Электронный журнал Genesis: исторические исследования - №6 за 2019 г - Содержание, список статей. ISSN: 2409-868X - Издательство NotaBene
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Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue № 06/2019
Contents of Issue № 06/2019
Issues of war and peace
Sergushkin S. - Deployment of chemical defense system on the Western front of the Russian Army during the World War I pp. 1-18

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.6.30027

Abstract: The subject of this research is the set of actions taken by command group of the Western front of the Russian Army as a defense against chemical warfare during the World War I. The author thoroughly examines such aspects of the topic as the supply of military staff with the personal chemical gear, training on how to use those, creation of the system of meteorological observation; as well as analyzes the combination of orders and instructions that regulated chemical defense on the front line. Special attention is given to cooperation of the various military administration bodies involved in the sphere of chemical defense. In the course of this research, the author applies systemic approach, method of systemic reconstruction, as well as follows the principles of historicism, scientific objectivity and verifiability. The conclusion is made that the Western front command group has done everything possible to minimize casualties in the conditions of chemical warfare by supplying the crew with the personal protection gear. The Western front used the Zelinsky-Kummant gas mask; as well as organized training of the crew by deploying mobile detachments. The established system also has a number of flaws, but yet allowed familiarizing the soldiers with the basics of defense against the new type of weapon. At the same time, some fatal mistakes were made in organization of the chemical defense. The front staff neglected the questions of chemical reconnaissance and gas warning, therefore, the corps and army command groups had to rectify such deficiencies, often at the cost of harrowing experience.
Ethnography and ethnology
Mongush A.M. - Men in gender interactions in the traditional Tuvan society pp. 19-26

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.6.30122

Abstract: The subject of this research is the men’s gender role within the system of the traditional Tuvan society and family. The goal of this work lies in examination of the role and status of men in family, social, and economic life of the traditional Tuvan society. The author considers such aspects of the topic as the gender differences with regards to child’s gender among Tuvans, superstitious beliefs associated with gender predetermination of a future child, symbolic birth rituals, etc. Special attention is turned to the role of a father in the upbringing process of boys, fostering skills in traditional farming, as well as acquisition of masculine features. The key research method is the systemic approach, which suggests studying the traditional Tuvan society as a system with a certain social role allotted to men. The principle of historicism allowed to objectively examine the status of men in Tuvan society in historical evolution. In conclusion, the author notes that men in the traditional Tuvan society was key link in procreation, responsible for preservation and reproduction of ethnocultural traditions and customs. The author also determined the gender peculiarities with regards to men at various age stages, revealed the process of male socialization, substantiated the leading role of Tuvan men in economic life.  
Evolution, reform, revolution
Osipov S., Vyazmitinov M., Kamalova R. - Emperor Nicholas II and Zemstvo delegation of June 6, 1905: compromises and lost opportunities pp. 65-79

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.6.28400

Abstract: The subject of this research is the relatively unknown episode of the First Russian Revolution (1905-1907): hosting a delegation of Zemstvo Congress on June 6, 1905. The authors thoroughly examine this event (background, course, and results), determine the development trends in relations between the government and society as of May-June 1905, note the compromises made by both parties towards audience alongside the lost opportunities discovered by this audience. The article is based on the principles of historicism, objectivity and systematicity; methodology contains the historical-genetic methods, archival materials, memoires, and press reports. Using the example of a particular event, the authors determine the trends characteristic to the First Russian Revolution throughout. Receiving the Zemstvo delegation by the emperor on June 6, 1905 has been previously viewed in the general chronology of relations between the government and society, development of Zemstvo movements and political activity of participants of the convention. The focus of this research is the event itself: description of its sociopolitical context, background, details of convention, speeches of the participants, public response, and its consequences. Both parties had to make concessions in order for this imperial unprecedented event to take place. The chains of mutual micro-concessions and compromises lead to the convention that could mark the beginning of cooperation between the government and Zemstvo, but turned as lost opportunities for the emperor and the opposition for reasons attributable to both parties. Leaning on a particular episode, the authors emphasize the specificity of the First Russian Revolution in gradual approach to reforms and sustainable public order as a characteristic of arranged compromises.
History of law and state
Bykov A.V., Bykova A.G. - Legal regulation of penalties for disciplinary offences conducted by police officials of the Russian Empire (second half of the XIX – beginning of the XX century) pp. 80-88

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.6.28327

Abstract: The state of discipline and lawfulness in the activity of government bodies, including the internal affairs division, and measures of their support, counting penalty for committing violation by discipline, have always been of great importance. Examination of the historical experience of the development of legislation regulating the application of sanctions for official misconducts and disciplinary offences is relevant and allows determining the sources of the current state of this sphere of regulation. The subject of this research is the relations associated with the violation by the police employees of service discipline in prerevolutionary Russia. The goal of this work lies in studying the issues of statutory regulation of brining he police officials to disciplinary responsibility. The author analyzes the regulatory acts contained in the Complete Collection of Laws of the Russian Empire, and published results of scientific activity. At the same time, the author notes that the modern national science does not give as due attention to examination of responsibility of the police officials as to legal regulation of responsibility of the civil service officials overall. The article determines a set of issues and flaws in legal regulation of disciplinary responsibility. The conclusion is made on the need to pass in the end of the XIX – beginning of the XX century of the new normative legal act regulating the responsibility of the police officials for committing disciplinary offences based on the existing experience. The absence of such legal act and archaic nature of the existing norms negatively influenced the efforts on enforcing discipline. The presented results may be used in conducting scientific research and preparing educational learning materials.
Yashchuk T. - The activity of Legal Commission of the Council of Ministers of USSR with regards to systematization of legislation pp. 89-102

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.6.29746

Abstract: The subject of this research is the exercise of powers of Legal Commission of the Council of Ministers of USSR with regards to systematization of Soviet legislation. The author determines the reasons for its establishment, describes the institutionalization process of the Legal Commission, its genetic affinity to a number of commissions dealt with systematization of legislation during the 1920’s. The subject of this research is particularized with chronological framework. The author analyzes the entire period of operation of the Commission, since the organizational activities in 1956 and until the delegation of authorities to the Ministry of Justice of USSR in 1970. The research methodology contains the methods of historicism, formal-legal, and functional. The article examines the arrangement and activity of Legal Commission from the perspective of historicism due to democratization of the political regime and state apparatus reform. The formal-legal method allows identifying and analyzing the core regulatory acts that establish the inner structure and powers of the Legal Commission. The functional method is used for characterizing the key vectors in the activity of Legal Commission on systematization of legislation. The scientific novelty consists in determining a status of Legal Commission of the Council of Ministers of USSR, which due to abolition of the Ministry of Justice of USSR, centralized its fundamental functions on systematization of legislation, and partially the lawmaking functions. The author underlines its role in the developing sectoral framework of the national legislation, finding outdated acts and their further abrogation, comprising the chronological collection of legislative acts and government decisions of the Soviet Union, followed by systematic collection.
History of regions of Russia
Filatova Z.V. - Transformation of the institution of government commissars in the Stavropol Governorate in 1917 pp. 103-115

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.6.29943

Abstract: This article is dedicated to examination of the establishment and development of the institution of government commissars after the February Bourgeois Democratic Revolution. The relevance of this research lies in the analysis of the core reforms of local governance within the specified period, determination of trends in transformation of the local administrative system, study the reforms of this system in the past, considering the possibility of usage of such experience in modern practice. The author analyses the processes of transformation of power of the instate of government commissars – local governing body of the Provisional Government in the Stavropol Governorate over the period from March to December 1917. All attempts of the government commissioner to conduct socioeconomic reforms in the governorate were rather shallow and did not pertain to the basic political statutes of society, set by autocracy in the past. The application of historical comparative method allows determining the common and peculiar characteristics of the local governing bodies in Stavropol Governorate, as well as pursue correlation between the processes of their transformation during this time. The conclusion is made that the institute of government commissars in its concept remained a brogues authority and represented the interest of the well-off population. This institution neither realized the given administrative opportunities, nor established order in the various spheres of life of the governorate. On the background of disappointment with the work of the institute of government commissars and other bourgeois authorities by the end of 1917, the population of Stavropol Governorate supported the Congress of Soviets of Workers', Soldiers' and Peasants' Deputies that promoted socially important slogans.
History of science and technology
Fando R.A. - L. D. Liozner’s school of sciences: at the dawn of studying regeneration pp. 116-127

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.6.29984

Abstract: The subject of this research is L. D. Liozner’s school of sciences in the area of reparative regeneration of organs and tissues. The object of this research is the results of scientific works of Liozner and his mentees, as well as the key historical stages of origination and development of this school of sciences. In the 1930’s, when the first schools dedicated to studying regeneration appeared in Russia, L. D. Liozner meets L. Y. Blyakher and M. A. Vorontsova, who introduced him to the research in the field of experimental embryology.  Methodology is based on the comparative-historical, biographical, historical-scientific, and retrospective methods of research. The phenomenon of L. D. Liozner’s school of sciences was analyzed in various aspects: substantive-logical, psychological, and sociocultural. The author convincingly demonstrates that only after 1956, at the time of becoming the head of the Laboratory of Growth and Development in the Institute of Experimental Biology of L. D. Liozner, he began consolidating the scholars in the area of reparative regeneration of organs and tissues. The author reveals the team members and the main vectors of activity of the school. The scientific novelty consists in the detailed analysis of scientific heritage of the mentees of L. D. Liozner. He brought up en entire pleiad of prominent scholars, including V. F. Sidorova, Z. A. Ryabinina, A. G. Babayeva, L. K. Romanova, S. S. Raytsina, and E. A. Efimov. It is underlined that the studies on regeneration, conducted by the students of L. D. Lizoner’s school of sciences, continue to this day, considering the recent scientific achievements.
Social history
Chen G.N. - Cuban School at a crossroads: state’s minders and libertarians during the early republican period pp. 128-135

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.6.29976

Abstract: In the current realities, the problem of searching for the new forms and ways of education development becomes extremely important. One of such forms is private education, which has deep historical roots in Cuba. Considering this fact, the reference to Cuban experience represents significant relevance for the historical and pedagogical sciences. The subject of this research is the libertarian movement in Cuban education in the early XX century. The author analyzes the origins of alternative education in Cuba: opposition between the anarchists and the state, impact of pedagogical ideas of F. Ferrer upon education; as well as attempts to answer the question if private education was a serious alternative to public. The author’s major contribution into this study lies in reconsideration of the conceptual aspects of prerevolutionary education in Cuba. The usage of historical-pedagogical sources on the history of Cuban education (reports of P. Packard, Gonzalo de Quesada, and Charles Magoon) allowed determining the strong correlation between the political events and the reforms in the area of education in Cuba.
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