Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue 10/2020
Contents of Issue 10/2020
Ethnography and ethnology
Khaliulina A.I., Ishemgulov M.N., Idrisova E.F. - Realities of bilingualism in the context of language policy in modern Bashkortostan pp. 1-18


Abstract: The subject of this research is bilingualism in the context of language policy in modern Bashkortostan. Special attention is given to actualization of the ethno-lingual identity of non-Russian population in the republic. Leaning on the ethnosociological studies, the author examine the scale of proliferation of national-Russian bilingualism in Bashkortostan, analyze the key markers in selection of the native language among some ethnic groups, as well as determine the role of Russian language as a language of interethnic communication. The novelty of this work lies in the attempt to determine the intensity of usage of national languages of non-Russian peoples and their interaction with the Russian language based on the wide-scale ethnosociological studies. The acquired results demonstrate that among Bashkir population, the native language still prevails over Russian by the level of language competence; while among urban Tatars, the Russian language has noticeably exceeded the native language of communication. At the same time, the results of ethnosociological research, confirming the results of the All-Russia Population Census of 2010 on the language competence of the residents of Bashkortostan, testify to the fact that their speech activity is oriented mostly towards learning Russian than the language of their ethnicity.
History and Politics
Khlebnikova V.B. - Attempts of self-presentation and introspection of the political elite representatives of the Principality of Montenegro (to the question on peculiarities of political culture of Montenegrins at the turn of the XIX XX centuries) pp. 19-32


Abstract: History of the Principality of Montenegro, proclaimed after several centuries of consistent struggle with the Ottoman Empire, was quite short. As an independent state, it existed from 1878 to 1918. The reasons are explained by the political culture and level of professional qualifications of the Montenegrin elite, which had to resolve most difficult challenges dictated by the delayed and accelerated modernization of the country. The goal of this article consists in determination of significant characteristics of the Montenegrin ruling class, which substantiate the successes and failures of the principality. Two most prominent Montenegrin politicians of this time, Crown Prince Nicholas of Montenegro and Foreign Minister Gavro Vuković attempted to assess the results that were achieved, as well as their role in the political processes. A comparative analysis carried out on their narrative heritage, assessments given by the contemporaries, and archival materials led to the conclusion that the supreme leaders of Montenegro to the fullest extent possessed the qualities that were inherent to the people as a whole. Political culture of the Montenegrins, which has not previously become the subject of research within the Russian science, remained patriarchal and retained vestiges of tribal structure that impeded establishment of the state of modern type. Several centuries of hostile encirclement and permanent war, put the Montenegrins noticeably behind with regards to the development of education. Therefore, there was a severe shortage of managerial human resources. The low level of professional competence of the elite was compensated by placing emphasis on the military past and traditional values. However, the excessive warlike attitude led to reassessment of their powers, mismanagement with regards to domestic and foreign policy, as well as impeded the development of statehood of Montenegro. The acquired results may be valuable for culturologists and political scientists as the empirical material for studying such complicated concept as the political culture.
Smirnov I. - Montenegros political crisis of 1997-1998 pp. 33-47


Abstract: The subject of this research is the struggle of political elites in Montenegro, which was a constituent federated state of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, in the late 1990s. In 1997, as a result of split between the ruling in Montenegro Democratic Party of Socialists, the political life of the country faced a severe crisis. The opposition wing within Democratic Party of Socialists, headed by the young politician Milo Đukanović won the confrontation. The result of this conflict became a drastic change in the country's political orientation in its relations with Serbia and the federal center in Belgrade. The author examines the factors that caused crisis situation and proliferation in the republic. The article determines the key stages of political confrontation in the republic and their fundamental characteristics. The first stage marks the internal struggle of the elites, juxtaposition of reformist wing of the ruling party, which criticized the allied authorities in Belgrade, and its conservative parliamentary group that supported alliance with the authorities of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and its leader Slobodan Milošević. At the second stage, the confrontation extends beyond the republic and shifts onto the federal level, becoming an inter-republican conflict. The scientific novelty of this work consists in the original approach towards studying the topic at hand, using the new sources and literature.
History of law and state
Chekushkina E.O., Tuguzhekova V.N. - Activity of the Prosecutor's Office of the Khakas Autonomous Oblast during the Great Patriotic War pp. 48-54


Abstract: This article is dedicated to examination of the activity of the Prosecutor's Office of the Khakas Autonomous Oblast during the Great Patriotic War, with involvement of the archival sources. The object of this research is the Soviet Prosecutor's Office in Khakassia; while the subject is the activity of the Prosecutor's Office of the Khakas Autonomous Oblast during the Great Patriotic War. The goal consists in the analysis of work of the Prosecutor's Office of the Khakas Autonomous Oblast during the wartime. The scientific novelty lies in systematization, generalization of materials on the topic, examination of the activity of Prosecutor's Office on the example of a particular region (Khakas Autonomous Oblast), as well as involvement of archival sources. The conclusion is made on contribution of the employees of Prosecutor's Office in supporting and aiding the front. In the conditions of wartime, the Prosecutor's Office of the Khakas Autonomous Oblast alongside Prosecutor's Office of the USSR as a whole, had to transfer its work onto the “wartime footing”, as well as deal with such activities as the struggle against desertion, protection of the rights of military families. Ensuring law enforcement on the home front was the key task of the Prosecutor’s Office.
Chotbaev A.E. - Preliminary results of archaeological research of monuments of the Kazakh Altai in 2020 pp. 55-66


Abstract: Archaeological research in the context of scientific understanding was carried out in the region in pre-revolutionary times and continues to this day. As a result of research conducted for the third century, we have a rich source base of archaeological material and solid literature devoted to various aspects of the life of the ancient population of the region. The first research here began in 1960 by the South Altai Archaeological expedition. S. S. Sorokin conducted reconnaissance work along the Bukhtarma from Katon-Karagai to the Kurtu River, as a result of which 15 monuments were discovered, one of which is the Kurtu burial ground. After S. S. Sorokin 's research , work on the monument stopped and only half a century later they were resumed in 2019 .       One of the results of the conducted research is the clarification of the topo-landscape situation of the Tautekeli necropolis, as a result, we were able to reasonably divide the Kurtu necropolis previously studied by S.S. Sorokin, which included the Tautekeli group. Also, the historical name of the Salt–belki necropolis - Topkayyn was introduced into scientific circulation. Until today, archaeological science has known that the Topkayyn and Tautekeli burial grounds consist only of funeral and memorial complexes of the beginning of the formation of the nomadic era, i.e. the Early Saka time. As a result of archaeological research on these monuments, materials have been obtained that, in chronological terms, relate to the transitional time from the Mayemer period to the Pazyryk period. In general, unique materials have been obtained, in which various knowledge about the funeral rite of the population is hidden, important among them are the subject complex consisting of a complex of weapons and horse equipment, as well as the burial of the horses themselves.
Philosophy of history, historiography, chronology/source studies
Ayusheeva M.V. - Mongүol čaүajin-u bičig as a source on Mongolian Buddhism pp. 67-75


Abstract: The subject of this research is the chapter on Buddhist clergy from the ““Mongүol čaүajin-u bičig”, the Mongolian version of the “Code of the Chinese Chamber of External Relations”. The object of this research is the Manchurian policy with regards to Mongolian Buddhism. The article provides historiographical characteristics of the source in the old written Mongolian language, preserved in the Center of Oriental Manuscripts and Xylographs of the Institute for Mongolian, Buddhist and Tibetan Studies of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The author conducts a detailed overview of the five books of the compilation of laws; and based on the content of the articles, examines the position the Buddhist Church in accordance to the Qing legislation. It is underlined that the manuscript version of “Mongүol čaүajin-u bičig” reflects the traditional legal norms of the XIX century with regards to Buddhist religion. The author indicates the dynamic structure of the source and its evolution in terms of requirements of the time. Special attention is given to the restrictive policy of the Qing Empire in relation to Buddhist religion, as well as the interaction between religion and secular government, development of legal norms based on the “Truthful Record of the Mongols under the Qing Dynasty”. The main conclusion consists in the statement that the vertical of secular government subordinated the religious organization. The novelty is defined by involvement of the new source for analyzing the state of Mongolian Buddhism.
Evolution, reform, revolution
Akimova T.M. - Women's issue at the dawn of establishment of civil society in Vladimir Governorate (February October 1917) pp. 76-90


Abstract: This article explores the establishment of civil society in Vladimir Governorate between the February and October Revolutions of 1917. Women for the first time became legally its full-fledged subject. Based on the documents preserved in the State Archive of Vladimir Region, State Archive of the Russian Federation, press materials (newspapers “Staryi Vladimirets”, “Vladimirskaya Zhizn”, "Svobodny Muromsky Golos”), the author examines the perception of the political events of that time by women of the governorate; outlines the urgent problems that women were concerned with; describes attitude towards the received suffrage and areas of manifestation of their social activity; as well as perception of the new in women’s rights by male part of the population. After the February Revolution of 1917 in Russia, the important steps were taken towards establishment of civil society with women being its full-fledged subject. Among the residents were not engaged in the revolutionary movement, most activity demonstrated the townswomen. They supported the implementation of universal suffrage, created women's communities, and participated in the discussion of urgent problems. Peasant women were mainly concerned with survivability of their families during difficult times. They were not familiar with the political life of the country and governorate, and unaffected by electoral campaigns into the district self-governance. This was justified by their tough financial situation, patriarchal structure in families, and lack of education.
West - Russia - East
Zalesskaia O., Yan M. - Russia China humanitarian cooperation in the area of youth cultural and educational projects between Amur Region and Heilongjiang Province (early XXI century) pp. 91-104


Abstract: The subject of this research is humanitarian cooperation between Russia and China in the area of youth cultural and educational projects between Amur Region and Heilongjiang Province in the early XXI century. The first two decades of the XXI century, these relations are characterized by active contacts in the area of culture and education, prominent education projects on intergovernmental and interregional levels. Within the framework of the National Years of Russia and China, a significant number of events were held to promote interaction between the youth of two countries and their familiarization with the culture of another country. Such events are of particular relevance in the Far Eastern border region – the intersection of Russia and China. The authors analyze the documentation on humanitarian cooperation between Russia and China, and give characteristics to the joint projects and programs in the sphere of education and science between Amur Region and Heilongjiang Province. The novelty of novelty of this work consists in the detailed analysis of specificity of youth education projects between the border regions of the Russian Far East and Northeast China in the early XXI century, which were implemented prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. The authors also considered the interaction between Russian and Chinese universities in the context of close humanitarian and youth cooperation. The article features the materials translated by the authors from Chinese language. The past two decades of the XXI century mark a substantial array of cultural and educational events dedicated to youth of Russia and China; thus, humanitarian cooperation between Russia and China in the sphere of youth education projects has become an integral element of interregional contacts between Amur Region and Heilongjiang Province. The accumulated historical experience with regards to cooperation between the two countries in this sphere directly impacts the development of Russia – China relations, and requires druthers research..
Social history
Ma Y. - Socioeconomic relations between Kazakhstan and China after the dissolution of the Soviet Union pp. 105-112


Abstract: The object of this research is the China – Kazakhstan relations in the XX-XXI centuries. The subject of this research is the socioeconomic ties between the two countries after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Analysis is conducted on the general trend of socioeconomic ties between China and Kazakhstan, as well as socioeconomic cooperation between them during the 1990s and 2000s. The author examines such aspects as the advantages and difficulties with regards to trade, development of border trade, joint construction of railways, cooperation in the sphere of energy, etc. The main merit of the conducted research consists in the description of bilateral socioeconomic relations between the two countries, which are shifting to the next level and more diverse structure, due to the unique political coordination of Kazakhstan and China, benefits of geographical location and additional economic structure. The current China – Kazakhstan relations represent the model of mutual respect, equality and mutually advantageous cooperation. The novelty of this work lies in division of the China – Kazakhstan trade relations into different periods in accordance with the characteristics, as well as in determination of the priority vectors of cooperation. The article provides a general description of trade and economic cooperation between China and Kazakhstan.
Personality in history
Veselova I. - Contribution of Joaquín García Icazbalceta (1825-1894) to Mexican historiography pp. 113-122


Abstract: The subject of this article is the research activity of Joaquín García Icazbalceta (1825-1894) – a historian, linguist and bibliographer who published a large number of documents on the history of Mexico, namely records on Spanish colonization of the Americas and establishment of the colonial system. Analysis is conducted the formation of scientific views of the Mexican scholar in the context of the impact of external factors, such as the political and socioeconomic situation, as well as public thought. This author reveals the historiographical and methodological foundation of the indicated concept, as well as assesses the degree of influence of the external factors upon the movement of Mexican historical science in late XIX century. Joaquín García Icazbalceta was a persevering scholar, who dedicated most of his life to collecting and publishing of the rare historical writings and documents. He is the author of a number articles, which although are not considered complete research works, are based on reputable sources and shed lights on some aspects of the ancient and colonial history of Mexico. Despite the seeming affinity for Spanish heritage in Mexican culture, Joaquín García Icazbalceta greatly contributed to research on the history of Aztecs, forming and leaving to the future generations of historians a substantial documentary base that allows discovering Mexican history of the XVI century, as well as other periods of history of the country.
Historical facts, events, phenomena
Kargovskaia E., Kuznetsova V. - San Blas Rebellion of 1925 pp. 123-132


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the events that received the name of Guna Revolution and led to the autonomy of Comarca Guna Yala that belongs to the Republic of Panama. Guna Indians are one of the few peoples of the American Continent who were able to preserve integrity of their land, their authenticity, traditions, culture and beliefs, although it took them enormous efforts. The goal of this research consists in examination of causes that led to the rebellion, as well as its consequences for the Guna people. The authors of attempt to reconstruct the events and determine the crucial factor that affected successful outcome of the revolt. The scientific novelty is defined by the fact that the history of Guna Indians of the Republic of Panama alongside the events related to their struggle for the autonomy and self-identification did not receive due coverage within the Russian scientific publications. In the current era of globalization, which blurs the boundaries and differences, the preservation of authenticity and integrity of small, and often large, ethnic groups is more relevant than ever. One of the authors was able to visit Comarca Guna Yala and get acquainted with the lifestyle, culture and traditions of its inhabitants, as well as listen to their perspective on the historical events of 1925, which Guna Indians carefully preserve in their folk tradition of chants that sound on the sessions of Guna General Congress.
Historical memory
Sosnitskii D.A. - Educational literature as a source for developing collective memory on Russian history of the late XVIII century pp. 133-140


Abstract: The subject of this research is educational literature as a source for reconstruction of collective historical representations on Russian history in of the late XVIII century. The author analyzes the state of educational system in the Russian Empire of the second half of the XVIII century, and characterizes the measures taken by the government on formation of multibranch network of elementary and secondary educational institutions. Special attention is given to the process of creation of school textbook on Russian history with personal contribution of Catherine the Great. The conclusion is made that the second half of the XVIII century became the time of formation of first educational texts for broad audience dedicated to the history of Russia. During this period, the government order had a determining influence, and the opinion of the ruler had direct impact on the content of textbooks. Within the framework of school program, preference was given to nonconfrontational version of the past, which did not touch upon the “sore points” of national memory. The pantheon of heroes of the national memory has not yet been formed in the educational literature of the late XVIII century, and thus, the objects for research (heroes and events) slightly differ from the textbooks of the XIX – early XX centuries. Despite this fact, the school textbooks of the late XVIII century, significantly impacted the school curriculum on history and development of collective representations on the past in Russia of the XIX-early XX centuries.
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