Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue 11/2021
Contents of Issue 11/2021
History of ethnicities, peoples, nations
Karpov G. - The role and place of Indian diaspora in the colonial Kenya pp. 1-15


Abstract: This article examines the role of Indian diaspora in Kenya under colonial rule of the British Empire. Detailed analysis is conducted on the key prerequisites for migration from British India to East Africa, population dynamics and ethno-religious composition of South Asian communities. The author reviews the impact of migrants from South Asia upon the economy, politics, demographics, and healthcare of Kenyan society. Emphasis is place on examination of the contribution of Indian workers to the construction of railways and establishment of the local law enforcement system. Special attention is given to the relationship of Kenyans of Indian descent with European settlers and local populations. Methodological framework is comprised of the problematic-historical approach, comparative analysis, and a range of instruments offered by micro-history. The Indian diaspora in Kenya originated long before the colonial period; however, it expanded its presence in Africa only under the British rule. Immigrants from India have played an important role in the development of local business, industry and trade, being sort of guides of the achievements of Western civilization among the indigenous people, where the European natives were unable to work due to climatic peculiarities and severe living conditions. Up until Kenya declared independence in 1963, Indians were the so-called intermediaries between the Europeans and Africans, leaving in mind of the latter persistent negative associations of racial discrimination, entrepreneurial cynicism, and unscrupulousness. After the collapse of the colonial system, the Indian diaspora in Kenya has declined as a result of forced migration to metropole and Western countries.
History of public institutions
Borodina E.V. - Yekaterinburg division of judicial and country affairs during the 17351740: structure of presence of the institution pp. 16-29


Abstract: The subject of this research is the Yekaterinburg division of judicial and county during the 1735–1740. Despite the fact that any institution of the XVIII consisted of chancellery and presence, attention is focused on the analysis of the composition of “judges” – presence of the division throughout six years of its existence. The goal of the article is to determine the dynamics of changes in the composition of judges of the institution, which revealed the peculiarities of human resource policy in the Ural local administration in the mid XVIII century. The research relies on the documentary sources stored in the State Archive of Sverdlovsk Region, primarily minutes record books of minutes of the division of judicial and country affairs for the indicated period that contain information on the composition of officials in panel sessions of the institution. In this regard, the methods of research have become the methods of source research. The novelty of the study lies in the fact that reconstruction of the composition of presence of the regional administrations of the XVIII century are virtually absent. For the most part, they pertain to the time of major judicial and administrative transformations of the first and last quarters of the XVIII century. The institutions vested with judicial powers that existed in the second and third quarters of the XVIII century usually are do not receive due attention. In the course of analysis of the documentary materials, the conclusion is made on instability in the composition of the division of judicial and county affairs. The members of the presence rarely met in full, and the seat of the “chief magistrate” often lied vacant. All members were military servants with regular assignments, which was unrelated to their work in the department. The clerks remained the main driving force in the judicial process.
Factors of historical development
Sosenkov F.S. - Constitutional and legal principles of Soviet Federalism pp. 30-45


Abstract: The subject of this research is establishment and development of the principles of Soviet federalism: ideocracy, class character, proletarian internationalism, party spirit, right of nations to self-determination, two-level nature, unity of legal space, dual sovereignty, inviolability of the territory of the republics, dual citizenship, etc. The goal lies in examination of the sources, peculiarities of constitutional layout, evolution of the principles of Soviet federalism, and their role in the crisis and downfall of the Soviet federalism. The author offers the   definitions of such phenomena as the Soviet federalism and the Soviet federation, which defines the novelty of this work. Classification is given to the principles of Soviet federalism in accordance with the criteria outlined by the author: 1) by the time of emergence, the principles are divided into ideological (ideocracy, class character, proletarian internationalism, party spirit, right of nations to self-determination, etc.) and state-legal (single citizenship, inviolability of the territories of the republics, unity of legal system, supremacy of federal legislation, etc.); 2) by the method of codification, the principles are divided into constitutional (ideocracy, class character, right of nations to self-determination, etc.), and stemming from the essence of constitutional norms (asymmetry, party spirit, two-level nature). It is noted that some principles of Soviet federalism fade their significance over time (class character), while others are eliminated from the constitutional and legal practice (principle of mutual control over observance of the all-union and republican legislation). It is substantiated that Soviet federalism was jeopardized mostly by the fundamental interrelated ideological principles: ideocracy, party spirit, and right of nations to self-determination. The author’s special contribution consists in introducing archival documents into the scientific discourse.
Personality in history
Ilyichev A.V. - Baldwin IV of Jerusalem as the image of the ideal ruler of the Middle Ages pp. 46-62


Abstract: This article is dedicated one of the most remarkable kings of Jerusalem Baldwin IV, also calked the “Leper King”. The goal lies in analyzing the role of Baldwin IV in military-political history of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. The central task is to determine historical veracity of the positive image of Baldwin IV described in literature and cinematography. The historiographical framework is comprised on the works of national and foreign authors devoted to the history of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem; works of the Latin chronographers, as well as fragments from Arabic sources that were translated into English by M. C. Lyons and D. E. P. Jackson in their monograph “Saladin: the Politics of the Holy War”. The article raises the question of whether it is possible to advance a thesis that Baldwin IV is the prominent ruler of his time based on the analysis of personal traits and actions. Special attention is given to consideration of the domestic policy of the Kingdom of Jerusalem in the late XII century, as well as relationship of the young king with different political alliances. The conclusion is made that by virtue of his personal traits and actions, Baldwin IV significantly contributed to ensuring security of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. However, serious illness alongside critical internal challenges, led to the siege of Crusader state in the Battle of Hattin. Baldwin IV was unable to prevent it. The personality of Baldwin IV has not previously become the object of separate comprehensive study, which defines the scientific novelty of this paper. The article also views the events that took place in the Kingdom of Jerusalem over the period from 1160 to 1180 from the perspective of personality approach.
Social history
Osipov E.A. - From totalitarian regimes towards multipolar world: advantages and disadvantages of the new senior year curriculum on history in France pp. 63-71


Abstract: History taught in schools becomes increasingly important worldwide. School textbooks, standards and curricula on, which used to be just part of the learning process, turn into documents that are subject to extensive discussion. Leaning in the contemporary French scientific literature and speeches of the representatives of the French Ministry of National Education in a panel sessions of the Russian-French group on modernization of school curriculum on history (2018–2019) and at the World Congress of School History Teachers held in Moscow in October 2021, analysis is conducted on the curriculum on history for senior year students, that came into force on September 1, 2019. The new school curriculum is structured in such a way that the rivalry between totalitarian regimes in the 1930s, primarily between the Soviet Union and Germany, is the key factor of the outbreak of World War II, which unfortunately corresponds to modern political trends in Western countries, but contradicts the historical facts. It arises questions and draws excessive attention to the program of the protection of the rights of minorities, and the elements of gender theory overall. At the same time, heightened attention to the history of genocides in the XX century, coverage of the events of 1968 and 1989 in global scope as separate topics, and a multifaceted approach towards teaching history of the Cold War are the strong points of the new French school curriculum on history.
History of regions of Russia
Tverdyukova E.D. - Deputy corps of district soviets of Leningrad during the Great Patriotic War: staff composition and activity pp. 72-81


Abstract: The object of this research is the deputy corps of district soviets of Leningrad, while the subject is the quantitative and qualitative changes in its staff composition and activity of the deputies during the Great Patriotic War. Despite the fact that during the wartime, the responsibilities of local self-government were taken on by the executive committees of district soviets, the examination of everyday activity of the deputies is important for understanding the situation in the besieged society. The study relies on the record keeping and statistical materials from the funds of St. Petersburg State Central Archive, many of which have not been previously introduced to the scientific discourse; as well as published sources. For the first time in historiography, analysis is conducted on the staff composition of the deputy corps of district soviets and its changes during the wartime using the quantitative methods. It is established that majority of the deputies had poor economic and administrative experience, as they worked at production sites. After evacuation, conscription into the Red Army, work transfer to other regions, population losses, the number of people’s deputies has decreased by more than 2/3 by the end of the war. However, due to the shortage of qualified personnel, the process of nominating them for the senior positions in the executive branch ramped up. Using the historical-comparative and historical-chronological methods, the author determines the stages in the work of district soviets depending on the flip of events in the city: prior to the winter of 1941, the deputies took active part in the economic and political campaigns; in December 1941 – April 1942, their work virtually ceased; later, their main activity lied in single assignments of the district executive committees. The standing committees, in practice were mostly nominal.
Antonov I.V. - Chiyalik culture and the Golden Horde pp. 82-94


Abstract: The object of this research is the interaction of the forest and forest-steppe habitat of Eastern Europe during the Golden Horde. The subject of this research is the interaction of the Chiyalik culture, formed in the forest-steppe zone of Volga-Ural region and the Golden Horde culture formed in the steppe zone of Western Eurasia. The monuments of Chiyalik culture – subsoil burial grounds and ancient settlements – are located in the valleys of the Rivers Kama, Belaya, Ika, Dema, Chermasan, Suni and other rivers in the eastern parts of modern Tatarstan and northwestern parts of the modern Bashkortostan, dating back from XII–XIV centuries. The bearers of Chiyalik culture were Ugric by origin, who have undergone Turkization and Islamization. The article explores the narrative sources that contain records on the relations between Uralic Ugric Peoples and Mongols, archaeological data on the objects of the Golden Horde import found on the monuments of Chiyalik culture. Special attention is given to the comparative analysis of narrative sources and archaeological data on the problem of interaction of Chiyalik culture and the Golden Horde as the synchronous historical phenomena. Narrative sources indicate the conquest of the territory of Chiyalik culture by the Mongols, tribute and labor conscriptions carried out by the local population in favor of the conquerors. The objects of the Golden Horde were detected on the settlement monuments: silver earrings and coins were found in Ufa-II settlement; copper coins were found in Iske–aul settlement; pottery and copper coins were found in Podymalovo-I settlement. Silver Golden Horde coins were found in the Taktalachuk and Azmetyevsky burial grounds. The author’s special contribution to this research lies in the conclusion that the paucity of findings is explained by the absence of large settlements, and the Muslim funeral rite. The novelty consists in establishment of the fact of the unilateral impact of the Golden Horde culture upon the Chiyalik culture: in exchange for the items of the Golden Horde import, were exported the raw materials, items of cattle breeding, hunting and beekeeping.
Ethnography and ethnology
Khasanova Z.F. - The items of Islam and pre-Islamic beliefs of the Bashkirs in collection of the Museum of Archeology and Ethnography of the Institute of Ethnological Research of the Ufa Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences pp. 95-102


Abstract: The subject of this research is museum sources on the religion of Bashkir people. The goal lies in examination of the items of Islam and pre-Islamic beliefs from the ethnographic collections of the Museum of Archeology and Ethnography of R. G. Kuzeev Institute of Ethnological Research of the Ufa Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It is determined that the Museum stores over 50 items related to religion that were collected in the late XX century in the Republic of Bashkortostan, Kurgan Oblast, and Orenburg Oblast. These Islamic (Sunni Muslims) items are rather associated with the traditions and lifestyle of the Bashkir people: prayer rugs – namazlik, Quran, tasbih, tagiyah, ablution items – kumgan, dress of the Mullah. Prayer rugs are decorated with floral embroidery, with images of mosque, kumgan, crescent moon, and Arabic inscription. The collections also feature the items related to Shia Muslims – a stone used in prayer. Islam first infiltrated Bashkir culture in the X – XI centuries; by the XIII – XIV century it spread significantly; strengthening its positions with each century, it has fully integrated into life of Bashkir population by the end of the XIX century. Despite this fact, certain items pre-Islamic beliefs have retained in everyday life of the Bashkir people: amulets (amulet stones, juniper, feathers of wood grouse, goose down, etc.). Bashkirs were able to synthesize the pre-Islamic and Islamic tradition, which remain existing harmoniously in the territory of the Republic of Bashkortostan.
Issues of war and peace
Yakupova D.V., Yakupov R.A. - Bread for the People and National Security: Soviet commercial diplomacy during the period of détente pp. 103-119


Abstract: The relevance of this research is defined by the need for analyzing the historical experience of adaptation of foreign economic activity of the Soviet State to the challenges of Western policy deterrence, the imperatives of which are being applied to Russia in the current context. The subject of this research is the Soviet grain procurement crisis and foreign policy ways for its overcoming. The object of this research is trade and diplomatic relations between the Soviet Union and the United States. The scientific novelty lies in elaboration of the concept of “commercial diplomacy” – the foreign economic activity of the USSR government aimed at solution of the domestic problems and tasks of modernization. Leaning on the newly introduced sources, the conclusion is made that the policy of commercial diplomacy implemented by the Soviet Union suggested the use of international dialogue within the framework of cooperation between the governments and public-private business circles on achieving the economic goals associated with the national interests of the Soviet Union. The critical need for grain procurement, discovery of the oil resources potential, and détente in the international relations between the two superpowers led to a new round in the Soviet Union – United States relations. It is underlined that grain and oil manifested as the factor of maintaining domestic political stability and the object of foreign policy exchange. The article answers the question: how the grain procurement problem has transformed from the economic into social issue, and the grain import has become the vulnerable spot of the Soviet Union in the ideological confrontation with the United States, and the object of international relations.
Culture and cultures in historical context
Prokopieva A.N., Yakovleva K.M., Sleptsova A.A. - Mammoth tusk jewelry in the Yakut culture: retrospective analysis and current state pp. 120-132


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the history of making jewelry from mammoth tusk in the Yakut culture. The hypothesis is advanced that Yakut mammoth tusk carving stems from the local traditions of wood carving and scrimshaw, and represents the raw material for making household items for the local population, and use of tusk as a raw material is associated with the appearance of the first professional scrimshaw craftsmen in Yakutia. The first part of the article examines the history of tusk carving and the prerequisites for the emergence of the new direction in jewelry. The second part of the article describes the peculiarities of making mammoth tusk jewelry in the modern Yakut culture. The current problems of taking, sale and use of mammoth tusk are relevant topics in the scientific discourse. However, jewelry and souvenirs from mammoth tusk, as well as the origins of modern scrimshaw in Yakutia have not previously become the subject of special research. For giving a better perspective on the problem the author interviewed the Soviet and contemporary artisans. It is established that influence of the Soviet scrimshaw school is still traced in modern neo-mythologized representations. The pliability of the material and availability of the raw materials for the Yakut craftsmen substantiated the popularity of the mammoth tusk and its adaptability to modern fashion trends.
History and Ideology
Naumov A.O. - Soft power and public diplomacy of Germany: past and present pp. 133-145


Abstract: The concept of “soft power”, which gained popularity in recent years, was developed by the United States at the end of the Cold War. However, Germany has been using similar foreign policy tools long before the emergence of this term in 1990. The subject of this research is the German strategy of “soft power” with its own tradition and specificity that differs significantly from other countries. Public diplomacy remains the key instrument in building the “soft power” potential of Germany. Therefore, analysis is conducted on the evolution of the main vectors of “soft power” policy of the country and the activity of the key actors of its public diplomacy for the past 150 years. The article describes the use of “soft power” strategies by various political regimes that were in power in Germany. The conclusion is made that in foreign policy of the Federal Republic of Germany, which appeared on the world map in 1949, “soft power” and public diplomacy have played and continue to play an important role, allowing to achieve significant gains on the international arena in light of restrictions imposed after the World War II regarding the use of “hard power” tools. However, the German experience shows that excessive enthusiasm for building the internationally attractive image of the country may lead to quite unpredictable consequences.
History of law and state
Krichevtsev M.V. - Revision and cassation in French military courts of the late XVIII early XIX centuries: on the legal nature of permanent councils of revision pp. 146-155


Abstract: This article contains material on the history of the Permanent Councils of Revision – bodies of military justice in France of the late XVIII – early XIX centuries, which is examined in the Russian historiography for the first time, as well as poorly studied in the French historiography. Leaning on the legislative acts and works of the French lawyers of that time, analysis is conducted on the procedure for the formation of the councils of revision, and determination of their judicial competence. The article also raises the question on correlation of the concepts of “revision” and “cassation” in French military justice of the end of revolutionary and post-revolutionary eras. Consideration of the provisions of French jurisprudence of the early XIX century allows concluding that the concept of “revision” could also include cassation of court judgments. Comparison of the permanent councils of revision, which carried out the functions of cassation of court decisions, with the Cassation Tribunal (in the imperial time – the Court of Cassation) did not allow to equate these bodies, which were created separately for military and civilian justice. Having a different procedure for the formation of bench of judges, the permanent councils of revision were granted the limited authority to conduct cassation and were not of equal importance to the Court of Cassation.
History of science and technology
Skrydlov A. - The Case of Professors in 1821 at St. Petersburg University in the history of Russian statistics pp. 156-168


Abstract: This publication is written in commemoration of the 200th anniversary of the “Case of Professors" of St. Petersburg University, which heralds the important stage in the formation of conservative policy of the Russian government in the sphere of science and education. The object of this research is the impact of the events of 1821 upon the development of government science in Russia – the early direction of statistical science. The author analyzes the prerequisites for the emergence of political-economic direction of government science in Russia, draws parallel with the traditional German school, outlines the key peculiarities – attempt to determine the advantages and disadvantages of the phenomena under review, establish causal relationships between them, appose government science with political economics. In the course of the “Case of Professors”, two of the most prominent representatives of this scientific direction – C. T. Hermann and K .I. Arsenyev were exposed to harsh criticism by the officials of the Ministry of Religious Affairs and Public Education. Leaning on the published and archival sources, the article explores the arguments of M. L. Magnitsky, I. S. Laval, A. N. Golitsyn on the topic of teaching statistics at the university. The conclusion is made that the major complaint of the officials to the teaching techniques and scientific works of Hermann and Arsenyev was their extensive interpretation of the subject of statistical science. The opponents of the scholars sought to bring the government science back to the traditional for the XVIII century descriptive school, as well as limit it solely to the empirical methods. It is indicated that the prohibition against using the works of Hermann and Arsenyev in the educational institutions entail significant consequences and halted the development of political-economic direction of government science for over two decades. The university statistical education returned to this tradition only after 1835, with the adoption of the new university charter.
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