Электронный журнал Genesis: исторические исследования - №6 за 2013 год - Содержание - список статей - ISSN: 2409-868X - Издательство NotaBene
Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue № 06/2013
Contents of Issue № 06/2013
Historical facts, events, phenomena
Levshenko M.T. - The Shroud of Turin – a Solution is Found: "Solar" Image Formation Mechanism pp. 1-24


Abstract: Discussed in the scientific literature, possible mechanisms of «image» formation on a linen cloth of the Shroud of Turin were considered. It was shown how this «image» on the cloth was formed in a natural way and how much energy did it require. Oil traces of the body imprint on the white cloth which contain particles of myrrh plant ointment and hydrophilic substances from aloe juice, which could fall on the cloth together with the oil from the liniment applied for the body when buried, under the influence of the energy of the southern solar rays, caused oxidation and dehydration of the cellulose fiber of the shroud cloth. This gave the appearance of visible effects of the «image» formation on the cloth.Experimental data of linen cloth heating, on which a handprint (oiled with the liniment) was previously applied, are shown. The results of the heating of such cloth with the light energy of xenon lamp (which is an analogue of solar rays ) have shown that the «image» of the palm consisting of vague yellowish spots without visible borders has come out. This image was caused by a slight darkening of a surface of the cloth fibers.
Factors of historical development
Nikulin V.V. - The Need for Safety. Legal Status of the All-Russian Emergency Commission, State Political Directorate and Joint State Political Directorate in the Structure of the Soviet State pp. 25-84


Abstract: The author of the article views the problem of creation and legal structuring of the All-Russian Emergency Commission in the system of the Soviet state. The author analyzes the relations between the Commission and other repressive authorities and describes serious organizational and legal contradictions between those. The author also studies the process of differentiation between competences and legal authorities of the Commission and other repressive authorities, in particular, Revolutionary Tribunals. The author also studies attempts to assign a more concrete legal status fo the Commission. By studying historical archives, the author analyzes the process of reinforcement of the structure of the Commission and establishment of the Commission subdivisions in the provinces. Noteworthy that that process was quite slow and difficult because creation of the Commission subdivisions had to 'compete' with numerious local commissions and other local emergency agencies.  The author also traces back the process of strengthening of the role of the Commission in the entire state structure against the background of developing military and political environment.  The author also views the process of re-organization of the Commission subdivisions during the New Economic Policy including restriction of competences, limitation of investigation periods and so on. 
Historical time and space
Timoshina S.A., Shpakovskii V.O. - The Role of National and Regional Periodical Editions in Provision of Information About Foreign Life to Soviet Citizens in the 1920 - 1930s pp. 85-105


Abstract: The article discusses peculiarities of the strategy of information provision and the role of national and regional periodical editions in the process of provision of information about foreign life to Soviet citizens in the 1920 - 1930s. The authors of the article give a brief review of scientific researches devoted to the relations between the Soviet mass media and governmental authorities during that period. The authors also describe the main directions of mass media activities in provision of information about foreign events. The authors describe how information about the life in Russia and abroad was presented in the 1920 - 1930s. Special emphasis is made on certain contradictions in Soviet publications and press with regard to external political processes and actual achievements of foreign science and technology. In conclusion the authors make an assumption that the system of Soviet press was fully controlled by the government and was an efficient instrument of government even despite all contraditions in the process of information provision. 
Social history
Oleinikova E.G. - Social Situation in Stalingrad During the Periods of the Great Patriotic War and Post-War Reconstruction pp. 106-124


Abstract: The article is devoted to the social history of Stalingrad during the period of the Great Patriotic War and the first decade after the War. The author of the article analyzes a number of sources: archive documents and periodical press. Many of these sources are introduced in science for the first time. The author studies the phenomenon of development of the Soviet social model, in particular, formation of a special kind of social policy based on the principles of paternalism. The new policy guaranteed the priority role of the government in realization of social interests and personal needs. The all-encompassing influence of the government covered not only the sphere of production but also the sphere of allocation and consumption of social benefits. The author describes the social activities performed by the government before and during the defence of Stalingrad including the guidance over the evacuation processes, social protecton of evacuated population and citizens and raising funds to support the national defence. The author defines and describes stages of reconstructon of the social infrastructure of Stalingrad as well as special features of the reconstructive policy. She makes conclusions about the significance of social and historical researches in the process of formation of the social welfare state in the Russian Federation.
Beliefs, religions, churches
Korolev A.A., Koroleva L.A., Mol'kin A.N. - Pentecostal Movement in the USSR. 1950 - 1980 pp. 125-131


Abstract: In article the provision of a pyatidesyatnichestvo in the USSR in the 1950-1980th is analyzed. In 1944-1945 Pentecostals were combined with baptists, but the part the pyatidesyatnicheskikh of communities refused to obey to this "project".The geography of distribution of Pentecostals in the USSR covered Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Kyrgyzstan, Georgia.Some Pentecostals followed the doctrine "nonresistance to the evil" and refused to take in hand the weapon, for what were exposed to persecutions in the USSR.From the second half of the 1960th fight for emigration becomes the main content of oppositional activity of Pentecostals. Till 1974 the Soviet management at all didn't consider the application of Pentecostals on emigration as there were no calls and visas. Pentecostals used in the fight as the main means, - appeals to the international organizations, to specific officials; besides - hunger strikes, press conferences, unauthorized penetrations into foreign embassies, attempts of illegal emigration, etc. However it should be noted that unlike baptists, activity of Pentecostals didn't meet a wide resonance in the West. The Moscow human rights activists tried to give real help to Pentecostals.In 1979 in the USSR "Council of churches of Pentecostals" was created. In 1980 the human rights group of evangelical Christians Pentecostals of RSFSR was formed.Since the end of the 1980th in the state and confessional relations there is a change. Now on the territory of Russia operate the Russian church of Christians of Evangelican Faith;  United Church of Christians of Evagelical Faith and Russian Union of Christians of Evagelical Faith. 
Arapov A.V. - External Acts of Worship in the Voronezh Region During the Khrushchev's Persecutions and Afterwards pp. 132-137


Abstract: One's religious beliefs is a very personal business. To investigate an interior not easy. But in case of Orthodoxy the task is facilitated by that in it there is a set of forms of external expression of internal religious feelings. Such sacraments and ceremonies as a baptism, communicating and burial service are obligatory for each orthodox Christian. In the 1960th - the 1980th years Representatives of Council for affairs of Russian Orthodox Church and, then, Council for affairs of religions collected data on the main religious ceremonialism in temples of the Voronezh region, special sociological researches were conducted. It is possible to find a lot of valuable information on these questions in the State archive of the Voronezh region. Unfortunately, detailed data contain only for 1960-it – 1980-its N. S. Khrushchev, as we know, carried out the aggressive antireligious company. The task of full eradication of religion and church was set. This company included both administrative measures, and massive atheistic promotion. Unfortunately, there is no opportunity to determine number of baptisms and burial services at the time of the beginning of Khruschev's board. At this time in temples of the obligatory accounting of baptisms it wasn't conducted, and representatives had no right to demand exact figures from priors and other church officials. Probably, any statistics gathered state security bodies, but to it access at the moment isn't present. Such figures as absolute burial service of the dead in three regions of area, growth in 1963-1965 of number of burial services on area for 10% and a baptism more than a half of the been born children in six areas in 1965 in itself tell about a failure of the antireligious company. At L.I. Brezhnev heat of antireligious fight significantly decreased. Atheistic promotion was conducted, but had considerably formal character. As a whole the administrative norms accepted during the previous period, however, pressure upon church structures from government bodies considerably kept the force decreased. It agrees given above given from 1965 to 1985 religiousness gradually, small rates I decreased. It is possible to assume that the main role in this process was played not by atheistic promotion, and the general secularization of the life, coming to the end transition from agrarian to the modernized society.
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