Электронный журнал Genesis: исторические исследования - №9 за 2020 год - Содержание - список статей - ISSN: 2409-868X - Издательство NotaBene
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Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue № 09/2020
Contents of Issue № 09/2020
Archeology
Grigorev A. - Forts as a type of defensive structures on the example of fortifications of the remote chora of Chersonesus pp. 1-20

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.9.33793

Abstract: This article reviews the monuments of ancient fortification, which historically belonged to the remote chora of Chersonesus since the late IV century BC. Among them, the author highlights the urban and rural settlements that featured various defensive structures. This factor is associated with a wide territorial expansion of Chersonesus in the territory North-Western Crimea. The interpretation of some monuments remains controversial due to the absence of meticulous analysis of the functions of certain constructs and planning structures of the fortified settlements. The role of the fortified settlements of the remote chora of Chersonesus in the process of development of vast territories of the North-Western Crimea is also contentious. The key goal of this article consists in the analysis of ancient fortifications from the perspective of the existing archaeological classification and records from the written sources. For correlating the Chersonesus fortifications with the existing sections in archaeological classification, namely with the concept of “fort”, the author applies the analysis of defensive functions, which in turn, are reflected in architectural-planning solutions and provisioned by the ancient architects military tactical techniques, which can be observed in the architectural remnants. Based on the acquired results, the author offers a multifaceted comprehensive approach towards analyzing the architectural constructs, which allows conducting new historical reconstructions of defense system of the chora.
Samashev Z., Chotbaev A.E., Kurganov N.S., Pankin D.V., Povolotskaya A.V., Kurochkin A.V., Kitov E.P., Kitova A.O. - Natural scientific methods in exploration of reference monuments of the Saka Culture in Kazakh Altai pp. 21-31

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.9.33885

Abstract: This article explores the ancient gold jewelry with inlay, which were discovered in the process of archeological studies conducted in Summer 2018 of grave complexes located on the Eleke Sazy Plateau, Tarbagatay Ridge in East Kazakhstan Region in the burial of a young man belonging to aristocratic ancestry. It refers to the Saka culture, and dates back to approximately VIII-VII centuries BC. Among the discovered objects were garments embroidered with gold, quiver with arrows, and a bronze dagger in gold scabbard. This work studied the golden scabbard for dagger. The scabbard consists of several parts attached to a wooden base and decorated with granulation and inlay. In many cases, only traces of inlay remain. Some gems changed in color in the process of degradation, and currently look grey. Micro-samples for the research were selected from the crumbling fragments of inlay obtained in the process of restoration of the item. Modern natural scientific methods allow studying the material component of the objects of cultural heritage. The identification procedure is now available even based on the remaining particles with characteristic sizes that do not exceed tens of microns. Within the framework this research, the author examined the possibility of selecting such micro-samples with subsequent identification. Application of the Raman spectroscopic technique allowed examining the selected micro-samples on the next stage. The complementary methods imply Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy for studying organic substances the inlay was attached to.
History of regions of Russia
P'yankov S.A. - Precious square footage: housing and living conditions of the employees of the Ural Automotive Plant during the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945) pp. 32-55

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.9.33901

Abstract: The subject of this research is the housing and living conditions of the employees of the Ural Automotive Plant named after J. V. Stalin, established during the Great Patriotic War as a result of evacuation of one of the largest enterprises of Soviet automobile industry – Moscow Vehicle Plant named after J. V. Stalin. The article analyzes the process of accommodation of evacuated employees in the Ural rear, as well as describes ways of resolving their housing by the plant. Methodological framework consists of the generally accepted methods of historical science. The descriptive method allowed characterize the living situation of the employees of automotive plant. The historical-genetic method allowed tracing the changes in housing and living conditions of the employees of Ural Automotive Plant during the Great Patriotic War, as well as reconstructing the course of residential construction. The relevance of this work is substantiated by the detailed reconstruction of the mechanisms of functionality of defense economy on the example of a large industrial enterprise. Based on the report documentation and protocols of political party association of the plant, the article demonstrates the process of building factory housing, as well as the course and results of individual residential construction. The article reviews the conditions of living in dormitories. The conducted research explicates that the existing system of government and party administration managed to resolve the problems of evacuation and accommodation of the employees of the vehicle plant; and the active participation of political party association of the factory allowed addressing most urgent issues of the factory employees, and consolidating their efforts for solution of the socially important tasks.
Ershov M.F. - “Helicopter Rhapsody” as a historical-ethnographic source describing life in the North of Tyumen Region pp. 56-67

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.9.33859

Abstract: The novel “Helicopter Rhapsody” by L. Babanin describes the daily activities of pilots in the conditions of frontier, on the border of nature and industrial civilization. The subject of this research is the important factors of social psychology of the population of the Far North in the period of oil and gas exploitation. Analysis is conducted on text as a historical-ethnographic source about isolated lifestyle of the population during the exploration of oil and gas deposits in the North of Western Siberia in the late XX – early XXI centuries. Based on information provided in the novel, and attempt is made to reconstruct mentality of the people living in the conditions of Soviet and post-Soviet oil and gas frontier, as well as explicate the specificity of formation of industrial society in the North of Western Siberia. The author's special contribution consists in reliance on the interdisciplinary approach. The novelty is defined by usage of the concepts of frontier, trickstership, and theoretical groundwork in the area of literary studies applicable to the events of the recent past. The acquired results demonstrate that L. Babanin using the imagery means described the breakdown of former cultural regulators, and in many ways, the intuitive, archaic methods of seeking the way out typical to the characters of his novel. The informal functions of tricksters are implicitly present among the social roles. They have, albeit implicitly, in a number of public roles, there are informal functions of the trickster. Study of the novel “Helicopter Rhapsody” proves that the cultural boundaries between profane and sacred components were vague, and former meanings faded away back in the Soviet times. However, the entropy of culture cannot be eternal. It is justifiable to conclude that tricksters in the future may play positive roles for overcoming the national stagnation. This article is valuable for the researchers dealing with frontier and soft scientists studying the culture of Russian province.
Interdisciplinary research
Vyrodova M.V. - Comprehension of the concept of “life strategy” in culturological studies pp. 68-78

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.9.33851

Abstract: Although the term “life strategy” was introduced into the scientific circulation relatively recently, it immediately caught attention of psychologists and sociologists. “Life strategy” is also relevant to culturologists, as it touches upon the historical and social experience of the people, norms, values and ideals, driving motives in people's behavior with consideration of regional specificity. However, there is yet no comprehensive culturological research on the topic. The goal of this article the author’s attempt to summarize the existing dedicated to “life strategy” within the Russian and foreign humanities, as well as draw attention to this problematic. The research leans on the works of thinkers and philosophers of the past, as well as on the materials obtained by modern researchers. The selected chronological framework allows structuring the history of studying this topic, tracing the change of outlook upon it over time, as well as demonstrating the importance of studying the topic of “life strategy”. The conducted research indicates that initially the study of the concept of “life strategy” pertained to determination of the meaning of life of the entire civilizations, and only with the course of time, separate individuals became the objects of research.  In examination of the topic in question, the researchers dealing with the problems of culturology, first and foremost focus on the historical, ethnic, topographical and time aspects, evolution of life strategy among different ethnic groups, as well as gender component, gradually shifting away from the abstract and generalized analysis.
Dashieva S.B., Rinchinova O.S., Tsyrenova N.D. - The formation of worldview of the doctors of traditional medicine in China, Mongolia, and Russia pp. 79-87

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.9.33848

Abstract: The subject of this research is the current state of the system of traditional medical system in China, Mongolia and Russia. The object of this research is the role of a doctor in development of the traditional medicine (Tibetan) in China, Mongolia and Russia. The authors conduct comparative analysis between the degree of integratedness of the doctor of traditional medicine into the general medical and scientific-educational environment of one or another country, and degree of their demand in practical health care. Special attention is given to the sources of biographical records on the doctors of Tibetan medicine in Old Mongolian and Chinese languages, as well as to the problem of the impact of sociocultural and normative legal environment upon personal becoming of the doctor of traditional medicine. The main conclusions consist in determination of commonality of religious beliefs and the method of acquisition of knowledge on Tibetan medicine in the context of Buddhist philosophy, as well as the fact that traditional Tibetan medicine is interrelated with Buddhism, in which the system of the so-called “direct transfer” of knowledge from the teacher to a student has sacred and fundamental meaning in becoming of the healer monk. The authors' special contribution to the research is defined by introduction into the scientific discourse of previously unpublished records on the doctors of Tibetan medicine in China, Mongolia and Russia. The novelty consists in conducting the analysis of factors that unite the doctors of Tibetan medicine in China, Mongolia and Russia, as well as in reveling the commonality of religious beliefs and method of acquisition of knowledge of Tibetan medicine in the context of Buddhist philosophy.
History of ethnicities, peoples, nations
Galyamov A.A. - Evolution of the images of Ob Ugrians in ethnographic illustrated publications of the late XVIII – early XIX centuries pp. 88-99

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.9.33822

Abstract: The subject of this research is representation of the images of Ob Ugrians in ethnographic illustrated publications of the late XVIII – early XIX centuries. The author examines the works of H. Rotht, J. B. Le Prince, H. G. Geissler as the visual and historical-ethnographic sources. The article touches upon the general historical, artistic and intellectual contexts of the second half of the XVIII – early XIX centuries, reflecting the dominant representations of the contemporaries on life and culture of Ob Ugrians. The approach proposed by Y. Slezkin that allows viewing the Ob Ugrians “with the eyes of Russians” is favored by the author. In analyzing the visual form of works, the author leant on the iconological method. The novelty of this research is defined by the relevance of studying visual representation of Ob Ugrians in the illustrated publications of the late XVIII – early XIX centuries based on the example of gravures by Roth, Le Prince, and Geissler. This topic is yet insufficiently studied from the perspective of existence of the corresponding historical-ethnographic research, as well as analysis of the artistic for of the works. The task for reconstruction of representations of the artists themselves on life and culture of Ob Ugrians is also relevant. These views were formed within the framework of particular theoretical models, concepts, historical-ethnographic ideas of that time, and were a reflection of the dominant aesthetic canons and artistic conventions, which ultimately outlined the general “portrait” of Ob Ugrians.
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