp. 171-188


Abstract:   The object of this research is the Russian imports of grain and grain products (flour and cereal) over the period from 1802 to 1917. The subject of this research is the dynamic processes of changes in the volume and commodity structure of the import of grain and grain products in the XIX – early XX centuries. The article leans on the analysis of sources that contain data on the Russian imports of grain and grain products (annual “Reviews of Russian foreign trade through European and Asian borders”), which characterizes import of grain to the Russian Empire of this period. The study employs the methods of historical, source studies, and statistical analysis. The analysis of sampling relies on the tabular summary of data and graphic representation of data. The novelty lies in the analysis of the key trends in the development of import of grain to the country throughout a prolonged historical period, which is carried out virtually for the first time. Based on examination of the statistical data in the import of grain, the following results were obtained: 1) a significant dependence of the volume of grain imports on the state of domestic grain production and the absence or presence of “lean years” in particular is underlined; 2) the periods of excess of grain imports over exports is determined. 3. The conclusion is made on the significant increase in the volume and transformation of the structure of the Russian grain imports in the beginning of the XX century. It is also indicated that due to insignificant volumes of import, compared to export, the grain imports did not affect the overall level of grain consumption among the Russian population.  
Danilov P.G. - Cultural layer of the city of Tobolsk as the object of cultural heritage pp. 189-197


Abstract: The subject of this research is the state protection and use of the archaeological monument “Cultural layer of the city of Tobolsk”. The article examines the need for preservation of sites that are of historical and cultural value in the modern conditions of the development of urban infrastructure on the example of Tobolsk. The goal of this article lies in studying the question of conservation of archaeological heritage of Tobolsk within the framework of the current federal legislation. Longstanding archaeological excavations in Tobolsk indicate that its cultural layer is well preserved and saturated with the remnants of structures and artifacts of different historical periods. For solution of the set tasks, the author employs the research methods traditional for historical science: descriptive, comparative-historical, historical-systemic, historical-legal, and method of analogies. The archaeological monument “Cultural layer of the city of Tobolsk” presently has the status of the “discovered site of cultural heritage”. The scientific novelty lies in the fact that based on the analysis of current situation, the question is raised on the problem of conservation of archaeological heritage of the city of Tobolsk. The conclusion is made on the need for the measures of state protection of the archaeological monument “Cultural layer of the city of Tobolsk”, which implies submitting a request to the federal body for the protection of cultural heritage sites to include the object into the single state register as the site of cultural heritage of regional or federal importance.
Zagvazdina Y.G. - Porcelain dolls from Neudachiny estate in Tobolsk pp. 198-206


Abstract: The object of this research is the finds of porcelain dolls discovered by L. N. Sladkova in 1998 during the excavations of Neudachiny estate in Tobolsk. The goal lies in studying two pieces of porcelain dolls, which most likely were imported and symbolize material wealth for the majority of Tobolsk resident in the late XIX – early XX centuries. Having explored the items from other collections of the Tobolsk Historical and Architectural Museum-Reserve, the author attempts to determine the prevalence of such porcelain dolls in Tobolsk in the late XIX – XX centuries, and which social classes could afford them. The relevance of this work is substantiated by the absence of publications dedicated to archaeological finds of the imported porcelain dolls in the territory of Western Siberia, as well as Russian-language literature on attribution and study of this category of toys of the XI – early XX century. The author carries out the attribution of porcelain dolls found on the territory of the Neudachiny estate, and concludes that such finds are imported and manufactured in the late XIX – early XX centuries. The preserved hallmark allowed establishing that one of the dolls was manufactured in Germany at Armand Marseill factory. In correlation of the income of different categories of residents with the cost of porcelain dolls, the author indicates that not all segments of urban population could afford such porcelain dolls. The items may also contain information on commercial ties, as well as peculiarities of the childhood of Tobolsk residents of that time.
Historical sources and artifacts
Veber M. - Military clergy of the 4th Orenburg Army Corps of the Kolchak Army based on the documents of the dean corps of S. V. Kaverznev pp. 207-217


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the history of the Russian Orthodox Church during the revolutionary disturbances of 1917 and the Russian Civil War. The subject of this research is the the history of military clergy of the Kolchak Army. The article introduced into the scientific discourse the report of the dean of the 4th Orenburg Army Corps of the Southern Army of the Armed Forces of Admiral A. V. Kolchak –  archpriest Stefan Vasilyevich Kaverznev on the activity of military clergy of the corps in August – September of 1919. This is a valuable historical source that contains records on staff composition of regimental priests of the 4th Orenburg Army Corps, as well as reveals the engagement of military priests in propaganda activity among the soldiers and officers of the corps. The report of the archpriest S. V. Kaverznev provides valuable information on the history of military operations of the 4th Orenburg Army Corps in summer of 1919, which ended with its defeat and escape to the Turgai Steppe. The article also publishes the formal request of the archpriest S. V. Kaverznev on the emergency situation that took place in the 4th Orenburg Army Corps – desertion of the regimental priest of the 6th Syzran Rifle Regiment Vasily Yaremenko, who joined the Reds in early September of 1919. The author believes that this document testifies to the escalated symptoms that led to decomposition of the Kolchak Army in the autumn of 1919.
History of public institutions
Chekushkina E.O. - Activity of the Prosecutor's Office of Khakass Autonomous Oblast in the 1960s (based on archival materials) pp. 218-224


Abstract: Leaning on the archival materials, this article examines the work of the Prosecutor's Office of Khakass Autonomous Oblast in the 1960s, as well as highlights positive and negative aspects therein. The object of this research is the Soviet Prosecutor's Office. The subject is the activity of the Prosecutor's Office of Khakass Autonomous Oblast in the 1960s. Archival sources contain meeting protocols, briefing notes on the work of city and district prosecutor's offices of Khakass Autonomous Oblast, internal reports on the work of the prosecutor's office, etc. The article employs the historical-comparative method for studying the types of activity of district prosecutor’s offices of Khakass Autonomous Oblast and criminal situation in these districts; quantitative methods for tracing the amount of crime, percentage ratio, number of cases, etc.; systemic-functional method for consideration of tasks faced by the prosecutor's office. The main types of activity in the 1960’s indicate oversight activity, crime prevention, legal propaganda, monitoring the execution of the decrees of the Prosecutor General of the Soviet Union, participation of the prosecutors in court hearings, consideration and resolution of citizens’ complaints.
Academic schools and paradigms
Kovalev A.A. - History of security as a new field of Western historical science pp. 225-241


Abstract: The goal of this research lies in consideration of the history of security as a relatively new field of Western historical science. It can be achieved by solving the three interrelated tasks: 1) review of the concept of “security” as the subject of research of Western historical science; 2) analysis of the recent changes in the concepts of security that exist in modern historical science of Western countries; 3) examination of boundaries set by a particular historical era for implementation of the concept of security. Currently, even within the framework of Western historical sciences, which has systematically examined the phenomenon of security, it is difficult to speak of the existence of special history of security, although the works of the leading Western historians covered in this article, significantly contribute to examination of the security issues. Such issues are viewed through the prism of the events of world history. Analysis is conducted on the achievements of Western historical science in studying the phenomenon of security, as well as conceptual changes that have taken place within this problematic over the recent years. Any historical era establishes certain boundaries for the study and implementation of security. Western historical science has achieved considerable results in determination of the concept of “security” as the subject of historical research. Multiple humanities and social sciences explore the sphere of security; and the complex of historical disciplines examines security as an interdisciplinary concept that remains relevant throughout history of mankind. Security is a general concept, which is commonly used in historical research on the one hand; however, does not exists as an independent historical discipline. If political science, criminology, sociology, and jurisprudence, namely international relations, imply a consistent and broad field of research on security, history is yet to develop a corresponding subject category.  
Beliefs, religions, churches
Nanzatova E.L. - Soteriological aspects of the School of Amidism pp. 242-249


Abstract: The subject of this research is the soteriology of Amidism as a single formative force that contributed to the spread and acquisition of new features of the doctrine. The object of this research is the theory of salvation and rebirth in the Pure Land, which undergoes modification and adopts the elements of other schools and denominations. This article examines soteriology of the School of Amidism as a driving force that develops and promotes the doctrine of the Pure Land in the Far Eastern region during the Middle Ages. Comprehensive approach towards studying the system of soteriological aspects of Amidism allows comprehending the patterns of the process of establishment and strengthening of the doctrine in new sociocultural realms. An attempt is made to trace the peculiarities of the impact of other schools of Buddhism upon soteriology of Amidaist doctrine. The scientific novelty lies in the original approach towards examining the soteriological representations of the Buddhist direction. The soteriological aspects of Amidism are viewed as a single substrate, linking element, foundation for the doctrine of the Pure Land, which promotes its development and distribution on the Asian continent and neighboring states. Amidaist teaching has walked a long path, since conception of the idea of Pure Land to development of the complex doctrinal system. In the spatial context, Amidism transcends the boundaries, growing from the local belief to a major trend of Mahayana Buddhism. Soteriology of the doctrine has become the foundation, formative force, which contributed to strengthening and development of doctrine.
Interdisciplinary research
Akhatov A.T. - Woodworking tools of the Bashkirs in the XVI I XVIII centuries (based on the data of archaeological and written materials) pp. 250-259


Abstract: The subject of this research is the woodworking tools of the Bashkirs in in the XVII– XVIII centuries. The goal lies in examination of the tools used by the Bashkirs for wood processing during the XVII – XVIII centuries leaning on the archaeological materials obtained in the course of exploration of Aznayevo settlement and Berekovo rural localities. The article also involves the written record of the authors of the late XVIII sources and the data of historical-ethnographic researcher of later periods. The research relies in the comprehensive approach of the available archaeological, written and ethnographic materials; as well as descriptive, historical-comparative methods, and analysis of real sources. This article is first to examine the woodworking tools used by the Bashkirs in XVII – XVIII centuries. The archaeological collections allows establishing that the Bashkirs used axes, knives, scraper, graver and drill for wood processing. For basket weaving from bast and birch bark was used the curved awl. According to the written sources, the woodworking tools also included adzes and chisels. The explored archaeological and written materials allow concluding that the woodworking tools of the XVII – XVIII centuries continued to exist among the Bashkir population until the XIX – early XXI centuries, which is proven by the results of historical-ethnographic research.
History and Politics
Nomogoeva V.V., Shoidonova A.M. - Soviet pedagogues and teaching of foreign students: the experience of the Mongolian workers faculty pp. 260-267


Abstract: The subject of this research is examination of the activity of the Soviet pedagogues in teaching foreign students based on the materials of the Mongolian worker’s faculty. The object of this research is the Soviet-Mongolian cooperation in educational sphere that developed in the 1920s – 1930s. The Mongolian worker’s faculty was formed in Verkhne-Udinsk for teaching Mongolian and Tuvan students. It is noted that the academic staff was represented by the prominent pedagogues of the Buryat ASSR. The teaching of foreign students was carried out within the framework of international cooperation and allowed distributing Soviet ideology. The Mongolian People's Republic and Tuvan People's Republic viewed the USSR as the model for further development. The analysis of activity of the pedagogues of Mongolian worker’s faculty allowed reveals the key vectors of work with foreign students from the Mongolian People's Republic and the Tuvan People's Republic. Besides intense educational and upbringing activity, the teaching staff paid special attention to the adaptation of students and formation of worldview in the spirit of socialist values. The authors’ special contribution lies in determination of the peculiarities of organizing political and educational activity in the institution. The novelty of this consists in examination of the contribution of the pedagogues of the Mongolian worker’s faculty to the establishment of friendly relations with the neighboring states – Mongolia and Tuva.
History of political and legal doctrines
Korovin K.S. - Socialist idea and methods of constitutional implementation in 1918 pp. 268-283


Abstract: This article demonstrates that socialism was the key political concept for the nascent Soviet constitutionalism. The matter is that the political-legal ideas of V. I. Lenin underlied the ideology of Bolshevism, which became the basis of the entire legal system of the Soviet state. The author traces the evolution of socialist ideas and their reception by the Russian social democracy. In the Bolshevik party, the idea of a socialist society has acquired rather utopian and radical forms than the initial European model. This was associated with the fact that socioeconomic, political and cultural conditions dictated certain framework for the implementation of socialism. The Communist Party had to establish the socialist principles and fundamentals of the Soviet society on the constitutional level. This led to robust debates on the issue in the constitutional commission. The discourse that emerged due to the adoption of the Constitution of the RSFSR of 1918 is poorly reflected in the scientific publications; therefore, the author provides brief biographical data of the key members of the constitutional commission. This allows correlating the political-legal ideas with the historical and personal contexts. It is worth noting that such concepts as “socialist society”, “association” and “union” underlie the comprehension of the essence of state and law. This served as the basis for further discussion of the goals and objectives of the councils, first steps, as well as rights and responsibilities of citizens.
Historical facts, events, phenomena
Malygina O.A. - The report on secret activity in the territory of the Trans-Baikal Region in the early XX century pp. 284-290


Abstract: The main mission of the Imperial government in the early XX century consisted in ensuring foreign policy security of the eastern trans-border region. The construction of Trans-Siberian Railway, defeat in the Russo-Japanese War, and the beginning of the World War I in 1914 severely affected the geopolitical situation in Trans-Baikal Region. Thus, in the conditions of the outbreak of the World War I, the question of uninterrupted supply of weapons, food, etc. along the railway line from the east to the center of the country was critical. All this turned Trans-Baikal Region into a special zone for the foreign intelligence agents. Leaning on the materials of the State Archive of Irkutsk Region, description is given to the system of obtaining information from various sources on the attempts of creating secret network, alleged military espionage, and sabotage attempts in the territory of Trans-Baikal Railway. The article also reveals the interaction of command levels in the region and their activity in the event of manifestation of the persuasive threat to foreign policy security. No actual sabotage attempts are detected according to the archival sources. This may be due to absence of such data in the civil archive. However, the archive stores an array of information on the alleged attempts of creating secrent network in the territory of Trans-Baikal Region.
Issues of war and peace
Krichevtsev M.V. - Garnisaires in France during the Napoleonic Wars: regulation of repressive measures for maintaining conscription pp. 291-301


Abstract: The Institution of garnisaires was intended for providing lodging to bystanders in the homes of residents in order to comply with the requirements of the government. In France of the early XIX century, it was implemented as a repressive measure to ensure conscription of the recalcitrant. The article describes the legal regulation of the institution of garnisaires in conducting conscription in France of the period of the Consulship and the First Empire. The object of this research is the Institution of garnisaires in the early XIX century; while the changes in legal regulation of this institution throughout the ruling of the First Consul and Emperor Napoleon I. The article employs the normative legal acts of the early XIX century: imperial decrees, governmental acts, executive orders and instructions of the officials of the central and local administration; as well as contextual analysis of legal acts, comparative-historical, and chronological methods. Taking into account that the topic of legal regulation of the institution of garnisaires is poorly covered, the article comprehensively analyzes the content of the fundamental legal acts, determines the peculiarities of stern measures applied for maintaining conscription at different stages of the reign of Napoleon I. The conclusion is made that the legal regulation of the institution of garnisaires during the indicated period has evolved from the first attempts to establish the practice of lodgment as repression, initially not implying specific restrictions, to introduction of more balanced and detailed regulation of the institution with a range of restrictive measures. The formation of legal framework of the institution was completed by 1807–1808 with issuing of the decrees of the Emperor and instructions of the Director General of Military Conscription Jean-Girard Lacuée.
History of law and state
Aleksandrova O. - The peculiarities of process structuring on maritime trade affairs (δίκαι εμπορικαί) in the IV century BC pp. 302-309


Abstract: The subject of this research is the distinctive features of δίκαι εμπορικαί – special type of proceedings in the Athens People's Court of the IV century BC associated with maritime trade operations, which is of crucial importance due to the constant need of the Athenian State for imported grain. The main source for revealing the specificity of this type of proceedings are the speeches attributed to the remarkable Athenian orator Demosthenes: “Against Zenothemid”, “Against Apaturia”, “Against Phormio”, and “Against Lacrit”), as well as speech LVI ("Against Dionysodorus"). This topic is important for understanding the development of Athenian judicial system; however, it is virtually unstudied in the Russian historiography, except certain aspects in the works of L. M. Gluskina and L. P. Marinovich. The following conclusions are made:   - A distinctive feature of δίκαι εμπορικαί processes was the participation of foreigners and possibility of challenging the decision by filing a protest;   - They were announced to be held in a short period of time throughout the navigation period;   - The case was considered on the basis of a written agreement, which had privilege over all other laws. Due to such favorable terms, Athens remained attractive city for conducting trade. The Emporiums were allowed to conclude permanent deals based on the Athens’s need for grain, as well as could count on the quick settlement of conflicts if such emerged. This is how the Athenian State solved the problem of bread delivery to the city.
Culture and cultures in historical context
Bortnikova Y.A., Naumenko O.N. - Muslim Shaitans in the history of Finno-Ugric peoples of Ural and Western Siberia of the XVII century pp. 310-317


Abstract: The subject of this research is the written historical sources that contain the term “Shaitan” and indicate the non-Orthodox nature of its origin in the history and culture of Finno-Ugric population of Ural and Siberia. Methodological framework is comprised of the Frontier Thesis by F. Turner. Historically, the traditional culture of Finno-Ugric peoples of Ural and Siberia was influenced by Muslim and Christian missionaries. Although in the XVII century, retained the influence of the Muslim – descendants of the Kazan and Siberian Khanates, it was also the influence of the Russian Orthodox Church. Such combination substantiated twofold processes in the history of Finno-Ugric peoples. The research employs the comparative-historical method that reveals the degree of Christian and Muslim influence upon the formation of the image of “Shaitan” and its use in the culture of Finno-Ugric peoples. The ehnographic materials collected and published prior to 1917 authored by N. Witsen, G. I. Novitsky, K. F. Karjalainen, and I. N. Smirnov served as the source base for this work. The use of the term “Shaitan” in Finno-Ugric cultures of Ural and Siberia has not been previously associated with the Muslim influence; this approach is implemented for the first time. The authors are also first to publish the field materials, which mention Num-Torum as the “former Muslim god”. The conclusion is made that relatively to the XVII century, there was no single (Christian) method of infiltration of the term “Shaitan” into local cultures, as for a long time, Finno-Ugric peoples of Ural and Western Siberia were under the influence of Muslims. The signs of such influence were replaced by Christianity throughout centuries, and the Islamic norms in the culture of Finno-Ugric peoples gradually faded away.
Pshenichnikova A.Y. - Ethnocultural specificity of the Argentinian linguistic worldview pp. 318-331


Abstract: The concept of the linguistic worldviews gains currency in the scientific community. Its study gives a better perspective on the peculiarities of the ethnic perception of the world of various linguistic communities. The object of this research is the linguistic zones of the Argentinian Spanish language. The subject is the realities of the Argentinian worldview. The goal lies in describing the lexicon and mentality through reconstruction of the linguistic worldview of modern Argentinians via description of its cultural-specific units. The conclusion is formulated on the role of loanwords in the Argentinian version of Spanish language. The following classification of the national specific lexicon of Argentinian Spanish is given: 1) By the method of borrowing into Indigenisms and Italianisms; 2) In accordance with the linguistic zones of influence, the Indigenisms are divided into Quechua and Aymara, Guarani, and Mapuche. The strongest influence upon the Andean zone of Argentina have Quechua and Aymara, Guarani – on the borders with Paraguay, and Mapuche – the Argentinian Pampas.; 3) The lexical units characteristic to the Argentinian national version of Spanish, common in the territory of Argentina and neighboring Uruguay and Paraguay, are referred to as regionalisms; 4) Proper names are in a separate group. The national lexicon of Argentina and neighboring Uruguay and Paraguay was strongly influenced by the Italian culture, which entailed the emergence of Italianisms. The scientific novelty of this article consists in examination of the poorly studied national-specific lexicon of Argentina. It is demonstrated that the study of the linguistic worldview reveals the peculiarities of ethnic world perception of Argentina, divided into the linguistic zones of the Argentinian Spanish language.  
Interdisciplinary research
Stepanova I., Gavrilov P.V., Kutakov S.S. - Imperial volost of Udomlya in Bezhetskaya Pyatina of the Novgorod land in the late XV early XVI centuries: historical-geographical reconstruction in GIS pp. 332-345


Abstract: This article provides the results of research of the territorial arrangement of the largest volost of Udomlya, which belonged to the Novgorod Archbishop prior to Novgorod land was annexed by Moscow. The author conducts localization of the toponymy of volost in accordance to the cadastre of 1498/99, which contained the characteristics of pogosts and dozens volosts. The article leans on the geoinformation technologies. For localization of settlements, the author linked the borders of land dachas and toponymy of the Economic Notes of the late XVIII century. This described the territory of the volost compactly located in northwestern Tver Region of Bezhetskaya Pyatina of the Novgorod land. This article is first to localize the territory of the volost of Udomlya located in northwestern Tver Region of Bezhetskaya Pyatina of the Novgorod land. Characteristic is given to the territories of pogost districts and dozens the volost was divided. The author clarifies the location of the centers of pogosts; most densely populated areas were in the basin of lakes Udomlya and Pesvo and the rivers Sezha and Volchina. It is established that volost included two pogosts – Spassky and Ilyinsky, which ceased to exist as pogost districts by the mid XVI century. The settlement pattern of dozens testifies to the gradual disintegration of the decimar system in volost by the late XV – early XVI centuries.
Ethnography and ethnology
Tsyrenov C.T., Tsyrenova N.D. - Daurian jews harp: a little-known musical instrument pp. 346-352


Abstract: This article examines the little-studied in the Russian scientific ethnographic and musicological literature Daurian traditional musical instrument mukulien (Chinese 木库莲), which is classified as jew’s harp. The goal of this article lies in determination of its role in modern spiritual culture of the Daurians, as well as characterization of the key stages of the history and evolution of mukulien, including the description of constructive peculiarities based on the material of folk legends and modern Chinese ethnographic research. The scientific novelty lies in the fact that in scientific ethnographic literature, the Daurian jew's harp (mukulien) has not previously become a separate subject of research. The article employs the historical, ethnographic, philosophical and musicological analysis. The previously unstudied Daurian legend about the invention of mukulien by the Daurian widow to console her heart from grieving is introduced into the scientific discourse. As a result, the author traces the main stages in the development of mukulien in Daurian culture, as well as determines the key aspects of further study of the phenomenon of jew’s harp.
Pererva E.V., Bityushkova A.A., Mataev V.V. - Anthropological peculiarities of the population of the Late Bronze Age buried in the solitary mound Krasnaya Dubrava pp. 353-369


Abstract: The subject of this research is the anthropological materials acquired in the course of archaeological excavations of the solitary burial mound “Krasnaya Dubrava”, located in the Ilovlinsky district of Volgograd Region. The conduct of archaeological excavations revealed eleven burials and bone remains from 12 individuals. The anthropological materials were poorly preserved. The burials are attributed to the Late Bronze Age, possibly to the periods of Srubnaya or Pokrovskaya cultures. In the course research, the author determined the gender and age of the buried individual, as well as the occurrence of discrete-varying traits. The paleopathological analysis employed the survey method developed by A. P. Buzhilova (1995, 1998). The examination of small-numbered and poorly preserved series presented in this research is of major significance. First of all, there is no opportunity for craniological and osteological research of individuals from the burial mound of Krasnaya Dubrava, therefore, pathological and gender-age analysis allow including the anthropological materials from this archaeological site into the scientific discourse, Secondly, the acquired results broaden the representations of lifestyle peculiarities of the population of the Late Bronze Age of the Lower Volga Region. The solitary burial mound of Krasnaya Dubrava is characterized by a large number of children burials under 4 years of age, and early mortality of adults at young age. The most common teeth pathologies indicate mineralized deposits due to the absence of oral hygiene. The studied individuals also mark the diseases of metabolic nature due famine. Most likely, these factors led to the early death of children and adults. The absence of traumatic injuries on the bone remains of the population buried in the mound of Krasnaya Dubrava testifies to peaceful lifestyle of this group.
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