Philosophical Thought - rubric Philosophy of religion
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Rubric "Philosophy of religion"
Philosophy of religion
Urbanaeva I.S. - Buddhist approach towards the problem of a man in comparative coverage pp. 1-17


Abstract: The subject of this research is the Buddhist way of conceptualization of the human problem that is being revealed in the context of comparison with the fact, which place a “man” held within the rationalistic philosophical tradition of the West. The author examines the philosophical foundation of the Buddhist model of evolution of identity in the wheel of being (Bhavacakra) according to the formula of the twelve links of dependent origination – the most important doctrine in the Buddhist ontology of dependent origination (Pratītyasamutpāda, rten’brel) and its distinct features, as well as its connection with the other essential philosophical theory of Buddhism – theory of emptiness in interpretation of Prasaṅgika –  the subschool of Madhyamaka. The methodology of this research is based on the principles of comparative philosophical study of Buddhism, formulated by one of the founders of the philosophical Buddhology Russian philosopher and orientalist O. O. Rozenberg, as well as the hermeneutic ideas of M. Heidegger on the dialogue with the Other and the need for understanding the “sacredness of being” and the connection between the man and reality. The scientific novelty consists in the comparison of the Buddhist way of conceptualization of the problem of a man with the Western rationalistic tradition of studying a man, as well as determination of a number of specific characteristics of the Buddhist anthropology. The author concludes that unlike the Western philosophy, the anthropomorphism is not typical for the Buddhist philosophy; a man is not the criterion of all the things, and is not considered self-evident, but rather something relative in the circle of unfree being; but at the same time, it has the complete potential for achieving the freedom and realization of the limitless resources of consciousness, the possibility of which finds the substantiation in the doctrine of dependent origination, theory of emptiness, and theory of tathāgatagarbha. In understanding of the Buddhist philosophers, a human does not have its own internal nature; a human is a dependently emerged phenomenon, and thus, he can transform or rid, and the suffering comprising the content of the unfree being can be irrevocably eliminated.
Yangutov L., Orbodoeva M.V. - Translation of Buddhist texts and establishment of social principles of Buddhism in China pp. 1-7


Abstract:   This article examines the Buddhist text, which translation into Chinese language greatly affected the formation of social principles of Buddhism in China. The authors consider the impact of philosophical and soteriological contents, translated from Sanskrit into Chinese language texts of Vinaya, Abhidharma, and Prajnaparamita upon the establishment of monastic organization, as well as social adaptation of Buddhism in China. The article also demonstrated the controversy of soteriological concept of Hinayana to social values of the Chinese people based on the Confucian doctrine of filial piety. In the course of this research the following methods were used: structural-analytical, contextual, and hermeneutic. The author touch upon the questions of the impact of Prajnaparamita texts upon the emergence of popular religious doctrine that significantly expanded the social base of Buddhism in China. The article is first to explore the establishment of social principles of Buddhism in China in the context of the translations of its texts into the Chinese language.   
Smirnov I. - Is the theology of philosophy possible? Paradigms of the relationship between theology and philosophy pp. 1-17


Abstract:  The subject of this research is the relationship between theology and philosophy in sight of juxtaposition of the critical and speculative approaches. The object of this research is the theoretical concepts that reflect the paradigms of relationship between theology and philosophy within the history of thought, particularly over the period of the late XX – early XXI centuries. The author carefully examines such aspects of the topic as the typology of relationship between theology and philosophy according to S. Wszolek, correlation method in theology and philosophy in the “Systematic Theology” of P. Tillich, paradigms of relationship between theology and philosophy in the “diaspora” concept of D. Barber. Special attention is given to consideration of the concept of post-secularity and its impact upon the comprehension of relationship between theology and philosophy. The main conclusion consists in the fact that the speculative approach allows seeing the alternative to critical project through tracing the doctrinal unity of theology and philosophy. Since on one hand, the “Teos” in modern mentality can be not just the God, but also the incomprehensible, nirvana, khora, etc., thus theology can be “atheistic”, “after the death of God”, anatheism (R. Kearney); and on the other hand – the philosophical speculation of the truth and self-cognition reduces to analysis and assessment of the appropriateness of utterings, thus it is necessary to return the theology and philosophy their true source. The scientific novelty is defines in author’s proposition of the concept of the theology of philosophy as a fundamental interrogation underlying the theology and philosophy, and uniting, even through separation, the “God of religion” and the “God of philosophers”?
Nesterkin S. - Teaching on the Essence of Buddha in religious-philosophical tradition of Buddhism pp. 32-42


Abstract: This article examines the teaching on the essence of Buddha (Sanskrit – tathāgatagarbha, . de bzhin gshegs pa'i snying po) as in presented in the canonical literature of Sutra and Shastra, as well as commentator tradition of the Tibetan Buddhism. This teaching is the principal in personology of Buddhism, because through the notion of the “essence of Buddha” (tathāgatagarbha) and adjacent notions – “natural glow of mind (prakṛtiprabhāsvaratācitta)” and “naturally existing spiritual seed” (prakṛtipragotra)” is revealed the purpose of the perfecting motion, motion process towards the goal and its basis. The work is conducted based on the peer Tibetan-language sources viewed in the context of the living tradition of Central Asian Buddhism. It has been established that the essence of Buddha is considered in the literature of Sutra as a present in each person highest, absolute “Self” (ātman), different from the empirical “Self”, which Buddhism denies as the self-existent phenomenon. The key question within the Tibetan commentator tradition consisted in interpretation of the essence of Buddha as a positive being that manifests when an individual becomes disengaged from the distorting factors; or as such non-implying a positive content of negative factors.
Zhirtueva N. - Synthesis of yoga ideas in the teaching of Sri Ramana Maharshi pp. 36-43


Abstract: The subject of this research is the teaching of the Indian sage Sri Ramana Maharshi, which yet did not receive sufficient coverage in the scientific literature. It is viewed in the context of processes of modernization of India’s philosophical-religious thought of the XX century, characterized by the proneness to synthesis of the ideas of various schools of Indian thought. The analysis of the teaching is conducted in accordance with the three vectors: 1) the essence of Absolute reality; 2) correlation between the ideal and material being; 3) methods of mystical psychopractice. The research methodology contains the comparative philosophical-theological analysis; comparative-analytical analysis; synthesis, generalization, individualization, historical narrative. In the teaching of Sri Ramana Maharshi, the author determined the desire to find an answer to spiritual questions of that time through synthesizing such philosophical-religious traditions as Jnana yoga and Bhakti yoga. The teaching of Maharashi is also an immanent (non-theistic) monistic mystical tradition. The basic methods of mystical practice include the meditative contemplation (Vichara, Neti neti), and the love-trust to the Absolute (Bhakti).
Yangutov L. - On Sinicization of the philosophical and soteriological aspects of Buddhism pp. 38-43


Abstract: This article examines the problems of the transformation of Buddhism in China in the context of its proliferation across the country. The goal of this work lies in the analysis of interaction and mutual influence of two cultures – Indo-Buddhist and Chinese, resulting in Sinicization of Buddhism that defined a transformational stage of the development pf philosophy and soteriology of Buddhism in the Far East. The author analyzes the differences in the Chinese principles founded on Confucianism, religious and social orientations, as well as Indo-Buddhist suggesting the new to the Chinese mentality idea of salvation. There are also shared moments in the philosophical and worldview positions of the Chinese, namely Taoist, Indo-Buddhist philosophy, which consist not in the similarities of separate episodes of the two philosophies, but their ways of thinking that determine the worldview orientations. The article demonstrates that the similarity of Indo-Buddhist and Chinese mindsets allayed Buddhism integration into the Chinese sociocultural environment; and the new, brought by Buddhism to China, justified the need of its adjustment to the Chinese sociocultural and religious environment. This substantiated Sinicization of Buddhism, which became a logical outcome of interaction and mutual influence of the two richest civilizations.
Jawish O. - St. Augustines doctrine on faith and reason: content and evolvement pp. 44-49


Abstract: This article examines the problem of correlation between faith and reason in the philosophy of St. Augustine. The author describes the concepts of faith and reason at the various stages of evolution the philosopher’s views; as well as determines the meaning of dialogue, reason and faith for the spiritual evolution of St. Augustine. The scientific novelty reflects that the synthesis of faith and reason has a split-level character: the interaction between faith and reason takes place at the basic, median and theoretical levels. The main conclusion lies in revelation of the role of philosophical dialogues in formation of the more complex forms of synthesis of faith and reason, standing on the basic forms of faith-reason relationship in St. Augustine’s doctrine. It is determined that the dialogueness of his mentality will find reflection in his address to God. The research methodology includes the systemic-historical method, principle of synthetic unity of faith and reason, as well as the idea of dialogueness of philosophy.
Korobkova Y.E. - The Idea of 'Bogocheloveshestvo' in Russian Religious Anthropology of the First Quarter of the XXth Century pp. 55-78


Abstract: Object of research in article is justification in the Russian philosophy of the first quarter of the XX century of the idea of "bogochelovechestvo" apprehended from orthodox metaphysics. As an object of research the Russian religious philosophy of the first half of the XX century acts. The problem of the person in the Russian religious philosophy is considered with a support on tradition of east patristika and orthodox metaphysics. The sense of existence of the person and the world consists in "obozheniya" (teozisa), i.e. connection good luck. "Obozheniye" of the person and the world is understood as the two-uniform process assuming the movement of God to the person and the person to God - uniform Bogo-chelovechesky process. The belief in God is inseparable from belief in the person here, and the belief in the person assumes belief in God. It is a maxim of the Russian religious anthropology and makes an idea of "Bogochelovechestvo". The research methods used by the author of the article include analytical and comparative methods. The main conclusions of the author are that the idea of a bogochelovechnost approved by the Russian anthropological thought includes three main issues: first, a divine origin and bogopodoby the person, expressed in his spirituality and freedom; and to carry out the original nature – godlike, it can only in the attitude towards God – out of God and without God of people doesn't exist; secondly, its divine mission – an obozheniye, connection good luck which is possible only in Church (The Christ's body uniting Divine and human the nature, Jesus Christ – Bogochelovek); thirdly, – about two-uniform Bogo-chelovechesky process – the movement from the person to God and from God to the person, the birth of the person in God and God in the person. This "counter" movement assumes not only action of good fortune of God, but also creative activity of the person, possible only thanks to his bogo-humanity – a bogopodobiya. In the western anthropological religious thought (Catholic and Protestant) ideas about godlike human nature doesn't reveal as in orthodox metaphysics and after it in the Russian religious philosophy. The novelty of article is that the system analysis of basic provisions of idea of Bogochelovechestvo as the general idea for the Russian religious philosophy and orthodox metaphysics is offered.
Efimova L.N., Shekhireva N.A. - Philosophical-religious parable The Great Divorce The Idea of Salvation as a centerpiece of C. S. Lewis poetics pp. 56-62


Abstract: The subject of this research is the philosophical and religious-ethical views of the British writer, poet, mentor, scholar, and theological Clive Staples Lewis. The article examines the genre of philosophical-religious parable, analyzing the novel by C. S. Lewis “The Great Divorce”. Special attention is given to the parabolic beginning substantiate by chronotope of the composition “The Great Divorce”. It is worth noting that likewise any other parable, the author juxtaposes the spiritual time and biographical, actual time, wherein the first dominates over the latter. The conclusion is made that ethical position of C. S. Lewis consists in salvation through repentance, appeal to God, overcoming of own sinfulness; while the problem of human-world relationship is solved through the prism of Biblical representations about the role of each one of us in this world, as well as such freedom of choice that was granted by God to each human being. The scientific novelty lies in determination of multiple genre specificity of this oeuvre (parable, allegory, tale), which proves the extensiveness of the religious-aesthetic and literary-artistic views of C. S. Lewis.
Zhirtueva N. - The problem of integrity and unity of being in philosophical and mystical traditions of the world pp. 57-67


Abstract: The problem of integrity has always been one of the most relevant for the philosophical thought. It has multiple dimensions – ontological, gnoseological, social, and others. The subject of this research is the diversity of methods for solving the problems of unity and integrity of being in philosophical and mystical teachings, which in this article are divided in two types – immanent and transcendent-immanent. The common for both is the orientation towards the overcoming of subjective-objective attitude towards the world. Experiencing unity with the world, human gradually dispenses of contradictions and restores the integrity of personality. Based on the conducted research, the author comes to a conclusion that the immanent mysticism suggests several ways of achieving the goal: acknowledgement of coessentiality of the ideal and material; annihilation of representations on duality of ideal and material; and recognizing material as false reality. The transcendent-immanent mysticism does not eliminate the differences between the Creator and a creature, does not make them coessential or connatural. What happens is the integration of elements into a coherent whole, in which the elements preserve their individuality. The main method for achieving the global unity is love that overcomes both, the external and internal split. Human combines in himself combine creation and non-creation, and within the global scale, takes place the reunion of the entire humanity.
Urbanaeva I.S. - Comparativist experience of development of the philosophical methodology of the study of Buddhism pp. 58-74


Abstract:  The subject of this research is the comparativist experience of establishment of the philosophical approach towards examination of Buddhism within the framework of academic Buddhology and comparative philosophy. Special attention is given to the establishment of the philosophical methodology of the study of Budhism due to self-identification of the topic of comparative philosophy in broad and narrow sense, as well as analysis of the contribution of F. I. Scherbatsky and O. O. Rozenberg into substantiation of the philosophical Buddhology, reframing of the essence of theoretical-methodological principles of Rozenberg and the importance of his philosophical approach for understanding of the unity in multiplicity of Buddhism along with articulation of the problem of authentic Buddhism. Due to the strong influence of the works of F. I Scherbatsky, who took the Buddhist philosophy out the boundaries of Orientalism into the area of legitimate philosophy, and turned it into the discipline of historical-philosophical science, the greatest development in Russia and abroad received the comparative historical-philosophical research of the Buddhist and Western philosophy, aimed at the search of parallelisms between the specific doctrines. The philosophical methodology of the study of Buddhism in its establishment was tightly linked to the formation of the discipline of comparative philosophy in its broad and narrow sense – as the global trend of synthesis of the Eastern and Western philosophies, as well as the cross-cultural historical-philosophical research. The author concludes that the approach of O. O. Rozenberg corresponds with the Buddhological tradition formed by the Buryat scholars of Buddhism, which consists in complementing the academic opportunities by the resources of Buddhist wisdom in examination of Buddhism. Not just the knowledge of the original Buddhist texts and classical Hindu commentary literature, but also the reliance upon “living” tradition is necessary for establishment of the specific scientific methodology in the modern Buddhology.  
Urbanaeva I.S. - The Buddhist ontology of gradual and sudden from the perspective of Mahayana: comparative coverage of Indo-Tibetan and Chinese traditions pp. 62-78


Abstract: The subject of this research is the Mahayana, which as commonly knows, was being transmitted in two directions: Tibet and Mongolian world (Mongolia, Buryatia, Kalmykia, Tuva), and Eastern Asia (China, Korea, Japan). Comparison of the two directions of Mahayana with regard to traditions lead to the question: why the mainstream of Indo-Tibetan Mahayana manifests as a “gradual” path to enlightenment, while the mainstream of Chinese / Far Eastern Mahayana as a “sudden” path; which one most vividly reflects Chan/Zen? For answering this question, the author analyzes the differences between Indo-Tibetan and Chinese traditions in terms of interpreting the Buddhist ontology. The scientific novelty consists in the subject itself – the ontological differences between the two directions of Mahayana that manifest in the alternative ways of conceptualization of the Path (gradual and sudden path to enlightenment), as well as in the method of philosophical cross-cultural analysis applied to the philosophical comparison of the two directions of Mahayana. A conclusion is made that the methods and content of philosophical interpretations of the basic Buddhist doctrines and substantiation of the path in Indo-Tibetan and Chinese Madhyamaka have significant differences, which require the further detailed analysis.
Zhirtueva N. - Diversity of Mystic Love in World Religious Traditions pp. 77-111


Abstract: This article studies love as a method of mystic psychopractice. Thematic justification of mystic experience is caused by recessionary events in contemporary culture. Love is discussed as one of essential conditions of a human psychic life transformation as a passage from overcoming egocentric consciousness to enlightened. There are definite differences in understanding of love essence in different mystic traditions of the East and the West. Special aspects of formation of varied traditions depend on the solution of the two questions: 1. Essence of absolute reality. 2. Correlation of the material origin and spirituality in mystic practice.Methodology of the study: comparative philosophical and religious analysis. The main method of the study: comparative analysis. General scientific methods: analysis, synthesis, generalization, individualization.The following conclusions are drawn as a result of the undertaken study. Love contributes to transformation of adept's consciousness and is a meditative contemplation of the Absolute in immanent mystic. There are the following variants of understanding the essence of love. 1. Love to true “Self” of a person, i.e. the immanent Absolute. 2. Absolute dedication and devotion to the Absolute. 3. Sympathy, loving kindness and contribution in enlightenment. 4. Sexual psychopractice that helps a man and a woman to reach enlightenment together. In transcendent immanent traditions love contributes to transformation of imperfect personality after the image and likeness of perfect God. Connectition is supposed to be between the carnal and the divine, male and female, but each of them saves their essence without dissolving in each other. Love gradually transforms into pray. Erotic love is one of the ways to form an integral person.
Skorodumov D.A. - Radical theology and deconstruction: between finiteness and ineffable. pp. 86-92


Abstract: The subject of the study is the way of assimilation by the radical theological thought of traditional religion. Various theological concepts, born with the help of deconstructionist methodology, are considered. The question is whether religious ideas can be adequately expressed in the language of deconstruction. The study is based on the materials of the works of J. Derrida, J. Caputo, M. C. Taylor. The methodology of the research is phenomenology, which allows us to talk about theological abstractions, refraining from the question of the existence of their subjects. The main conclusion of the study is the incompatibility of traditional religion and the language of deconstruction, as it is used by J. Caputo and M. Taylor, for deconstruction itself is a myth, it becomes a religion that displaces the religion that they want to express in language. Deconstruction proves to be incapable of expressing the definiteness of religion, its concrete historical form, since it sees in this the reaction and conservatism from which it tries to escape; but functioning in such way, it risks to obtain the features of reactionism and repressiveness, whit it argues against.
Faritov V.T. - God and Christianity in the philosophy of G. W. F. Hegel and F. Nietzsche: experience of the comparative study pp. 105-134


Abstract: The subject of study of the proposed article is a philosophy of religion G. W. F. Hegel and F. Nietzsche in the aspect of comparative analysis. The basic material of research are the "Lectures on the philosophy of religion" G.V.F. Hegel and "Antichrist" Friedrich Nietzsche. The author considers the problem of God, Christianity and atheism in the philosophies of the two German thinkers. The article identified both common and differing points in the positions of philosophers on the religious worldview. The article uses the methods of comparative philosophy, germnevtiki and deconstruction, methods of ontological and historical philosophical studies. The main conclusion of the research is the thesis of the existence of common trends in the G.V.F. Hegel and Nietzsche approach to the basic problems of the philosophy of religion. The novelty of the research lies in the explication of the ontological aspects of philosophical understanding of religion in the teachings of philosophers. What is new is the position of the transgression as a dominant ontological perspective ontological doctrines of Hegel and Nietzsche.
Mishurin A.N. - Jerusalem and Athens. Some introductory remarks pp. 107-128


Abstract: This article of Leo Strauss – Professor at the University of Chicago that summarizes two lectures read by him in 1966, is dedicated to the initial description of the problem of the relation between mind and faith within the questions of social and political life, which is also known as the problem of “Athens and Jerusalem”. The subject field of this work consists in the two cultural heritages, represented in the works of Greek poets and philosophers on one hand, and Biblical traditions, particularly, Torah – on the other. Strauss attempts to elucidate the picture of the world – the beginning of world – in perception of the prophets and philosophers. For achieving the set goal, he used the historical critical and hermeneutic methods, discussing the creation of the world describe in the Bible, and origination of the world and gods presented in the Greek sources. The scientific novelty of this work consist in sequential application of the revised by Strauss hermeneutic method of “attentive reading”. The main conclusion lies in the idea of incompatibility of Athens and Jerusalem, in other words, the necessity to choose a single way of explanation of the world, and this, only one way towards resolution of the issues of social and political life.
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