Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue 12/2020
Contents of Issue 12/2020
Archeology
Akhatov A.T. - Old Ivanovskoe cemetery of Ufa: historical-archaeological research pp. 1-17

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.12.34548

Abstract: The subject of this article is the Old Ivanovskoe cemetery that existed in the territory of Ufa. The goal consists in examination of the key stages in development of this necropolis since the moment was sketched in the city plan in 1819 until its complete destruction in the 1950s. Special attention is given to localization of this burial ground in Ufa town planning patter in accordance with the data of cartographic materials of the XIX – middle of the XX centuries, and history of its archaeological research conducted in 1990 and 2002. The novelty of this work consists in introduction into the scientific discourse of new archival documents, systematization of cartographic and published materials on the history of Old Ivanovskoe cemetery, as well as Ioanno-Predtechensky Cathedral that functioned on its territory. Analysis of the existing sources and literature allow concluding that the history of necropolis prior to the Revolution of 1917 was closely related to the development of spatial structure of Ufa, while after the Revolution – with the sociopolitical processes that unfolded throughout the country. Thanks to archaeological research, Old Ivanovskoye cemetery, even after its destruction, elaborates representations on the material and spiritual culture, anthropological and paleopathological characteristics of the Ufa population in the past. Therefore, the author raises the question on the need to publish the materials acquired during the excavations in full, and preserve necropolis as the object of archaeological heritage of the Late Middle Ages and Modern Age.
Issues of war and peace
Osipov E.A. - French Mirages in Libya in 1970 as a symbol of new Arab policy of France pp. 18-26

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.12.34569

Abstract: The relations with Arab countries have always been an intrinsic component of French foreign policy, predominately in the de Gaulle's Fifth Republic. Namely in the 1960s the General de Gaulle laid the groundwork for the so-called “new Arab” policy of France, intended for consolidation of the country's role in the Middle East and the Mediterranean, as well as for overcoming issues in the relationship with Arab countries caused the colonial past of France. Leaning on the wide range of scientific literature and sources, including the documents from the Archive of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of France, the author reviews the circumstances of signing a major contract by France for delivering arms to Libya in 1970, few months after the Libyan Revolution and assumption of power by Muammar Gaddafi. The signed in 1970 Franco-Libyan agreement was congruent with the overall context of “new Arab” policy of Gaullist France, and can be regarded as its symbol. Special attention is given to the factors that prompted French leadership to military cooperation with Libya, although France was aware that it could aggravation relations not only with Israel, but also with the United States. Along with the interests of French military-industrial complex, oil factor, and, prospects for the development of Franco-Libyan cooperation, an important role played rivalry between France, USSR and the countries of socialist camp, the activity of which increased in the third world countries during the 1960s – 1970s. In a way, namely the concerns about the growing influence of Moscow in the Middle East and the Mediterranean accelerated the “new Arab” policy of France.
Interdisciplinary research
Babintseva E.A. - The historical evolution of eco-orientation in Germany in the late XIX early XX centuries pp. 27-33

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.12.34607

Abstract: This article touches upon the problems of environmental protection in Germany in the course of historical development in the XIX – XX centuries. The author explores the establishment of environmental concept in the country; broaches a question of ideological and ethical approach in human attitude towards nature; discusses the problem of environmental damage as a result of extensive resource consumption in the context of industrial revolution and military activities. Attention is given to the role of innovators in the sphere of environmental protection in Germany, founders of environmental movements, and protector of nature conservation areas. The article examines the first environmental normative legal acts and the first nature protection organizations in Germany. The author’s special contribution to studying the questions of environmental history consist in consideration of German experience as a country that in several decades managed to overcome environmental crisis, as well as gain the leading position in Europe and worldwide by a number of environmental indexes. The conclusion is made that Germany can be viewed as a country with invaluable practical and legal experience of protection of the environment with centuries-old history, which can be adopted by many countries. The author anticipates that with the strengthening of ecocentric approach, rationalization and optimization of natural resource management remains feasible in terms of regulated anthropogenic intervention.
History of ethnicities, peoples, nations
Alekseev K.A. - To the question of origin of Indo-Iranians and Tocharians in light of the newest genetic data pp. 34-43

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.12.34080

Abstract: The subject of this research is the ethnogenesis of Indo-Iranian and Tocharian groups of Indo-European language family. The author analyzes the data on genetic composition of the population of Gandhara grave culture, which is an undisputable archeological evidence of expansion of Indo-Iranians into the Indus Valley, i.e. the place of dwelling of the speakers of Indo-Iranian languages that will be subsequently recorded in the written sources. The results of analysis are compared to the data acquired on the ancient population of the Tarim Basin in Eastern Turkestan, which supposedly is proto-Tocharian. The comparison of mitochondrial DNA detected the only admissible localization of population, which is ancestral for both linguistic groups, as well as outlined the logical chain of migration of Indo-Europeans. The novelty of this research consists in application of the comparative-genetic method for detecting the localization of origin of a particular human population (in this article – Indo-Iranians and Tocharians). The following conclusions were made: additional arguments in confirmation of the genesis of Indo-Iranians and Tocharians from the area of Danubian culture of the Neolithic (linear pottery – Linearbandkeramik, Lengyel, Alföld), as well as well reasons in support the migration model of Indo-Iranians and Tocharians from the area of agricultural cultures of Europe through Eurasian steppes, which can serve as the new foundation for hypotheses on the formation of steppe culture (like grave culture) by the people of European descent.
Historical memory
Bozhok N.S. - Images of the past in the festivals of cultural-historical reconstruction pp. 44-61

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.12.34421

Abstract: The object of this research is images of the past, actualized in the festival practices of cultural-historical reconstruction. The subject of this research is the mechanisms of formation and strategies of representation of images of the past in the festivals of cultural-historical reconstruction. It is noted that the author views festival as the representative of the more general phenomenon –  cultural-historical reconstruction, an integral interpretation of which allows embracing the variety of nonacademic practices aimed at studying and most accurate reconstruction of the material and spiritual culture of the past, preservation, actualization, representation and conveyance of cultural-historical values. In the context of commemorative practices of reconstruction, arrangement and representation of images of the past is conducted “intentionally, collectively and adapted for stage”. Relevance of the selected topic is defined by the fact that the reenactment movement becomes an increasingly meaningful actor in commemorative space of modern Russia, which significantly affects the formation of consensual images of the past. From theoretical and methodological perspective, the conducted analysis is based on the conceptual approaches presented in the Russian historical-culturological research on imagery. Internet resources, such as websites and forums of reenactors, social networks, and online media, served as the empirical foundation for this research. In the course of preparation and execution of cultural-historical reconstructions, the author employed quantitative and qualitative methods, including of thorough overt observation. As a result of the conducted analysis, the author determines specificity of the mechanisms for creating authentic images of the past and strategies for revealing collective representations on the past in the festivals of cultural-historical reconstruction, which have a positive impact upon ordinary consciousness.
Social history
Baranov E.Y. - Epidemic situation in the Soviet Union during the 1930s (historiographical aspect) pp. 62-84

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.12.34658

Abstract: The goal of this article consists in determination of the key vectors and results of historical research dedicated to epidemic situation in the Soviet Union during the 1930s at the present stage of development of Russian historiography. Its relevance is substantiated by profound understanding of historical and modern trends in development of epidemic processes, as well as assessment of historical experience in the fights against epidemics. The epidemic situation in the Soviet Union during the 1930s has not previously become the subject of separate historiographical analysis. Two key vectors are determined: the first is  associated with conducting historical-demographic research; while the second in related to research on the history of establishment and development of Soviet healthcare system. It is demonstrated that the results of historical research consist in outlining the political, socioeconomic, and environmental factors of epidemic morbidity, as well as positive and negative trends in the development of healthcare system, quantitative characteristics of morbidity rate, role of infections within the structure of mortality. Historiography assesses the level and resource capacity of healthcare system, analyzes the epidemics preventive measures, characterizes the role of epidemics in the advent of demographic crises, and describes their negative impact upon the processes of demographic modernization. The conclusion is made on transformation of the approaches towards historical-demographic research: from determination of demographic crises, the scholars shifted to historical generalizations, analysis of morbidity and mortality rates based on the concept of “epidemiological transition”. The acquired results demonstrate that the development of healthcare system was based on consideration of the experience of population losses caused by epidemics, and despite the shortage of resources. In the fight against epidemics, efforts were concentrated on the preventive measures, the effective instrument of which was vaccination of population.
History of ethnicities, peoples, nations
Tychinskikh Z.A. - Serving Tatars in the frontier development of Western Siberia in the XVII century pp. 85-95

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.12.34657

Abstract: This article analyzes the poorly studied in Russian historiography question of the role of serving Tatars in the process of addition and development of Western Siberia. The object of this research is the Siberian serving Tatars “Yomışlı Tatarlar” as a special group of serving people. The subject of this research is the contribution of the serving Tatars to the frontier development of Siberia in the XVII century. Based on the previously elaborated methodology - the phase of development of the Siberian frontier, the author highlights the point and transitional stages characteristic to the initial period of colonization. It is noted that at these stages, the consolidation strategy for the recently annexed territories was the erection of fortresses as the benchmarks. The author provides various evidence to prove the significance of contribution of serving Tatars to the military and economic development of Siberian territories at the early stages of the frontier. Records on the number of serving Tatars in the garrisons of the first Russian cities during the XVII century, which demonstrate that their share of in the initial period of frontier development of Western Siberia comprised approximately one third of the military staff, are of special importance. Leaning on different types of sources, the article describes active participation of serving Tatars in construction of Russian fortresses and development of attached territories. The novelty of this research lies in the formulated conclusions that broaden the knowledge on the history of serving population in this period, and give a new perspective upon the role of serving Tatars “Yomışlı Tatarlar” in the process of colonization of Western Siberia.
History of law and state
Krichevtsev M.V. - Life sentence as a type of criminal punishment in France of the late XVIII early XIX centuries pp. 96-108

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.12.34714

Abstract: This article questions the opinion established in modern French historiography on implementation of life sentence as a criminal punishment under the rule of Napoleon Bonaparte (in accordance with the Criminal Code of 1810). Leaning on examination of legislative, policy drafting, and court materials, the author traces the evolution of the system of criminal penalties associated with incarceration. and determines the role of life sentence therein – since the adoption of first criminal laws in the era Great Revolution until the revision Napoleonic Criminal Code in 1832, and the court of Peers under Louis-Philippe I. The acquires materials demonstrate that after long absence of the  Consulate and Early Empire in the time of Revolution,  life sentence was envisaged by the Criminal Code of 1810 as an alternative measure to penal servitude for life or deportation (for criminals of senior age), rather than an separate type of criminal punishment. Reference to the practice of the court of Peers during the Restoration and the July Monarchy suggests that life sentence became a separate type of criminal punishment only with the advent of verdict passed by Peers with regards to 1830 case of former ministers. This sentence was based on the combination of legislative and court functions in actions of the Chamber of Peers as higher justice authority, and thus was of constitutive nature. The conclusion is made that the implementation of life sentence in French criminal law should be attributed to the time of the July Monarchy rather than the ruling of Napoleon Bonaparte.
Theory and methodology of history
Zagvazdin E.P. - From grave to archive: to the problem of studying genealogy of Siberian clergy pp. 109-119

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.12.31852

Abstract: The subject of this research is the genealogy of Siberian clergy. The object of this research is the Druzhinin family. On the example of studying the members of monastic family who served in the St. John Vvedensky Covent near Tobolsk during the 1860s – 1923, the author reviews the key underlying problems related to the search and examination of genealogical ties. The personas of Druzhinin family represent a typical example of fragmentation and incompleteness of  biographical records. Based on the number of archaeological, written, and archival sources, the article seeks the ways for restoration of genealogical information. The article indicates a number of sources used in the course of research, as well checks accuracy of the revealed records. An algorithm for searching and critical understanding of information on the Druzhinin family reflected in a number of archival sources, newspaper and reference publication is described. The article is dedicated to the relevant trends of historical research –  genealogy. Examination of family ties is a complicated process with certain nuances. Despite the fact that the concepts of biographical and genealogical information are similar, the genealogical research often relies on the available biographical data, as well as presents new facts on the family (or member of the family). In searching ne information on the historical figures, comprehensive historical research that cover a wide variety of archaeological and archival sources come to the forefront. Therefore, the presented experience of searching the information on the Druzhinin monastic family can be extrapolated to genealogical research with similar problem areas as in searching information on the Siberian clergy.
History of regions of Russia
Gordeeva M. - Execution for debt in the volost courts of Barnaul districts of Tomsk governorate: origin and incidence in the judicial practice (late XIX early XX centuries) pp. 120-125

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.12.34388

Abstract: The subject of this research is the judicial practice of the volost courts of Barnaul district of the Tomsk governorate in the late XIX — early XX centuries. Minute books of the volost courts, which contained records on the claims, testimony of the parties and witnesses, and court decision, served as the main source for this research. Fine and comprehensive record management made allowed applying historical-systemic method, which revealed the mechanism of functionality of the volost courts. The use of content analysis allowed determining the priority of the questions under review, classifying debt enforcement by the types of undischarged obligations, reconstructing the level of legal consciousness of peasants, and assessing the effectiveness of the peasant self-governance. It is established that litigations on obligations default held second place among all cases in the volost courts, which indicates wide applicability of the practice of “seeking truth” not in the rural society, but the official institutions. Based on introduction of new sources into the scientific discourse, the author concludes the spread of debt enforcement is related not only to increase of currency circulation in everyday life of peasants, consolidation of the practice of estimation of things, and getting paid for work, but also with the crisis of trust-based relations within the rural community.
History of political and legal doctrines
Kodan S.V. - Historiography within the structure of history of political and legal doctrines: subject field, objectives, tasks, and functions pp. 126-137

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.12.34729

Abstract: The scientific context of studying the historiography of the history of political and legal doctrines is associated with its positioning within the structure of the indicated historical legal science, and represents a challenging problematic that orients the researcher towards understanding the processes of development of this science through the prism of historiography as a reflection of its history. This necessitates to determine the subject field, objectives, tasks, and functions of historiography within the structure of the indicated science, which is the key vector of this research. At the same time, the analysis of these questions leans on universal vision of the development of historiography in the social sciences and humanities. The scientific novelty is defined by the fact that the historiographical problematic in the history of political and legal doctrines is studied insufficiently; therefore, this article is the first attempt to position historiography as a scientific discipline of historical legal trend, and present an original perspective on the topic. Emphasis is placed on examination of the key characteristics of historiography as part of history of political and legal doctrines: subject matter, objectives, tasks, and functions. At the same time, the author relies on the historiographical developments in social sciences and humanities, namely in the historical science, based on which presents an original perspective on the role of historiography as a part of history of political and legal doctrines is.
Korovin K.S. - The forming political legal doctrine of the Soviet constitutionalism and peculiarities s of its studying in the history of political and legal teachings pp. 138-149

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.12.34719

Abstract: The subject of this research is the political legal doctrine of Soviet constitutionalism during the period of establishment of the Soviet State. The author presents his interpretation of the political legal doctrine as a specific form of material incarnation of the idea of the state. Its Soviet version had certain historical and conceptual peculiarities. First and foremost, it implied the ideology of Marxism-Leninism, which fully determined the content of the fundamental notions and concepts of the political legal doctrine, developed in the constitutional commission of 1918. The framework of the Soviet constitutional system were reflected therein, as well as in the text of the Constitution of the RSFSR. It appears that ideocracy became the key vector of self-identification of the Soviet Russia. The analysis of the main ideological postulates of the Constitution of the RSFSR of 1918 allowed concluding that the Soviet State is a typical example of the ideocratic state, which should be interpreted as a social system founded on the dominant ideology. Its basis was the Soviet constitutional identity that predetermined the level of perception and approval of the government actions by the population. Methodological specificities of the analysis of the Soviet political legal doctrine reflected in its logical-theoretical framework and provisions. The logical-theoretical framework was analyzed via morphological (structural) approach that focuses on studying the structure of ideologies on the micro-level. The provisions of the political legal doctrine were reflected in the discussions and discursive practices in terms of the constitutional commission, which were examines in the course of this research via studying speech acts and political language.
History and Economics
Sapuntsov A.L. - Initiatives on privatization of colonial activity within the framework of French East India Company pp. 150-160

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.12.34724

Abstract: This article examines the colonial activity of French East India Company, which was a commercial enterprise engaged in international trade founded in 1664. The goal of this research is to determine the prerequisites for its establishment, conditions for the formation of capital and administrative branches, perspectives on expanding the network of trading stations and trade routes. An assessment is given to the directive formation of capital and work of the officials (patrons). The article employs the methods of analysis of the historical documents, testimonies of travelers, synchronism, diachrony and cognitive symbiosis. Attention is given to unattainability of levelling off the profit margin French East India Company through trading exchange and work of transnational corporations. The scientific novelty consists in revealing the causes of unstable situation of French East India Company and insufficient development of market relations within its metropolitan territory, which led to a series of rearrangements and speculations, poor equipment of ships and shipwrecks. The results can be used ib studying trade companies of the early Modern Age, particularly with regards to Iberia and colonization of the West Indies. The conclusion is formulated on the prerequisites for the establishment of a powerful French East India Company that were not implemented; and the unstable economic situation resulted in annulment of the company during the Great French Revolution.
Culture and cultures in historical context
Gruzdev A. - The development of musical and singing culture and sociopolitical situation on the Korean Peninsula from the liberation to the Korean War pp. 161-170

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.12.34506

Abstract: The subject of this research is the impact of sociopolitical situation on the Korean Peninsula upon the establishment and development of musical culture of the Koreans since 1945 to the beginning of the Korean War. The goal is to demonstrate the effect of political and social situation upon music and songs of the Koreans, as well as outline the vectors of their development during the period under review. In the course of research, the author analyzes the historical, political and social background, within the framework of which was formed the musical and song tradition of the Koreans of that time. The article also traces the evolution of Korean music and song genre and the factors that exerted influence on it. The Russian Korean studies do not feature comprehensive research dedicated to musical and song culture of the Koreans of the period after liberation from the Japanese Rule, which defines novelty of this work. The conclusion is made that the political and social situation on the Korean Peninsula significantly influences the development of music and song genre. The two categories of music performers were determined: politicized and non-politicized. Politicized performers were represented by the supporters of left-wing views or right-wing views. The adherers of left-wing views sought for a new path of development of the Korean music, while the right-wing supporters used the motifs already familiar to the Korean public. Non-politicizes music performers and singers followed the popular trends among the audience, which was influenced by the presence of US military on the Korean Peninsula.
Anthroposociogenesis and historical anthropology
Pererva E.V. - Paleopathological peculiarities of the Lower Volga Sauromates pp. 171-183

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.12.34412

Abstract: This article discusses the paleopathological peculiarities of nomadic population of Sauromates, which originated from the kurgan burials of the Lower Volga region. The skeletal remains of 20 individuals were examined. In the process of work with anthropological material, was applied a standard program for assessing the instance of pathological conditions on skeleton developed by A. P. Buzhilova (1995, 1998). The national scholars of Soviet and post-Soviet period (B. N. Grakov, K. F. Smirnov, D. A. Machinsky, V. E. Maksimenko, M. G. Moshkova) dealt with the problems of genesis, periodization and evolution of the culture of the Lower Volga Sauromates. The history of anthropological examination of the nomads of the Lower Volga region of the VI – V centuries BC is scarce. This research is the first attempt for analyzing the pathological conditions on skeletal remains of the Lower Volga Sauromates. Paleopathological studies of skeletal remains of the nomads of the VI – V centuries BC from the territory of Lower Volga have not been conducted prior to that. Paleoanthropological materials are introduced into the scientific discourse for the first time. Some sculls of Sauromatian period have traces of unnatural deformation. The revealed pathologies on the anthropological materials of population of the VI – IV centuries BC from the territory of Lower Volga allow including it into the group of nomadic cultures of the Early Iron Age. The anthropological materials of the VI – IV centuries BC show evidence of using the skills of primitive medicine, as well as the knowledge of military field surgery.
Historical facts, events, phenomena
Sennitskaya E.V. - The system of Orthodox fasts in Russia as the means of deterring migration of peasants and the actions of rebel or bandit squads pp. 184-246

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.12.31096

Abstract: The object of this research is the Orthodox fasts and customs that prohibited consumption of certain food products. The author examines the history of evolution of fasts, namely the circumstances of emergence of the first printed Charter (Typicon) in 1610; as well as compares the articles on fasts of the Typicons of 1610, 1633, and 1641. The article employs the following methods: 1) geophysical (comparison of the time of fasts with the periods of ice drift, high water, freeze-up, and agricultural cycles in Central Russia); 2) comparative-historical (reveals the logic of prohibitions and their development stages); 3) systemic (prohibition of certain food products is viewed an element of government policy aimed at prevention of migration); 4) ethno-psychological (substantiation of prohibitions); 5) linguistic (analysis of the texts of Typicon). The conclusion is  formulated that the system of fasts set by Typicon of 1610 served the following goals: 1) to consolidate the traditional agricultural practices; 2) to prevent the free movement of rebel bandit squads; 3) to create obstacles for independent sale of agricultural products by peasants and, thus benefit the feudales via wholesale purchase of peasant goods and their sale; 4) to hinder peasant transitions (serfdom). The hypothesis is advanced on the mechanism of enslaving peasants based on toughening the system fasts. The Charter of 1610 itself was passed due to imminent threat for the government Vasiliy IV Shuisky during the Time of Troubles for the purposed of reducing the influx of rebels and impede the transitions of peasants, which deprived the feudales of northern territories with less fertile lands were deprived of workforce, and thus the ability to equip the military at their own expense. The system of prohibitions implied the food obtained by hunting, so the peasants would move solely via river channels controlled by the government. The impact of such prohibitions may explain the irrational river routs Y. Pugachev instead of the road path to Moscow.
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