Philosophical Thought - rubric The history of humanitarian science
Philosophical Thought
Journal Menu
> Issues > Rubrics > About journal > Authors > About the journal > Requirements for publication > Editorial collegium > Peer-review process > Policy of publication. Aims & Scope. > Article retraction > Ethics > Online First Pre-Publication > Copyright & Licensing Policy > Digital archiving policy > Open Access Policy > Article Processing Charge > Article Identification Policy > Plagiarism check policy > Editorial board
Journals in science databases
About the Journal

MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Rubric "The history of humanitarian science"
The history of humanitarian science
Khadyev D.V. - Humanism and religion in the works of Johann Gottfried Herder pp. 1-8


Abstract: This article examines the concept of humanism of the German philosopher-enlightener J. G. Herder in the context of his philosophy of religion. The doctrine of this thinker presents interest as an important stage in the history of European freethought. Herder, being in the epicenter of German Enlightenments and actively participating in literary life of the country, has laid the foundation for the subsequent flourishing of the German thought. It significantly affected the establishment of liberal theology and distribution of the pantheistic ideas in Germany. Primarily on the materials of the mature works of Herder, particularly his fundamental composition “Outlines of a Philosophy of the History of Man”, the author attempted to identify the specific features of humanism of the German philosopher and refer him to a certain historical-philosophical type. The author concludes that Herder considered religion a product of anthropogenesis, i.e. the emergence and evolution of religion was viewed by him from the materialistic perspective. Supranaturalism is practically excluded. This point of the teaching puts the philosopher in well-known opposition to the Orthodox Christian doctrine. Freethought with regards to religion, however, does not make Herder an ardent anti-clerical and atheist. He finds in religion multiple positive aspects, as well as claims that the religious contemplation of the world is primary, and human culture takes its roots namely in religion. Although Herder’s teaching is not free from the religions elements as a whole, he defends human dignity, his right to happiness in earthly life, and therefore, his views can be characterize as the secular humanism.
Kryuchkova S., Kryuchkova E.V. - The Art of Argumentation in Ancient China pp. 1-18



Abstract: The subject of the study is the ideological heritage of ancient Chinese thinkers, one way or another related to the theoretical understanding of the practice of public debate. The process of institutionalization of the dispute in Ancient China is considered in detail, it is substantiated that its prerequisite was the existence of a specific argumentative discourse in the form of the so-called "beliefs" - teachings, edifying speeches of advisers to their rulers. Arguments against the occurring identification of "beliefs" with real public disputes that were widespread during the Zhangguo period - the "Rivalry of a Hundred Schools" are considered. It is shown that a number of ideas developed during this period will subsequently acquire a normative status and become the hallmark of the Chinese dispute. During the consideration of various types of disputes, techniques specific to the Chinese type of argumentation were identified: the method of associations, references to precedents, the use of the last word; the role of examples as the basis of inductive reasoning is shown. Based on the consideration of the Confucian concept of "correction of names" and the Mohist doctrine of the correct use of language, it is shown that the socio-political context and practical considerations played a decisive role in the theoretical understanding of the art of argumentation. The productive methodological ideas of the ancient Chinese "Dispute Program" are revealed. The role of analogy and examples as topoi of the ancient Indian dispute is shown. The theory of reasoning and the theory of dispute of the late Mohists are analyzed, the conclusion is substantiated that the principles of justification and persuasion, as well as the rules for conducting a dispute contained in them, are applied logic, the normativity of which allows us to consider it as the first theory of argumentation.
Emel'yanov A.S. - On humanistic interpretation of Marx: Communism or narcissism? pp. 33-51


Abstract: This article analyzes two most widespread approaches towards interpretation of the humanistic content of Marx’s doctrine, which have developed within the framework of Western Marxism in the 19550s – 1970s. The first approach – Marxist humanism – describes humanism as the “initial” form of Marx's doctrine of the early period. The second approach – theoretical antihumanism – views the concept of “humanism” as ideological, unscientific and incompatible with Marxism. The analysis of modern Russian and foreign bibliographies indicates the existing ambiguity in assessment of both, Western Marxism and humanistic content of the original ideas of Marx, which defines relevance of this research. The novelty lies in the proposal to view Marxist humanism and theoretical antihumanism in conjunction with the historical establishment of Marx's theory, rather than in contraposition to each other. The author suggest to forgo the interpretation of Marx’s ideas from the perspective of humanism or antihumanism. Such interpretation not only idealizes and mystifies the content of his works, but also creates a prerequisite for narcissistic view of the surrounding material objects and nature. The latter thought is reflected in undertaken at the margin of “Capital” Marx's criticism of the commodity fetishism as one of the central elements of the capitalist manner of production.
Emel'yanov A.S. - Marxist Humanism in the USSR: the Creative Development of Marxism-Leninism or reaction? pp. 34-45


Abstract: The article analyzes the features of the formation of Marxist humanism in the Soviet Marxist-Leninist philosophy of the 50s and 60s. The prerequisites for the emergence of Marxist humanism in the USSR, in addition to the material of the "Manuscripts of 1844", should include the widespread spread of social democratic revisionism among representatives of Soviet social science thought. The article pays special attention to the influence of foreign tradition on the content and problems of domestic Marxist humanism (in particular, the French Communist Party and such theorists as R. Garodi and L. Sav). In addition, the study analyzes the conceptual positions of Soviet philosophers regarding the nature of humanism during the period of socialist construction (M. Petrosyan, P. Fedoseeva, G. Smirnova, I. Frolova). In particular, the issues of the correlation of socialist and bourgeois humanism, the correlation of personal and social under the socialist system, the concept of "comprehensive personality development" under communism, discussions about Marxist anthropology are considered.   At the same time, it is emphasized that the solution of these (and some other) issues proposed within the framework of domestic Marxist humanism was idealistic and divorced from the real practice of socialist construction. In conclusion, the article concludes that Marxist humanism in the Soviet Union was not a creative development of the provisions of Marxist-Leninist philosophy, but was, for the most part, a reworked social-democratic and neo-Marxist revisionism. In our opinion, this conceptual and categorical "sabotage" led to the theoretical and ideological substitution of Marx's provisions instead of their development, which became one of the reasons for the "decomposition" of the party and its loss of the status of the "leading force of the proletariat" in the USSR.
Leontyev G.D. - Retrospective of the utopic discourse pp. 61-76


Abstract:   This article reviews a number of utopic socio-philosophical constructs within the historical retrospective. Using the example of Thomas More’s “Utopia”, an attempt is made to differentiate the perception of the ideal structures during various historical eras, as well as explain the objective reason of ambiguity of their purposeful impact. Based on analysis of the political and economic substantiation of the acceptance or rejection by society of the philosophical utopic ideas for improving the government structure alongside the differences in conceptual interpretation of utopic as the ideal, the author reveals the theoretical ambiguity of fundamental notion of the “utopic”. The historical insight has demonstrated the social determinedness of dual understanding of the “utopic”’: as a positive “utopic”, strategically relevant project, as well as negative “utopist”, inapplicable for realization of the social thought process. Thus, it can be claimed that not every ideal is “utopic”, while the “utopic” is always understood as he ideal model emerged for the criticism of actual reality. The conclusion is made that utopia as the ideal or alternative to the existing project of the future, is able to develop the actual social being, introducing the meaningful ideas of the world structure, as well as manifests a drastic factor of its destruction in search of the transcendental ideal.  
Petrov V. - Problem of classification of the professional philosophers: elitological model pp. 67-76


Abstract: Currently, philosophy is experiencing a problem of classification of the professional philosophers according to certain criteria – conceptual and methodological (V. Tatarkevich, V. N. Sagatovsky), as well as by the degree of the scale of their works and historical impact (K. Jaspers, R. Collins).  This approach of classification could be called “elitological”, in the foundation of which lies recognition of justice and objectiveness of the principle of social and professional inequality. Due to the fact that the creative work of philosophers is distinguished by the depth, scale, and impact, thus in the author’s opinion, a question of the internal hierarchy and its criteria among the professional philosophers themselves, remains legitimate and relevant. Such models, as presented in the article, to a certain extent classify and range the professional philosophers by creating a peculiar hierarchy that is based on the subjective historico-philosophical evaluation of their “supremacy” and achievements. However, there are very few models of such classification because of its excessive subjectivity, therefore the author proposes a possible elitological model for classification of the professional philosophers, which can be divided into five categories (groups) – “A”, “B”, “C”, “D”, and “E”. This model is founded on the contemporary specificity of the philosophical activity and ranges the philosophers by: the most accomplished, original, and systemic (group “A”); the philosophers of the second echelon, the less original and demanded (“B”); the philosophers of the university elites (“D”); and the mass group of the narrow-oriented philosophers-experts (“E”). The article also analyzes the further prospects of discussion and implementation of the professional ranging among the professional philosophers.
Soloviev R.S. - Aristotle's Early Treatises as a Clue to Interpreting of Platos Euthyphro pp. 68-83



Abstract: In this article, the author seeks to reconsider the chronology of the dialogue Euthyphro, which is usually considered to be Plato's earliest dialogue. Having shown the incongruity of the traditional early dating, the author, proceeding from the idea of the genre evolution of Plato's work, places the dialogue among the school ones, written against the background of the composition of Plato's Laws. In order to corroborate the thesis, the author refers to the early works of Aristotle, who had a significant role in Plato's Academy. On the basis of the Topics and Sophistic Refutations it is shown how Aristotle reflected in his works the realities of school disputations, as well as work on certain problems reflected in the Laws and elaborated in school dialogues. The author substantiates the thesis that Aristotle's Topics and Sophistic Refutations reflect not the previous disputes of sophists, but the state of sophistic schools, contemporary to Aristotle. Taking into account the focus of Aristotle's early works on his and Plato's opponents, the Megarics, the author suggests that the aporetic character of school dialogues is a reflection of the Megarics' eristics. The direct parallels with the early works of Aristotle permit us to see in the dialogue Euthyphro an example of academic discussion of a certain theme of the Laws the relationship between justice and piety, the author of which was one of the members of the Academy, who was inspired by Plato's Theaetetus and in some respects was in disagreement with his teacher.
Goncharov V.V. - The place of man in the system of ontological principles of global constitutionalism pp. 86-100


Abstract: This article is devoted to the study of man's place in the system of philosophical principles of social concept of global constitutionalism. The author substantiates the position that the main goal of the social concept of global constitutionalism is the preservation and development of the world capitalist system (financial-economic basis and the socio-political superstructure).The role of man in this concept, interests and needs, great as in any other power of the social concept.However, this social concept is ultimately inhumane, and directed against the progressive sustainable development of mankind.The author used a number of methods: epistemological; ontology; formal logic; dialectic; statistical; comparative legal; abstract-idealistic; specifically historical. The entire logic of development of the world capitalist system is subjected to the satisfaction of the interests and needs of those social classes, groups and strata of the population, which belongs to power and property in a particular historical time period. Thus, on the one hand, global constitutionalism is aimed egocentrically - to meet the interests and needs of a person. But on the other hand, it protects the interests not only of society, but a narrow group of people who hold power and property. In this case, the interests of the majority are being ignored for the purpose of execution of the main goal of global constitutionalism.
Krasikov V.I. - World and human in the concepts of ontological personalism: Wilhelm Leibniz and Max Scheler pp. 99-108


Abstract: The goal of this work consists in the comparative analysis of the world-building schemes of ontological personalism of Wilhelm Leibniz and Max Scheler. The author thoroughly examines the conceptual scheme of world structure of Leibinz, underlining certain modifications that later were introduced by his successors. Particular attention is given to the analysis of Scheler’s original teaching, in which there character of interaction between the main ontological factors is changed. Thus, the author pursues correlation between the models of human behavior in the world of Leibniz and Scheler that differ, although their ontological models are similar. This difference is explained by the change in sociocultural continuum, in which takes place the search of the meaning of life. Personalistic understanding of the reality and corresponding forms of human self-determination in it, perhaps most appropriately reflect the necessary-universal essence of metaphysics. The author compares the ontological schemes of personalism of Leibinz and Scheler by reviewing the modification options of their key components. The connection is established between the ontological suggestions and deriving from them forms of human self-determination. It is demonstrated that the similar world-building schemes can lead to different worldview conclusions due to the radical sociocultural changes.
Krasikov V.I. - Philosophy in the post-Soviet Russia: Marxist groups pp. 101-113


Abstract: The object of this research is the history of Russian philosophy of the post-Soviet period. While the subject is the dynamics of changes of the public attitude towards Marxist ideology and philosophy, as well as assessment and reconsideration of their main theoretical positions within the Russian philosophical community. The author thoroughly examines such aspects of the topic as periodization of the essential changes of public and professional-philosophical interest towards Marxism in the post-Soviet Russia; succession and revision with regards to the Soviet Marxism; determination of the main actors in the modern communicative space of the “Marxist discourse”. Methodology of the research is based on the approach, according to which the network structure of the relations between intellectuals defines the general space of intellectual attention, structured upon several competitive positions. The main results of the conducted research are the following: Periodization of evolution of the public attitude towards Marxism, and dynamics of reframing of its main theoretical positions within the Russian professional philosophical community; Classification and description of peculiarities of the contemporary Marxist groups in modern Russia, their theoretical platforms, and determination of the level of their public influence.
Dlugach T.B. - Voltaire vs Rousseau pp. 103-123


Abstract: The author pursues correlation between the views of the two prominent representatives of French Age of Enlightenment  of Voltaire and Rousseau regarding all directions of their versatile efforts, as well as determines their equal importance for the European culture. Protection of interests of the entire Third Estate and all nation of Rousseau in some aspects concedes, and in some supersedes Voltaire’s idea of increasing the amount of highly educated people, because it is mostly aimed at establishment of class of the workers that are in demand in modern time. The requirements for realization of the democratic reforms of Rousseau overweighs the orientation towards the enlightened absolutism of Voltaire, but is ahead of its time; protection of sciences and arts of Voltaire is rather equivalent to the Rousseau’s absolutization of morality. The author concludes that the ironic fine humor of Voltaire cannot be placed higher or lower that the deep pathetic reasoning of Rousseau; and religious optimism of Rousseau does not affect the skeptical optimism of Voltaire. Both thinkers are so unlike, but equally important to France and Europe.
Shchuplenkov N.O. - Traditional Values and Russian Liberailsm in G. Fedotov's Creative Work pp. 149-199


Abstract: In article creativity of the famous Russian scientist G. P. Fedotov is analyzed. Religious vision of history by G. P. Fedotov was defined by the wide horizon of comprehensive culture as which part the real church acted, and the Christianity clothed in cultural style of an era. Therefore its formula said: "From the world — in Church, from Church — to the world". The church was understood by it, first of all, as the Christ's mystical Body in which everyone has to act as a sorabotnik Bozhiim. Thereby the personality allocated with a free will was put in the forefront. History as process lost the purpose because the last isn't given, and is set to everyone. But the unity of a task for all gave it universal character and was a basis for "common cause", so and for generality. G. P. Fedotov's view of history was tragic. According to laws of a genre of the tragedy the death of the hero caused by the inevitable conflict, fight against the evil in itself or in world around led to clarification. A form of such clarification was the repentance. Thereby the tragic element of history opened in its knowledge acted as a courage educational tool because without it it is impossible to look fool in the face to death.Relying on set of historical and cultural methods and receptions, the author of article put emphasis on identification and disclosure of historical and cultural aspects of publications of the scientist. In particular, in article use of interdisciplinary methods of research in methodological system of Fedotov is analyzed, the concept of historical and cultural dynamics of the Russian society and prospects of its democratic transformation are considered.At difficult synthetic character of its doctrine, G. P. Fedotov as the political thinker on set of his ideas treats rather the conservative direction of political thought as rejects any manifestations of the radicalism and daydreaming based on the abstract principles, and in creation of the political and philosophical concept relies on the principles of realistic policy, traditional Christian ideals and deep respect for historical experience. Its conservatism thus can be defined as "liberal" as in its concept, along with values of Christian traditions and public solidarity, protection of the rights and personal freedoms has the extreme importance.
Spiridonova Y.V. - Genesis of the International Protection of Cultural Heritage in the 1930's pp. 184-209
Abstract: The 1930's had laid the foundation for the international protection of cultural heritage based on which the future UNESCO activity was built. The attempt to find a comprehensive solution of problems in this sphere became the main feature of that period. The present article is devoted to analysis of the principal initiatives of the International Committee of Museums presented in the form of conferences, charters and international agreements as well as unrealized projects of international conventions in the field of cultural heritage preservation. Preconditions of formation of the international system of protection of monuments are traced from the middle of the XIX century.
Other our sites:
Official Website of NOTA BENE / Aurora Group s.r.o.