Ёлектронный журнал Genesis: исторические исследовани€ - є12 за 2019 год - —одержание - список статей - ISSN: 2409-868X - »здательство NotaBene
Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue є 12/2019
Contents of Issue є 12/2019
Philosophy of history, historiography, chronology/source studies
Golubinov I. - Ego-documents as means of constructing personal and family history: the instance of Peter and Mikhail Gerasimovs pp. 1-9


Abstract: The author explores the problem of using ego-documents to construct personal and family history, referring to documented heritage of Gerasimov brothers, as well as their relatives. Ego-documents are viewed as an important means of constructing and public presentation of the past depending on the requirements of ideology and political conjuncture. Structuring of the past primarily consists in utilization of a complex system of omissions and censorship of reminiscences in creation of ego-documents, which can turn out to be dangerous or produce awkward questions. Ego-documents also enable creating special versions of the memory of the past, comprising realistic events and blatant myths. The research of ego-documents greatly benefits from modern methods, which examine such sources as key testimonies of special experience of the present and reflection of the past. At the same time, subjectivity of the source becomes a virtue, allowing to understand the specificity of the perception of personal life path. A conclusion is made that members of the Gerasimov family actively reassembled their past depending on circumstances (pressure of ideology and public representations on more proper lifestyle), in which they had to publically reveal it in the ego-documents. However, absences of clear ideological pressure, as it is demonstrated on the example of one of the ego-documents, certainly does not release from creation of phantom past.
History of regions of Russia
Tatarnikova A.I. - Hygiene and sanitary conditions of educational environment and health of schoolchildren of Western Siberia in the late XIX Ц early XX centuries pp. 10-24


Abstract: The object of this research is the students of educational establishments of Western Siberia at the turn of the XIX–XX centuries; the subject is the hygiene and sanitary conditions of their educational environment and physical health. The author gives characteristics to the technical, hygiene and sanitary state of school buildings; determines the most widespread illnesses; traces their link with the hygiene and sanitary conditions of educational environment; analyzes the actions of government, pedagogical and medical personnel, social organizations aimed at prevention and counteraction of school illnesses. Research methodology leans on the complex and interdisciplinary approaches, as well as considers separate provisions of modernization theory pertinent to the change of public consciousness under the influence of economic and sociocultural transformations fell on the late XIX – early XX centuries. The author analyzes the stance of the officials, pedagogues and physicians on school as a social institution, and its impact on the students’ health. Based on the extensive volume of sources, including the unpublished, the author describes the state of school buildings, and provides statistical data on the technical, hygiene and sanitary conditions of educational environment. Negative influence of school environment upon students’ health is demonstrated. The conclusion is made on the changes in relation of the government and society to school overall. Among the positive changes are named: the strengthening of hygiene and sanitary control over educational establishments, implementation of annual medical examinations of schoolchildren, supply with first aid kits, conducting lectures for pedagogues on school hygiene and prevention of highly contagious illnesses, organization of hygiene and sanitary education for the young generation, etc.
Culture and cultures in historical context
Chebotarev A., Leshukov A. - Booktrade advertising in Russia in the late XVIII century: factors of development pp. 25-31


Abstract: The object of this research is the evolution of Russian advertising in the late XVIII century, while the subject is the combination of factors that affected the new trends in development of booktrade advertising. The goal lies in determination of fundamental reasons for the emergence of new form of booktrade advertising relevant until the end of the XVIII century and complexity of text content of the advertisements for increasing their information value and enhancing the effect of advertising. The author meticulously examines the process of establishing legal framework for the development of book-publishing industry, which required proliferation of the effective booktrade advertising. Methodology contains the analysis of legislation regulating the book industry, which define the key requirements to the work of private publishers and their products, as well as the analysis of the content of booktrade advertising. The conclusion is made that the gradual development of the national booktrade advertisement became possible as a result of creation of legislative base for emergence of the system of private book publishing. Booktrade advertising developed in the form of newspaper and magazine advertising: brief advertisement-description, extended advertisement, register-catalogue, and pamphlets. The author underlines the more frequent appearance of long texts with substantiated advertising proposition. The article also demonstrates the influence of other factors such as economic, political, and socio-cultural upon the development of booktrade advertising.
History of science and technology
Uzbekova Y.I. - Council for the Study of Productive Forces within the system of Уmobilized scienceФ (1930 Ц 1950Тs) pp. 32-43


Abstract: In the scientific system of “Stalin’s modernization” period a special place was held by the Council for the Study of Productive Forces (CCPF), which after its establishment in 1930 was charged with thorough research on the country’s natural resources. The activity of the Council, similar to other scientific institutions, was subordinated to the stringent production-oriented policy of the country’s leadership; therefore, its experience may be considered as an important source for designing the model of the “mobilized” Stalin’s science. Emphasis is made on the causes and dynamics of the reforms that took place with the Council for the Study of Productive Forces throughout 1930’s – 1950’s, as well as the key changes in the Council’s development strategy. For this purpose the author applied the historical-systemic method and the concept of the social institution of science. The article provides characteristics to the new concept of development, formulated in the end of 1940’s, underlining the role of the state’s general economic strategy in selection of particular forms and vectors for the work of CCPF. The conclusion is made that CCPF was influenced objectives of accelerated modernization of Stalin’s period to the full extent. The logics of the development of CCPF structures, topic of scientific research, shift of productive forces towards East in the late 1940’s – all these was justified by the course of central leadership. It is noted that the administrative-command system created multiple obstacles for the effective work of the Council for the Study of Productive Forces and its cooperation with the Academy of Sciences and other organizations. From the practical perspective, the case of interest is the mechanism of interaction between scientific and departmental structures in implementation of plans for the rapid creation of industrial centers in the conditions of limited time and material resources.
Historical facts, events, phenomena
Zagorodnyuk N.I. - УExile settlersФ in Northwestern Siberia: social portrait, labor activity and living conditions of the deported population pp. 44-54


Abstract: The object of this research is the separate group of forced settlers – the deported citizens of the Soviet Union, convicted unlawfully for evading “agricultural work and leading an antisocial parasitic lifestyle” in accordance with the decree of Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of USSR of February 21 and June 2, 1948. Based on the archival materials, the author describes the number, resettlement sites, social composition of “exile settlers”, their labor activity and living conditions in the territory of Northwestern Siberia (Yamalo-Nenets and Khanti-Mansi Autonomous Okrugs of Tyumen Region. The article explores the previously unstudied questions of postwar deportation in the territory under consideration. The conclusion is made that “exile settlers” unlike other population groups, had special legal status; they became the source of compulsory workforce in timber industry, as well as construction of the Chum-Salekhard-Igarka Railway. The analysis of their social composition and content of sentences allow stating on the unlawfulness of application of repressions towards separate citizens; same as other groups of political prisoners, they stayed in arduous material and living conditions.
History of public institutions
Arkhipova A.I. - GovernorТs Office of Yakutsk Region as a reflection of the principles of human resource policy of the Russian government (middle XIX Ц early XX centuries) pp. 55-66


Abstract: The subject of this research is the personnel of the Governor’s Office of Yakutsk Region in the middle XIX – early XX centuries. The object of this research is the human resource policy of the government of the Russian Empire aimed at formation of the Governor’s Office. The author examines the formal and informal criteria of the selection of candidates for this post. Attention is given to the role of governor in career of the officials of the prerevolutionary period. The article analyzes the key features of state policy in selecting candidates for the post of the governor, as well as implementation of these principles for human resourcing of Yakut Region in the middle XIX – early XX centuries. The author leans on methodology introduced by P. A. Zaynochkovsky, which suggests the integrated application of legislative acts, official lists, and a number of other sources for identification of quantitative characteristics of the Governor’s Office alongside their qualitative parameters. The conclusion is made that the human resource policy, in the context of formation of the Governor’s Office, was characterized by the absences of the well-established legal rules and certain flexibility in approving the candidates. For officials, the gubernatorial position was a way to move up in ranks, and retire with a higher pension. The novelty of this research consists in comprehensive characteristics of the Governor’s Office of Yakutsk Region viewed through the prism of human resource policy of the government of the Russian Empire.
Social history
Avliev V.N., Batyrov V.V., Lidzheeva K.F., Olchanova T.V. - Demographic losses of the Kalmyk people in the first months of deportation on the example of Omsk Oblast: reasons and circumstances pp. 67-76


Abstract: The subject of this research is the examination of reasons and circumstances of the heavy demographic losses of Kalmyks during the first month of deportation on the example of Omsk Oblast. The object of this research is the deportation of Kalmyks to Eastern regions of the Soviet Union. Omsk Oblast, which became the first residents for accommodation of the Kalmyk people in special settlement, was selected as an example of demographic losses in the first months. The authors lean on the published sources and archival materials. The scientific novelty consist in determination of reasons and circumstances of the high mortality rate among Kalmyks during the first month of deportation to Omsk Oblast. It is demonstrated that the total amount of victims is uncertain due to the absence of valid statistics, although the documents demonstrate that the mortality rate among the special settlers was quite high. Among the factors are named the gross negligence and malpractice of the party and local authorities of Omsk Oblast, which led to the facts of misuse of grains, flour and other products by the administration of state-owned farms of Omsk Oblast (comrades Postnikov and Pichugin), as well as the failure in preparation of new lodgings and bathhouses for the Kalmyk special settlers in the state-owned farms.
History of law and state
Babintseva E.A., Ponomarenko L.V. - To the question on history of formation of the sanitary and nature conservation activity in Russia in the XVIII century pp. 77-82


Abstract: The object of this research is the sanitary-epidemiological measures in the context of history of nature preservation activity in Russia. The chronological framework covers the XVIII century, which became fundamental for the formation of legislative base in this area of study. The goal of this article consists in determining correlation of compliance with sanitary and hygienic standards with environmental well-being.  The authors also explore the question of the relevant for Russian period of the beginning of combatting insanitary conditions. The plague epidemics of the 1700-1722 that reached Moscow is viewed as the central event affecting the development of sanitary measures. The authors analyze the pivotal historical events on the matter covered in the documents and writings of the scholars involved in studying the specificity of this topic. The scientific novelty consists in consideration of the problem at hand from the perspective of historical and legislative process of development of the state. Based on studying historical processes, the authors determine a direct correlation of flora and fauna with the maintenance of sanitary and epidemiological standard at the level of state control.
West - Russia - East
Nikolaeva N.D. - RusТ, Byzantium, and West in the XII century: political-religious dialogue pp. 83-92


Abstract: The subject of this research is the specificity of relationship between the Christian East and West in the XII century. The Christian East implies the Byzantine Empire and Rus’, while the West is the Holy Roman Empire. The XII century indicates the two crucial dates for the history of relationship between the Orthodox and Catholic worlds – the Great Schism of 1054, and the Sack of Constantinople as a culmination of the Fourth Crusade in 1204. Due to these circumstances, the XII century is viewed tendentiously: as a period of gradual and persistent escalation of tensions between the Christian West and East. The sources for this research became the Western European chronicles, hagiographic writings and normative legal documents, Russian and Byzantine religious-polemical writings. The acquired conclusions demonstrate nowise a tendentious picture of relationship between Byzantium, Rus’, and West during the indicated chronological period, but rather testify to certain specificity with regards to interaction of the Christian East and West. This specificity is reflected in the systematicity of their relationship, as well as in presence in the religious dialogue, which does not carry polemical or negative character.
History of regions of Russia
Yunina E.A. - Photographic studio with a female face. The spouses Ussakovsky: marital and creative union in sociocultural space of Tobolsk of the late XIX Ц min XX century (the experience of historical-cultural analysis and regional biography) pp. 93-158


Abstract: This article presents the results of personification of the evolution of photography in Tobolsk during the late XIX – min XX century, demonstrated on the example of biographies of I. K. Ussakovsky and his spouse M. M. Ussakovskaya – owner of one of the most popular photographic studio in the city. The research methodology leans on the historical-genetic, descriptive-narrative, retrospective and historiographical methods; historical-anthropological and micro-historical approaches, with application of the biographical tools and method of historical reconstruction. On the basis of the newly revealed archival documents and published data alongside the analysis of products and teaser advertising of the studio of M. Ussakovskaya, the author comprehensively reconstructs the family history and professional activity of the spouses Ussakovsky in accordance with the political situation in the country. For 37 years, the studio of M. Ussakovskaya has been one of the leading public-cultural establishments of Tobols in the area of photography services. It was attended mostly by the privileged part of the population. After the change of political regime, the studio quickly enough readjusted to the transformed structure of everyday life of the city. The lead in the mastery of photography in the marital tandem belonged to I. K. Ussakovsky. He was responsible for execution of practical and organizational tasks in the studio, while M. M. Ussakovskaya acted as a competent representative of family business, handled the administrative work and made deals with the authorities.
Question at hand
Verenich I.V. - Historical aspect and essence of the doctrine on overcoming obstruction of criminal investigation pp. 159-165


Abstract: The subject of this research is some questions in the history of emergence of the elements of obstruction of criminal investigation, as well as establishment of forensic doctrine of overcoming obstruction of criminal investigation. The article studies the theoretical concept on obstruction of criminal investigation and measures for its overcoming, structure of the doctrine, consideration of separate opinions on division of the structure of doctrine into general and special parts, including the information system. The research is aimed at the historical aspect of development of forensic doctrine on overcoming of obstruction of criminal investigation and its integral system and concept, as a set of interrelated ideas of the comprehension of the essence and patterns of organizational grounds of activity at the high stage of development of forensic science. The scientific novelty is defined by the historical aspects of studying the emergence of elements of obstruction of criminal investigation and establishment of forensic doctrine on the matter; need for formulating the integral doctrine on overcoming obstruction of criminal investigation; possibility to provide the original definition of overcoming obstruction of criminal investigation; formation of the structure and objects of forensic doctrine. 
History of law and state
Maximova O.D. - The definition of law and lawmaking in psychological concept of M. A. Reisner pp. 166-173


Abstract: After the October Revolution, Russian undergone substantial effort on creation of the theory of Soviet law. One of the concepts developed in the 1920’s was the theory of M. A. Reisner, who leaned on the psychological theory of law of Leon Petrażycki and Marxism. Las was viewed as the phenomenon of psyche, but of separate classes (i.e. peasantry or workers) rather than of a separate individual. At the initial state of development of the Soviet law, this concept allowed to a certain extent explain the drastic changes experienced by the national law. Although lawmaking was assessed as the activity severely influenced by the government, the lawmaking in the Soviet State was considered as an organizing activity. Analysis is conducted on the main writings of M. A. Reisner outlining the conceptual grounds of the doctrine. The legal categories, through which he elucidated the concept of law and lawmaking are determined. This theory associates the division of law into public and private with the dominance of private property. The perception of state and law as a seamless unity is subjected to criticism. The conclusion is made that law is an ideological form, while lawmaking is a form of expressing common law, which is achieved and established by the state as a result of class compromise.
World history: Eras and seasons
Sokolov O. - УCrusadersФ or УFranksФ: terminological polemics in the Arab historiography of Crusades of the late XX Ц early XXI centuries pp. 174-179


Abstract: The subject of this research is the terminological polemics in Arab historiography of the late XX – early XXI centuries unfolded around the terms referring to Crusades and crusaders. Proceeding from the fact that the era of Crusades has been and remains one of the most traumatizing periods within the Arab historical memory, it seems relevant to explore the terminology used by the modern Arab historians for describing the evens and personalities of that time. Terminological polemics around designating crusaders in the modern Arab historiography has not previously become an independent subject of research in Western or Russian historical science. Examination of terminological question was conducted within the framework of the methodology of discourse analysis by juxtaposing the opinions of Arab historians, analysis of their structure, and correlation with the historical context. Analysis of the narrative of modern Arab historiography demonstrates that the Arab author do not have a uniform opinion on legitimacy of the use of the Arab term “Crusades” – al-hurub as-selibiyah. At the same time, in modern Arab historiography, “secular” historians along the authors considering these historical events first and foremost as a part of history of the Muslim world, either advocate or dispute the use of the term salibi that stands for the crusader. The examination of this aspect is a step towards understanding the processes of formation of image of the other within modern Arab historiography.
History of political and legal doctrines
Korovin K.S. - LeninТs understanding of the right of nations to self-determination and the Soviet constitutional doctrine of 1922-1923 pp. 180-189


Abstract: The internationalist socialist ideas, originated in Europe and reflected in the ideas of Bolsheviks, manifested in the slogan of the right of nations to self-determination. The genesis of such principle using methodology of the history of notions allowed determining the conceptual grounds of the Soviet constitutional project. Prior to the Revolution of 1905, V. I. Lenin started to write on the national self-determination, in which he initially saw the bourgeois and counterrevolutionary content. However, by 1913 Lenin attached the class and proletarian meaning to it, since it became evident to Bolsheviks that tactically the use of bourgeois nationalism may be profitable for integrating the socialist republics into a single union. The period from 1917 to 1921 the principle of sovereign equality of states was recognizes at the party congresses and conferences; in essence, the right to secession for the constituent republics of USSR was formulated. It is worth noting that the aforementioned ideas reflected in the Treaty and Declaration on the Creation of the USSR, and later in the Soviet Constitution, which concept was elaborated in 1922-1923. Namely the question on the form and content of the constitution founding document of the future union became the matter of disputes, as the right of nations to self-determination dictated particular framework for sovereignty of the republics. The article provides a detailed analysis of genesis of the idea of self-determination of the nations in V. I. Lenin’s political doctrine, as well as its implementation in the constitutional doctrine of the future Union State.                   
Culture and cultures in historical context
Drozdov A.I., Karachakova O.M. - Interethnic relations in the Republic of Khakassia in the early XXI century: historical-statistical analysis pp. 190-199


Abstract: The object of this research is the entirety of relations between the ethnic groups of Khakassia in the early XXI century, while the subject of the main trends and patterns in development of interethnic relations in the region. The goal lies in the analysis of evolution of interethnic relations in the Republic of Khakassia during the period in question based on the demographical statistics data and results of sociological surveys. The authors determine the following tasks: 1) reveal the dynamics of demographic indexes in the area of interethnic processes (ethnic composition of the population, internal and external migration); 2) examine the assessment of the state of interethnic relations as perceived by collective consciousness. Interethnic relations are a complicated socio-psychological process of communication between ethnic groups, which undergoes dynamic transformations. The novelty of this work consists in introduction of statistical data into the scientific discourse, including such acquired as a result of calculations, generalization and systematization of material within the framework of the topic. The character of interethnic relations in Khakassia in the early XXI century remained fairly stable. It was substantiated by the reforms in all spheres of life of the region, and strive of the peoples of Khakassia for preservation and development of national identity alongside the need for the establishment of the single ethnocultural space.
Tikhonova V.B. - Government official of Polish order G. K. Kotoshihin: representative of intelligentsia, Russian European, Westernizer? pp. 200-212


Abstract: At the core of this research is the mentality of government official of Polish order G. K. Kotoshihin. Leaning on interdisciplinary approach, the author generalizes and analyzes the works dedicated to Kotoshihin and his era. The key objectives of the article consist in determination of mentality traits of the representative of Russian service bureaucracy of the XVII century; assessment of whether or not it is fair to associate G. K. Kotoshihin with the Russian Europeans, representatives of intelligentsia of the XVII century, or early national Westernizers. Based on well-known studies, the author determines a number of crucial, invariant patterns of mentality of “classical” Westernism. Although some personalty traits of Kotoshihin correspond with neither “Europeanness” nor intelligentsia, comparison of the peculiarities of mentality of the fugitive government official with worldview orientations of the national Westernism of the XIX century brought positive result. Such attributes as high assessment of European achievements, pursuit of Western education, development of secular and personal mentality in its European version, tolerance to the “someone else’s”, critical attitude with regards to national tradition – are viewed by the author as the criteria for resembling “prototype”. The majority of characteristic to Westernism mental orientations are present in G. K. Kotoshihin to a greater or lesser degree, namely the respect to European culture, tolerance, as well as critical attitude towards the national religious tradition. It would seem that Kotoshihin belonged to the category of early Russian Westernizers, who fell to the “temptation” of the European culture and became its spiritual prisoner.
Beliefs, religions, churches
Baimov A.G. - Religious objects in closed establishments as a marker of state-confessional relations in the constituent entities of the Russian Federation (on the example of Southern Ural) pp. 213-223


Abstract: The subject of this research is the temples and mosques locates in the territory of such government institutions as army and penal system. For convenience the author refers to such constructs as military and prison chapels regardless of the confessional affiliation. The article examines exceptionally the on-site religions object. Emergence of temple in the territory of closed government institutions is usually a result of a long-term and productive cooperation of the administration of these establishments with the religious organizations. The larger is the number of temples in the region, the higher is the activity of religious organization and level of trust of the administrative authorities to them. The goal of this works is to trace the activity of religious organizations in the indicated regions of Southern Ural (the Republic of Bashkortostan, Chelyabinsk Oblast, Orenburg Oblast) through the analysis of quantitative data. Comparative method and method spatial visualization are also applied in the course of the research. The novelty consists in introduction into the scientific discourse of the new statistical data as of 2019. The article tests the techniques for assessing the activity of religious organizations with regards to cooperation with the government institutions. The chart of activity of the religious organizations may be created using the method of geoinformation cartography, marking the “green” (successful), “yellow” (satisfactory), and green (unsatisfactory) zones. Such recourse would be valuable for the administrative authorities of the institutions and regional governments in recruitment and other areas decision-making.
Khomyakov S.V. - The relationship between Old Believers of Buryatia with imperial power in the late XIX century: problems and compromises pp. 224-231


Abstract: The subject of this research is the problem of relationships between Old Believers and imperial power, which existed since the beginning of history of the schism. The object of this research is the Old Believers of Verkhneudinsky District of Zabaikalsky Region. The author examines such aspects of the topic is the government decrees on the general questions of the activity Old Believers of Verkhneudinsky District in the late XIX century, as well as characteristics of the existed restrictions related to the freedom of faith and worship among the Old Believers. The comparative-historical method was applied in the analysis of policy tools of the local authorities with regards to the Old Believers; historical-genetic method was uses in characterizing the enhancement of restrictions towards the freedoms of Old Believers since the middle to the end of the XIX century. The author concludes that the identification of Old Believers in eyes of the government as “separatists” and their large human potential suggested the presence of special control of the authorities, which was growing in the second half of the XIX century. The novelty of this work consists in introduction into the scientific discourse of archival records proving that the Old Believers passively resisted the escalation of attention towards their internal affairs; however, demonstrated a high level of loyalty to the government. It was reflected in the absence of protests despite the enhanced limitations for religious freedom, although there were multiple violations of such restrictions, which testifies to the prevalence of religious identity over state among the population.
Polovnikova M.Y., Nemchaninova E.N. - Bishop Sergius (Serafimov) and his contribution to the development of religious-educational activity in Vyatka diocese in the late XIX century pp. 232-242


Abstract: This article based on the archival material and published sources examines the activity of Sergius (Serafimov) in the post of the Vyatka and Sloboda bishop. The authors analyze the work of the Bishop Sergius from the perspective of religious-educational and missionary activity in the Vyatka diocese in the late XIX century. For the development of religious-educational activity, Bishop Sergius collaborated with the representatives of secular authorities of Vyatka province, mainly with the governor. Application of prosopographic method allows reproducing the pivotal moments in the life and work of the bishop in Vyatka province. The results of his activity led to the establishment of the Vyatka branch of the Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society and Women’s School of the Brotherhood of Vyatka of Saint Nicholas. The conclusion is made that the Vyatka and Sloboda Bishop Sergius was an active supporter of expansion of the religious-educational and missionary activity (particularly among the Old Believers of Vyatka province) and made a significant contribution to consolidation of the Vyatka diocese.
The path of the Scientist: anniversaries, milestones, an epitome
Akhatov A.T. - Garun Valeevich Yusupov: archeologist, epigraphist and ethnographer (to the 105th anniversary of his birth) pp. 243-253


Abstract: The object of this article is the life path of the prominent national archeologist, epigraphist and ethnographer Garun Valeevich Yusupov (1914-1968) viewed through the prism of his scientific research activity. Special attention is given to the period of his life in Ufa, where he worked in the Institute of History, Language and Literature of Bashkir Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences (1962-1958). The key goal of this study consists in structuring full biography of G. V. Yusupov and explore his contribution to the development of humanities via systematization of the existing sources and literature. The article uses the methods of biographical description and analysis of archival documents, which allow demonstrating the milestones of the scholar’s life and his scientific achievements. The publication leans on the documents from the Scientific Archive of Ufa Federal Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences/ The conclusion is made that Garun Valeevich Yusupov made a significant contribution to studying the problems of cultural genesis in Southern Ural during the early Iron Age, as well as into examination of ethnogenetic and ethnocultural processes unfolded in the Medieval and Modern Time in the Volga-Ural region.
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