Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue 10/2021
Contents of Issue 10/2021
Regions of the world in the global historical process
Stepanov I.N. - American opium smuggling trade and John Jacob Astor pp. 1-6

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.10.36620

Abstract: The subject of this research is the activity of John Jacob Astor and his role in the American opium smuggling trade. Description is given to the differences between the American and British opium models in China. An attempt is made to determine the peculiarities of Astor's activity in the opium business. The article employs the following sources: works of the German historian Alexander Emmerich from the University of Augsburg dedicated to the American Germans and their fate in the United States; work of the American historian John (Jake) Chen on the history of Chinese diaspora in the United States; work of Jeff Goldberg who specialized in the history of psychotropic substances; article by the member of the Massachusetts School of History  Fredrik Delano Grant, Jr. on the Roosevelt’ opium track’ text of the debate in the British Parliament of April 9, 1840. The novelty of this research lies in familiarization of the Russian-speaking audience with the problems of opium smuggling trade through the research works that have not been previously translated into the Russian language. The conducted analysis of the parliamentary debates in Great Britain determines the commonality of interests of the British and American opium traders with regards to China. The study confirmed the enormous fortune of John Jacob Astor in the American opium smuggling trade, although this type of commercial activity was not primary in his business. The article also describes his continued commercial activity (including opium) in the United States after leaving the Chinese market.
Mikhailov A.A., Fisheva A.A. - Aviation in the development and defense of the Arctic during the 1920s: military plans, science, propaganda, and fiction pp. 7-18

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.10.36673

Abstract: This article examines the competition for the Arctic territories between the polar regions that unfolded in the 1920s, which required active development of these lands involving airplanes and airships. At that point, of primary import was the layout of trans-Arctic airways and deployment of flight support facilities in the Arctic territories, with the accompanying use of aviation for ice reconnaissance and rescue expeditions. Special attention is given to the study of the Soviet and international experience in elaboration and implementation of programs on the military and economic development of northern territories. The topic of consistent development of the Arctic involving aviation and aerostatics is reflected not only in scientific and economic programs, but also in state propaganda, publicistic writing and literary works. The novelty of this research consists in the comprehensive approach towards the problems of involving aviation in the Soviet Union during the 1920s for the development of the Arctic, and simultaneously, building the military capacity of the state, and collective perception of the ideas of the development of Arctic territories and aviation. The conclusion is made that the processes of development of polar aviation and division of Arctic territories were the so-called catalyst for each other, which by the early 1930s allowed the Soviet Union to consolidate its position of in the Arctic. The authors’ special contribution lies in examination of various genres of the press as a particular group of sources that had an ideological influence upon public consciousness.
History of law and state
Pletnikov V.S. - The Constitution of developed Socialism as an instrument of political-legal construction of reality pp. 19-27

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.10.36551

Abstract: This article discusses the quality of constitutional-legal regulation and nature of the state of “developed socialism” based on comprehensive analysis of the text of the 1977 Constitution of the Soviet Union. The subject of this research is the target points enshrined in the Basic Law of the country and used for construction of the essential, institutional, functional-activity, normative-regulatory, and effective principles of the model of the state of "developed socialism". Such material allowed classifying the objectives specified in the 1977 Constitution of the Soviet Union, and determining the integrity of target-setting of the legislator in terms of state-building at the new stage of development of Soviet society. Using the model of the state as an instrument for cognizing state-legal life tailored to the needs of goal-setting of human activity, it is concluded that the 1977 Constitution of the Soviet Union is not qualitative instrument that ensures state-legal development of the country. A range of goals stated stipulated in the Basic Law of the country of 1977 duplicate similar provisions enshrined in the 1936 Constitution of the Soviet Union, and do not reflect the needs of the state of “developed socialism”. In view of the progressive goal reflected in the preamble of the 1977 Constitution, it has turned into the instrument of political-legal construction of reality.
History of political and legal doctrines
Kodan S.V. - Source studies within the structure of the history of political and legal doctrines: subject, goal, functions, and role pp. 28-43

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.10.36375

Abstract: The subject of this research is determination of the place and role of source studies within the structure of the history of political and legal doctrines. The questions of source studies in the indicated legal science have not been previously studied, at best designated as such in works of the thinkers. Further research of the political-legal thought requires elaboration of the theoretical problems of source studies of the history of political and legal doctrines, first and foremost, determination of the initial parameters of the section of source studies of this legal science. The modern development of the theory of source studies in social sciences and humanities creates the prerequisite for its highlight and description. It is also necessary to consider the experience of studying the sources in the history of sociopolitical thought and the history of philosophy, in which the section of source studies of the specified sciences develop dynamically. This article is first within the works on history of political and legal doctrines explores the characteristics of the section of source studies of this science, i.e. its subject, goal, and functions. Emphasis is also placed on the importance of studying sources as the foundation for acquiring new knowledge on the history of political-legal thought, the need to work with the sources and lean on the achievements of other sciences of social-humanistic orientation.
History and Politics
Rabush T.V. - On the formation of the state borders of Afghanistan in the late XVIII XIX centuries pp. 44-52

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.10.36613

Abstract: The subject of this research is the formation of state borders of Afghanistan throughout the period from the mid XVIII century to the late XIX century. A brief overview is given to this process during the existence of the Durrani Empire, while the main part of research is covers the events of the XIX century, since the reign of the Barakzai Dynasty. The article leans on the works of the experts in history of Afghanistan of the corresponding period, history foreign policy of Afghanistan and its individual aspects, as well as related documents. This topic has not previously become the subject of separate research, which defines the novelty of this publication. The main results are as follows: the author divides the history of formation of the borders of Afghanistan into two stages – since 1747 to the mid XIX century, characterizes by the dynamic policy of Afghan rulers aimed at the expansion of their territories, including through military conquests; the second half of the XIX century, which determines the new borders of Afghanistan primarily by the external political actors and their activity. It is worth noting that the period from the late XVIII century and the entire XIX century marks the formation of state border of Afghanistan that remain to this day.
Historical sources and artifacts
Akimova T.M. - Soviets of Workers', Peasants', and Soldiers' Deputies in memorandum of E. G. Gerasimov (Gerasin) of June 14, 1918 pp. 53-59

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.10.36585

Abstract: This article discusses the a memorandum of the member of the Control and Audit Committee under the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs – Efim Grigorievich Gerasimov (Gerasin). Having supported the socialist movement and subsequently the February and October Revolutions of 1917 since his youth years, the author of the document has analyzed the system of Soviets of Workers', Soldiers 'and Peasants' Deputies that established on the local level in late 1917 – early 1918 and gradually replaced the county self-government. The value of the source lies in the fact that the author of self-censorship revealed the flaws of the new local government, having expressed the concern that they may lead to a civil war in the country. E. G. Gerasimov (Gerasin) dedicated particular attention to the problem of dialogue between the Soviet deputies and central government, and proposed to institute the post of special emergency mediators for controlling the execution of all provisions and “encourage” the representatives of the Soviets. The conclusion is made that the elimination of the existing flaws required the so-called “democratic centralism” in Russia, which suggested the combination of electivity of local administration along with the governing and supervisory power of the central administration. In this regard, the content of the document allows taking a look at the Soviets of Workers', Peasants', and Soldiers’ Deputies through the prism of a person who worked in that system, without idealization or “touchup”.
Social history
Sevostyanova E., Ul'yanova O. - Do not deem the measures taken as violence...: public charity and governance in Transbaikal during the political regime of the ataman G. Semenov pp. 60-89

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.10.34223

Abstract: The object of this research is the regional charity and its transformation after February 1917, while the subject is the public charity in Transbaikal during the Civil War and political regime of the ataman G. Semenov. The research relies on the archival sources and periodical press materials. Using the systematic methodological principle, the topic is viewed in strong correlation with the events that unfolded in the society, taking into account structural, genetic, and functional relationships. The article is divided into parts, each of which reflects one of the facets of the articulated problem: disastrous fall in living standards of the population, household difficulties and psychological state peculiarities; crisis of the system of state care and collapse of the imperial system of organized public charity; public initiatives in the sphere of charity (forms, main recipients); “techniques” for encouraging charity used by the administration of the ataman G. Semenov. The conclusion is made that charitable activity overall during the political regime of the ataman G. Semenov retained. This was important, particularly in the conditions of declining living standards and growing number of destitute people, given that the circle of those eligible for receiving welfare has reduced, including for ideological reasons. The main recipients of public charity remained the orphans. Charity events for the own benefit, conducted by the educational institutions and ethnic diasporas, became a noticeable trend. The charity evenings for supporting the military, which in the early going appeared to be unregulated by Semenov’s administration, were prohibited. The authorities, interested in retaining public charity, often resorted to coercive measures fort its stimulation, including threats to habitual activity of the residents. The population was actively forced to donate for the army. The article reveals the methods of psychological pressure and coercion applied to population for participating in charity activities.
Vorobeva S. - Wiedergeburt Society of Russian Germans in the Republic of Khakassia in the 1990s2010s pp. 90-99

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.10.36511

Abstract: This article examines the “Wiedergeburt” Society of Russian Germans in the Republic of Khakassia over the period from 1990s to 2010s relying on the archival sources. The object of this research is the “Wiedergeburt” Society of Russian Germans in the 1990s–2010s. The subject is the “Rebirth” Society of Russian Germans in the Republic of Khakassia. The goal of the publication consists in analysis of the history of establishment and development of “Wiedergeburt” Society in the Republic of Khakassia. The author aims to trace the history of creation of “Wiedergeburt” Society in the Russian Federation, namely in the Republic of Khakassia; as well as analyze the role of “Rebirth” Society in Germany-Russia relations. The article employs historical-comparative, chronological, and retrospective methods. The scientific novelty lies in the comparative analysis of the processes of creation and development of “Wiedergeburt” Society on the national level and on the level of the Republic of Khakassia; summary and systematization of  the related material using the historical-comparative and system-functional method for examination of the tasks faced by “Rebirth” Society in the Republic of Khakassia; examination of the regional branch of “Wiedergeburt” Society in Abakan within the system of nonprofit organization of Russian Germans; use of archival sources. The conclusion is made that “Wiedergeburt” Society in the Republic of Khakassia is part of the system of nonprofit organization of Russian Germans, and the regional branch of “Rebirth” Society in Abakan slightly differed from the central All-Union Society of Russian Germans “Wiedergeburt”. In pursuit of its goals, the organization was focused on the cultural-educational activity, preservation of culture and traditions, and development of the German language.
Historical memory
Bozhok N.S. - Commemorations of cultural-historical reconstruction in the context of network society pp. 100-117

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.10.36390

Abstract: The relevance of this article is substantiated by the need for scientific comprehension of the versatile experience of commemorative activity of the communities united within the framework of the All-Russian Public Movement “Clubs of Historical Reconstruction of Russia”. The object of this research is the collective commemorations that accumulate various forms of culture-making memorial initiatives of the indicated movement. The subject is the transformation processes of commemorative practices of the reenactment movement in the context of network society. The goal is to determine the key vectors of transformation of commemorations of the cultural-historical reconstruction, which reflects fundamental changes in the modern memorial space in the context of network society. The author advances the opinion that major changes in the commemorative practices of reenactors are substantiated by the transition towards the project-network form of interaction with a wide circle of social actors, the cooperation with which is based on the mutually beneficial exchange of deficit resources. The novelty of this work lies in explication and empirical testing of the concept of “memorial management” ( terminology of Aleida Assmann) for articulation of the specificity of the current stage of transformation of commemorations of cultural-historical reconstructions in the context of project-network society. The new material on the public memorial initiatives in the network projects of reenactors is introduces into the scientific discourse, which allows concluding that the transformation of commemorations of cultural-historical reconstruction is a complex multi-vector process that reveals a range of multidirectional trends characteristic to the Russian memorial space. The fundamental changes in commemorative practices of reconstruction manifest in the expansion of their scientific, educational, and inclusive components.
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