Электронный журнал Genesis: исторические исследования - №5 за 2020 год - Содержание - список статей - ISSN: 2409-868X - Издательство NotaBene
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Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue № 05/2020
Contents of Issue № 05/2020
Issues of war and peace
Torosian A. - The evolution of conceptual grounds of UN peacekeeping activity and position of the Russian Federation in this regard pp. 1-16

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.5.32635

Abstract: This article reviews the UN peacekeeping activity as one of the key phenomena of the modern international relations, which carries the function of maintaining international peace and security. The evolution of UN peacemaking is explored. Special attention is turned to its new principles founded in the late XX – XXI centuries, reforms conducted in this area, as well as position of the Russian Federation pertinent to peacekeeping operations under the aegis of the United Nations. Methodology leans on the principles of historical reconstruction and comparative analysis. Currently, peacekeeping plays an important role in the world politics, significantly impacts the prevention of escalation of a large number of conflicts despite the fact that there still exist problematic hubs in the UN peacekeeping activity. Peacekeeping greatly benefited the international community since the moment of its emergence; however, it requires changes and reforms for the purpose of increasing its efficiency in settlement of the long-running conflicts.
Social history
Sidorenko V. - Suffrage movement in Manitoba and maternal feminism: the activity of Nellie McClung as the leader of the movement pp. 17-27

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.5.32837

Abstract: This article discusses the role of Nellie McLung in the suffrage movement of Manitoba and the impact of her activity as the ideological and political leader upon success of the movement in achieving the set goals. The author examines the peculiarities of ideological basis and realization of the suffrage agenda and strategy by female movement in the province anchored by Nellie McLung, as well as analyzes the reasons for success of suffrage movement in Manitoba. The assessment of the role of Nellie McLung in the activity of suffrage movement of Manitoba and consolidation of the ideas of maternal feminism within the Russian historiography has not been previously conducted. The author comes to the conclusion on importance of the role of Nellie McLung as the leader of suffrage movement, who was able not only to distribute the ideas of maternal feminism in the province, but also hold an active campaign aimed at achieving the goals of suffrage movement, turning public opinion towards the necessity for acquisition of electoral right by women.
West - Russia - East
Wu Y. - The role of University of Shanghai Cooperation Organization in humanitarian cooperation between Russia and China pp. 28-40

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.5.32832

Abstract: This article is dedicated to analysis of the role of the Network University of Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO). Special attention is given to the current humanitarian cooperation between Russia and China that includes not only the traditional spheres as culture and education, but also healthcare, sport, tourism, as well as meets the demands of both states pertinent to structuring of regional subsystem of international relations. In this context, the author reviews Russian-Chinese cooperation in educational sphere in format of Shanghai Cooperation Organization and the role of University of SCO that allows successfully overcoming different barriers on the path of regional integration within SCO. The author’s special contribution into the research of Russia-China bilateral cooperation in humanitarian sphere lies in studying the evolution of their relations in educational sector with consideration of creation of the Network University of Shanghai Cooperation Organization. A conclusion is made on substantial strengthening of institutional framework of the bilateral humanitarian cooperation due to establishment of the University of Shanghai Cooperation Organization, as well as intensification of the processes of creation of a single “educational space” of SCO that increases the level of corporate integration that caters to the national interests of Russia and China.
Historical time and space
Sukhodolskaya E.S. - Armenia in the conditions of Byzantine–Sasanian War of 571-591 pp. 41-51

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.5.32789

Abstract: This article examines the position of Armenia in the conditions of Byzantine–Sasanian War of 571-591. On the example of activity of Armenian dukes, the author trace the stance of Armenians on the developed conflicts, defines the role and degree of participation of Armenians in military expeditions on the side of belligerent powers. The subject of this research is activity of the representatives of Armenian ducal families in the conditions of Byzantine–Sasanian conflict. The object is the records of the Syriac historian of the VI century John of Ephesus, Armenian historical of the VII century Sebeos, and Byzantine historical of the late VIII century Theophanes the Confessor. The main conclusion of the conducted research consists in inability of Armenian Nakharar to create an independent Armenian Kingdom. Despite the favorable external conditions, caused by the Byzantine–Sasanian War, there were multiple contradictions between the Nakharar that impeded the achievement of common goal. Byzantine emperors and Persian monarchs use the lack of unity between the Armenian dukes for reaching the own goals and retention of leading positions in the region. The scientific novelty consist in comprehensive analysis of the activity of Nakharars in Western and Eastern Armenia based on the Byzantine and Armenian sources.
History of law and state
Sheptalin A. - Genesis and establishment of the normative regulation of the institution of property in the primitive clan society pp. 52-69

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.5.31633

Abstract: The subject of this research is the process of emergence and establishment of normative regulation of various forms and types of property in the kinship community. The object of this research is the normative regulation of property, usage of management of real and personal property at the stages of early and later kinship community in the historical dynamics. The goal consists in the attempt of approximate reconstruction of genesis, key stages and peculiarities of establishment of the normative regulation of initial forms and types of property based on the data of legal and economic anthropology. Research methodology is based on the anthropological concept of multilinear neo-evolutionism that allows accurate usage of materials on the synpolite primitive ethnoses for reconstructing the preliterate period overall, as well as different aspects of the genesis of state and law in particular. The novelty is defined by the fact that this topic has not previously become a topic of special examination within the Russian historiography. Using the wide variety of ethnological material, the author doubts the dominant in science representation of the primitive hypercollectivism, substantiates the emergence of complexly structures hierarchical system of property back at the stage of early kinship community, which was regulated by the ancient moral, religious and legal traditions – mononormativities. The consequences of Neolithic revolution are associated with the genesis of family property as the initial form of private property. Its establishment is demonstrated in the context of rights to real and personal property among the clans of economic-cultural types. The author believes that the formed in the Neolithic Age system of common law replaces the previously existing mononormativities in order to serve the new forms of property and socioeconomic relations in the stratified society that was moving towards the emergence of social classes and the state.
Borovkov P.S. - Appointment of the institution of pontificate in Ancient Rome in interpretation of Titus Livius: political-legal aspect pp. 70-80

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.5.31569

Abstract: This article examines the passages of Titus Livius’ first book dedicated to the College of Pontiffs. The author provides arguments regarding the correlation between this fragment and more ancient narrative and documental sources dated back to pontifical weather notes and other priestly documents. Attention is focused on terminology of the ancient author applied for characteristics of legal prerogatives of pontificate, mechanisms of its cooperation with government authorities, provisions of archaic legislation on the questions of religious development of the Roman civitas. The work employs special legal and cross-disciplinary methods, which allowed carrying out an authentic reconstruction of the concepts, interpretation of the perceptions of the government, law and religion inherent to the political-legal thought of Ancient Rome. In interpretation of Titus Livius, the laws of Numa Pompilius on the priesthood manifests as sequential reforms aimed at the establishment of the institutions of administration and formation of public-legal relations in the archaic Rome. In combination with other ancient texts, the lore of Titus Livius on the appointment of pontificate can be carefully used as a starting point for retrospective research of the evolution of political-legal prerogatives of priesthood and establishment of the institutions of public law in Ancient Rome.
Sumenkova M., Katomina V. - Administrative-legal measures in the fight against alcoholism in Russia: history and modernity pp. 81-95

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.5.32770

Abstract: The goal of this research is the formation of conceptual foundation for administrative-legal regulation of fight against alcoholism, cognate with the development of practical recommendations aimed at increasing the efficiency of legal measures of overcoming negative consequences caused by consumption of alcohol beverages. The relevance of this work is determined by severity of the problems related to consumption of alcohol, and as a result, degradation of population, increase in mortality rates, destruction of moral and ethical values of the people, and aggravation of criminogenic situation. The Russian government has always used the administrative-legal measures to combat alcoholism. The object of this research is the social relations in historical retrospective that emerge, develop and transform under the influence of administrative-legal measures of combating alcoholism. The subject is administrative-legal measures of the government aimed at fight against alcoholism. The comparative-legal method allowed juxtaposing the legal measures implemented in prerevolutionary, Soviet and current legislation. The scientific novelty consists in articulation of the problem underlining the need for scientific analysis of administrative-legal measures of combating alcoholism at the domestic level and recommendations on its optimization. The major dilemma of administrative alcohol policy is that one the one hand, excessive liberalization of the consumption of alcohol beverages is the cause of alcoholization of population, while on the other – tightening of control measure leads to the increase of bootlegging, causing the drop in state revenue, as well as worsening of somatic and psychological health of the people.
History of regions of Russia
Borodina E.V. - Regulation and control of duty hours of the record clerks in Russia during 1725-1734 (on the example of Middle Ural) pp. 96-121

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.5.31271

Abstract: This article is dedicated to examination of the history of establishment of the institution of duty hours at the time of Russian Empire after the death of Peter the Great. Namely the years of the rule of the first Russian emperor mark the emergence of the paramount of normative legal acts, which determined the fundamentals for regulation of state administration. The subject of this research is the analysis of discipline and control practices of the work of record clerks in the decade after the death of Peter the Great. The goal consists in determination of peculiarities in regulation of duty hours of the clerks during 1725-1734. The method of historiographical analysis allowed examining the internal criticism of the structure and content of legislative acts and documental materials. The author also applied the chronological method, mathematical analysis, and method of comparative-legal studies. The scientific novelty lies in comparison of the legislation and regulation practice of duty hours of the clerks in a particular region of the Russian Empire. Despite the sufficient knowledge on the history of mining administration in the Ural Region, the question of regulation of duty hours of the clerks of Siberian Oberbergamt did not receive due attention on the pages of monographs and articles. The comparison of legislative acts and specificity of orderliness of activity of the clerks of Siberian Oberbergamt and subordinate establishments allowed determining that the regulations on duty hours recorded in General Regulation required constant reinforcement by the local normative acts. Along with the monetary fines set by the Regulation, the record clerks were punished by confinements, demotion to a lower appointment, as well as hitting by cudgels. The increase in document flow created conditions for strengthening control over the work of clerks.
History of political and legal doctrines
Slobozhaninov O.K. - The science of encyclopedia of law in the Russian Empire for the period from XIX century to 1917 pp. 122-140

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.5.32762

Abstract: This article attempts to define encyclopedia of law as a science developed in the Russian Empire over the period from XIX century to 1917. The author employs dialectical, formal-dogmatic, systemic, comparative-historical methods. The source base contains monographs, textbooks and lections of the leading legal experts on the encyclopedia of law, theory of state and law. Currently, the historical-legal science does not pay due attention to encyclopedia of law. The scientific novelty is substantiated by the subject and methods of research. Comparison is conducted on the subject and object of research, methods, tasks and functions of the science of encyclopedia of law, as well as theory of state and law. Encyclopedia of law features the interpretation of legal science in its common grounds and organic unity; represents an overview on law connected by the single plot with various branches of law, and gives characteristics to the key provisions of law. A conclusion is made that the science of encyclopedia of law fulfilled mainly propaedeutic functions, and was an originator of the modern science of the theory of state and law. Further development and transformation of encyclopedia of law into the science of theory of state and law was substantiated by the advancement of other humanities – philosophy, sociology, etc. and historical events of the early XX century, which set new tasks and goals for legal science. The research results actualize the experience of development of the theory of law, as well as allow improving the theory of law based on the ideas and approaches of encyclopedia of law.
Culture and cultures in historical context
Borisov A.A., Pavlova-Borisova T.V. - To the question on the origins of regional cultural policy of Yakutia (XVIII – early XX centuries) pp. 141-147

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.5.32855

Abstract: This article is firs to discuss an early stage of origination of the regional cultural policy of Yakutia in the Russian Empire of the XVIII – early XX centuries. Emphasis is made on the regional community: the representatives of traditional cultures – peoples of Yakutia and representatives of Russian culture (service class, government officials, taxed estates). The subject of this research is the historical prerequisites of such policy in the region, as well as the government structures that realized its key trends. The research is carried out in the all-Russian context, namely the context of transformations that took place during the Governorate Reform of 1775, as well as further evolution of the local administrative authorities that carried out cultural policy in the region. The questions is raised on the dynamic development of cultural processes in this suburb of the Empire, where the traditional cultures influencing the representatives of Russian provincial community, simultaneously became familiarized with the cultural trends from Russia. Despite the previous perceptions on the cultural backwardness of Yakutia as an imperial suburb, the conclusion is made on the relatively successful actions of imperial authorities in this field.
Academic schools and paradigms
Slobozhaninov O.K. - The science of encyclopedia of law in the works of German philosopher and jurist Heinrich Ahrens pp. 148-158

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.5.32919

Abstract: The subject of this research is the identification of legal views of the German philosopher and jurist Heinrich Ahrens. The source base is comprised of the scientific works of G. Ahrens and other legal scholars. The historical-legal science does not pay sufficient attention to the ideas and persona of Heinrich Ahrens. He was famous during his lifetime, but almost forgotten afterwards. The Russian legal science lacks a monographic research of the political-legal concept of H. Ahrens. Methodological framework consists of the general scientific methods: systemic, logical, historical, comparative; as well as special methods: historical-legal, comparative-legal, formal-legal, and portrait-biographical. The scientific novelty is defined by the subject and methods of research. The central idea of Heinrich Ahrens’ encyclopedia of law is the interpretation of the science of law in its organic unity. The author examines the concept of law and system of law in the scholar’s perception; as well as underlines the prominent figure of H. Ahrens who contributed to development to the science of encyclopedia of law. The scientific works of Heinrich Ahrens have not been previously subjected to systemic and comprehensive examination, while the proposed ideas and concept remain relevant until the present.
Social history
Evdoshenko N.V. - Charity organizations and financial aid rendered to the writers and scholars of white émigré in Europe in 1920’s – 1930’s pp. 159-181

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.5.32840

Abstract: The subject of this research is the financial aid rendered by charity organizations of the Russian literature and scientific emigration to the writers and scholars in European countries over the period of 1920’s – 1930’s. The goal consists in determination of significance of the provided by beneficiaries financial assistance in the context of economic situation of the receiving country during the indicated historical period. The work examines the activity of organizations that rendered financial aid to the writers, journalists and scholars in such countries as France, Switzerland, Germany, Turkey (Constantinople) and Czechoslovakia. Methodology is based on the historical approach and principles of scientificity and objectivity. Quantitative, comparative and statistical methods are applied for the analysis of financial indexes. For achieving the set foal, the author analyzed a wide variety of sources from the Russian and foreign archives, some of which were published for the first time. As a result of the conducted research, the author acquired new data on the size of actual financial assistance rendered to the writers and scholars of white émigré. Assessment is conducted on the significance of such aid for successful social adaptation and overcoming of financial difficulties by the representatives of scientific and literature emigration. The article is addressed to all researchers of the organizations of white émigré.  
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