Электронный журнал Genesis: исторические исследования - №6 за 2020 г. - Содержание - список статей. ISSN: 2409-868X - Издательство NotaBene
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Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue № 06/2020
Contents of Issue № 06/2020
Regions of the world in the global historical process
Torosian A. - Reform and improvement of work mechanism of the United Nations pp. 1-15

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.6.32760

Abstract: This article examines the question of reform of the United Nations as one of the key objectives that has been on the agenda of this institution for several decades. The organization was established for the purpose of relieve future generations from the disasters of war that caused indescribable grieve to humanity; however, for quite a while there is an opinion that the UN has lost its authority and influence on the international arena. This article considers the improvement of work mechanisms of the United Nations. Particular attention is paid to the new principles founded in the early XXI century, reforms carried out within the system of UN, as well as position of the Russian Federation pertaining to the subject of research. Currently,  the United Nations is virtually the only institution that ensures security on the international arena, significantly contributes to the prevention of escalation of a high number of conflicts, despite the fact that there do still exist problematic hubs in the activity of this Organization. The UN greatly benefits the international community since its establishment; however, it requires changes and reforms in order to improve its effectiveness.
Philosophy of history, historiography, chronology/source studies
Pavlenko A.R., Iusupov R.G. - Establishing the system of higher energetics education and science of Russian in domestic historiography pp. 16-27

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.6.33163

Abstract: This article is devoted to the contemporary historiography of higher school for energetics in USSR and the Russian federation. The subject of this research is comprised of formation of modern scientific perceptions on emergence and development of Russian system of training energy personnel. The object of this research is the body of 1990s-2000s publications of historic and multidisciplinary profile on the contemporary history of higher energy education and university energetics in Russia. The goal of this research is to determine the main problematic vectors and theoretical approaches forming in the process of scientific research of this topic, as well as understanding of the results and further prospects of its development. The novelty of this research consists in determining, systematizing and analyzing the content of the body of historiographical sources on history of Russian energetics and education during XX and XXI centuries. The authors conclude that within the framework of this historiographical branch, there is a current scientific base that allows transitioning to a new level of discovery and theoretical generalization of materials. It seems relevant to transition from “milestone stories” of universities and departments to study of the role of higher education and academic science in the process of implementation of state energy policy in Russia, as well as development of international energy dialogue.
History of ethnicities, peoples, nations
Ubeeva O. - Demographic situation in Northern Buryatia during the 1990’s (on the materials of the districts of Baikal–Amur Mainline) pp. 28-37

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.6.33185

Abstract: Demographic situation in Eastern Siberian and Far Eastern regions of Russia has always depended on economic policy of the Soviet government. During the period of post-Soviet transformation, demographic processes were characterized by negative dynamics. This work explored the peculiarities of demographic development of the northern districts of Buryatia in the 1990’s on the materials of districts under the socioeconomic influence of Baikal–Amur Mainline. The national historical literature has multiple works dedicated to demography of post-Soviet and modern Buryatia, however the population of northern areas has not previously become the subject of a separate research. The article describes the key conditions and factors of demographic development of the territories of Russia’s Far North, as well as determines dependence of demographic processes on the socioeconomic problems in development of the region. The author reviews peculiarities of the dynamics of birth rate, mortality rate and natural population increase. Current situation of the districts of Baikal–Amur Mainline can be characterized as deprivation when certain social needs of the local population cannot be fulfilled. Prevalence of dilapidated housings, poorly developed engineering and public utilities, lack of social sphere facilities, severe climatic conditions of the Far North alongside depressive state of backbone enterprises substantiated the low standard of living of the society. The conclusion is made that demographic development of Buryatia is characterized with depopulation due to rise in mortality rate and significant reduction in birth rate.
Regions of the world in the global historical process
Lisenkov O. - Modern Age empires: colony management principles on the example of Great Britain and France pp. 38-58

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.6.33316

Abstract: The object of this research is the colonial policy of the two largest European empires of the Modern Age: France and Great Britain. In the course of conquering new lands, these countries faced the problem of managing vast territories and diverse indigenous population. The solution consisted in establishment of effective colonial management systems. The peculiarities of functionality of such systems became the subject of this research. The goal lies in determination of specificity of organization and operation of the systems of colonial management in the British and French Empires from the perspective of their interrelation with cultural factors. The conclusion is made that the British Empire retained the traditional government system on the conquered territories – indirect management. The French Empire either replaced the traditional government institutions with European analogues or included traditional system into their system of management as a lower administrative link – direct management. Comparing the described management system, the author notes the French approach was more resource-intensive and did not allow gaining a large profit. This lead to an assumption that the colonial management policy was affected by both, cultural and economic factors. The scientific novelty consists in examination of the systems of colonial management from the perspective of their interrelation with the imperial strategies that are based on the policy of recognition of population differences. Such strategies could be implemented within the framework of two paradigms: unification (formation of the unified imperial culture and institutions in all subordinated territories), and diversity (preservation on the conquered territories of the local cultural and political institutions). Further on, the examples of India, Africa and other regions would demonstrate that there is a direct link between the indicated British and French imperial strategies and systems of colonial management.
Factors of historical development
Eiler A.A. - Devotees of science and education of Crimea (the role of nobility in the establishment of Taurida National University) pp. 59-75

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.6.31764

Abstract: The subject of this research is the specific contribution of the representatives of nobility and intelligentsia of Taurida Governorate to the establishment of Taurida National University in 1916-1918. The foundation of this university greatly benefited the development of culture, science and education in Crimea and Southern Russia. The goal consists in reflection of progressive and constructive influence of separate individuals on the formation of humanistic and sociocultural space of Taurida Governorate; as well as in systematization of information from dozens of sources for creation of the more objective and precise course of events. The relevance and scientific novelty are defined by the need to reconsider the Crimean cultural processes of 1916-1918; determine and describe particular factors related to the contribution of nobility and intelligentsia of Taurida Governorate to the establishment of Taurida National University. Emphasis is made on the contribution of separate individuals and scientific communities, as well as their role in the process of emergence of the first university in Crimea. The progressive-constructive character of the activity of nobility and intelligentsia in historical-cultural space of Crimea is demonstrated. Based on application of objective and contemporary approach to the events of 1916-1918, the author gives assessment of the events that correspond to representations of modern science, as well as conducts of comparative and generalizing analysis of the data from a number of sources.
History of political and legal doctrines
Slobozhaninov O.K. - Science of the encyclopedia of law in the writings of German jurist Daniel Nettelbladt pp. 76-84

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.6.33008

Abstract:  The subject of this research is the identification of legal views of the German jurist Daniel Nettelbladt – a bright representative of science of the encyclopedia of law at the stage of its conception as a science. The source base is comprised of the works of D. Nettelbladt and scientific writings of other legal scholars. The historical legal science does not pay due attention to the ideas and persona of Daniel Nettelbladt. Although, the Russian legal science lacks the monographic research of the political-legal concept of D. Nettelbladt, his scientific writings became the foundation for the Russian and German jurisprudence of the mid XVIII – first quarter of the XIX centuries, until the beginning of the triumph of German idealism (Kant, Hegel) and historical school of law (Hugo, Puchta, Savigny). The scientific novelty is substantiated by the subject and methods of research. The works of Daniel Nettelbladt have not been previously subjected to systemic and comprehensive examination, but his ideas and concepts retain their relevance. The core idea of Daniel Nettelbladt’s encyclopedia of law consists in interpretation of science as a natural law from the rationalistic perspective. He introduced the original theoretical concepts. The author examines the concept of law, jurisprudence, legal system in the context of scholar’s perception. The significance of D. Nettelbladt’s persona and contribution to the development of science of the encyclopedia of law is underlined.
History of science and technology
Brovina A., Roshchevskaya L.P., Roshchevskii M.P. - Research of oil shale in the Komi ASSR during the Great Patriotic War: experience of the Professor D. N. Kursanov pp. 85-100

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.6.33117

Abstract: The subject of this research is the historical role of Russian scientific community in studying the Arctic and Subarctic territories during the years of Great Patriotic War. The key goal consists in demonstrating the contribution of scholars to accumulation of scientific knowledge on the northern region in the context of solution of the priority government objective and establishment of scientific organizations on the European North of Russia in first half of the XX century. The main tasks of this research lie in reconstruction of the process of creation and activity of oil shale laboratory of the Base of Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union on studying the North under the authority of Professor D. N. Kursanov, who dealt with the questions of utilization of solid fossil fuels of the Komi ASSR. This topic did not receive due coverage within the scientific literature. For solution of the set tasks, the author attracted the unpublished archival materials from the Archive of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Scientific Archive of the Federal Research Center “Komi Scientific Center of Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences” and National Archive of the Komi Republic; writings of the staff members of the indicated laboratory published based on the research results in 1940s, as well modern researchers of the depths of Russian North. The article explores the history of establishment of scientific department, development of scientific programs and plans, organization of interaction of academic community with the government and economic branches of the Komi ASSR. The main conclusions consists in the proof that the scientific-organizational activity of D. N. Kursanov led to conducting strategic research of defense designation on the problems of studying oil shale of the mineral deposit on Ayyva River, utilization of oil shale for motor fuel generation, and elaboration of new chemical products for defense industry. It is underlined that the high level of explorations and pilot surveys carried out by national scholars in these directions contributed to the development of new shale-chemical industrial sector of the country in the later years.
Historical sources and artifacts
Tarasova N. - Documentation of control process over carrying out management decisions in the work of party organization on the regional level during 1970s – 1980s pp. 101-111

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.6.32952

Abstract: The author meticulously examines the aspects of documentation of control process s over carrying out management decisions in the work of party organization on the regional level during 1970s – early 1980s. Emphasis is made on the record management aspects of control over carrying out management decisions within party structures on the basis of archival material of Rostov and Sverdlovsk Regional Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The article reviews control functions of the department of the Central Committee and Regional Committee of CPSU, requirements to formulations and procedures of documentation of control over execution of decrees, and flaws detected during inspection. The special contribution of the authors consists in studying the procedures of documentation of management decisions of party organization that did not receive due coverage by the researchers, as well as in introduction into the scientific discourse of archival sources, which views party documentation as a peculiar system, which specifics is reflected in the content of documents and documentation procedures and differentiates it from the national documentation system of that period. Documentation of control process over management decision-making in the party organization is described.
Social history
Kezhutin A.N. - Staffing issues in medical services of the river transportation of the Volga Basin during the years of Russian Civil War pp. 112-117

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.6.32078

Abstract: This article describes the conditions and peculiarities of supplying the management apparatus, medical facilities and steamships of Volga Basin with medical staff due to the difficulties of wartime, economic crisis, growth of social and epidemic diseases, drastic transformation of government and social institutions. The relevance of research is substantiated by insufficient study of this topic in historiography, as well as human resourcing of modern national medicine and attempts to reform healthcare system. The author examines the activity of government branches and public organizations in solution of the problem of supplying transport system of the Volga Basis with medical personnel in the period from 1918 to 1922, in the context of development of the unified project of supplying river transport with medical staff. Examination of this question is related to the process of socioeconomic development of the society. The source base is comprised of the materials from Central Archive of Nizhny Novgorod Region. The author reveals the main peculiarities of establishment of the new system of human resourcing in the extreme conditions of wartime; as well as introduced into the scientific discourse the problems of recruitment, employment and relocation of medical personnel of the central apparatus, medical institutions and passenger steamships of river transport of the Volga Basin and practices of their solution.
Archeology
Orfinskaya O.V., Zozulya S.S. - Spun, knit and woven textiles from the archeological site Bolshoe Timerevo in collection of the State Historical Museum pp. 118-135

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.6.30846

Abstract: The object of this research is the archeological materials obtained in excavation of the burial site Bolshoe Timerevo in different years and preserved in collections of the State Historical Museum. The subject of this research is the spun, knit, and woven textiles. Approximately 14 out of 472 kurgans excavated in the necropolis during the period from 1872 to 1990 contained textile items. The assortment is quite wide – the strings of the scale, fragments of costume, elements of trimming of collars and outwear sleeves. This study employs methodology development in the Center for Studying Historical and Traditional Technologies of the Scientific Research Institute for Cultural and Natural Heritage named after Dmitry Likhachev under the authority of Ph.D. in Biological Science V. P. Golikov. The description of results was conducted in accordance with standard scheme of requirements of the International Textile Center CIETA. The structure of textile materials and characteristics of threads was determined via microscopic methods in reflected unnpolarized light. For detection of the nature of textile materials, as well as the level of contamination and damage of fibers was applied the method of microscopy in translucent polarized light. The majority of fabrics and their décor elements from the archeological site Bolshoe Timerevo finds a wide variety of analogies on the territory of Western Europe and Scandinavia of the Viking Age. As a result of the conducted research, the textiles made out of plant, wool and silk fibers were discovered. The author also recorded the unique combination of woven textiles.
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