Philosophical Thought - rubric Philosophy of knowledge
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Rubric "Philosophy of knowledge"
Philosophy of knowledge
Pris F. - The Problem of Access in the Theory of Epistemological Disjunctivism pp. 1-25


Abstract: The solution of the problem of access to theories of an epistemological disjunctivism proposed by Duncan Pritchard who claims is stated and analyzed that in paradigmatic cases of perception the agent knows that p, owing to the rational bases for his opinion that p which are at the same time available reflections and factual, that is with need attract existence of the fact, p. The problem of access consists that acquisition of knowledge about belonging to the outside world (that is empirical) the fact by means of only one reflection (that is a priori) is impossible. This problem, however, in the theory of an epistemological disjunctivism is illusory. It is offered to treat an epistemological problem (any, and not just perceptual) knowledge in close connection with a problem of an explanatory failure in consciousness philosophy which in turn can be treated in terms of a Wittgenstein problem of following to the rule. In case of knowledge "failure" between the rational bases for opinion and the fact (knowledge) is closed pragmatically, or phenomenologically in a broad sense. In this sense any knowledge, and not just knowledge perceptual, has phenomenological measurement. Classical definition of knowledge as reasonable true opinion remains provided that justification assumes the rootedness in the fact, that is is justification original (full). The knowledge can also be defined as "successful opinion".
Belyaev V.A. - The philosophy of K. Popper and the world postcultural revolution pp. 1-97


Abstract: The aim of this paper is to show the connection between the principles of philosophical positions, K. Popper and the fundamental principles of modern European culture - modern. Art Nouveau can be represented as the deployment of the world postculture-cultural revolution. In this sense, the philosophy of Popper is considered to be one of the clearest expressions of the ideology of the revolution, especially in its postcultural aspect. Modern postcultural aspect can be thought of as the implementation of three basic designs: the "open society", the open nature" and "open theory of knowledge". Popper is in the twentieth century as one of the radical ideologues "open society" and positivist understand science. This gives you the opportunity to show how his philosophy implemented these projects. Postculture-intercultural interpretation of art Nouveau gives the opportunity to see a fundamental connection between the ideologist of the "open society" and ideologist of the "open nature", that is, between "liberal" and "scientists". The philosophical position of Popper demonstrates this connection is especially bright. Popper Evangelist and "open society" and positivist understand the science that interweaves the strategy of "open nature" and "open theory of knowledge". Popper opposes the power of the "conceptual frameworks" cultures over individualistically understand man, "objective reality" and "objective truth". In this you can see the reflection of the overall logic of the "critique of culture", which expresses postculture-cultural logic of modernity. Popper is a supporter of the "epistemology without a knowing subject". It expresses the modern logic of the movement to "objective reality", located on the other side of "God" and "man". Work is being completed by the analysis of philosophical positions And. of Lakatos, who considers himself to developing epistemological logic of Popper. It appears dialectical scheme infinite "opening" of the world, which expresses the dialectic Mature art Nouveau detecting the inability for a man to abandon aspirations to "closed".
Pris F. - Instinctive Knowledge Without Reflective Knowledge and Vice Versa pp. 1-31


Abstract: The subject of the present research is the concept of knowledge and, in particular, the case described by Timothy Williams when a subject knows  p in spite of the fact that the available evidence states he doesn't know p. The author of the article interprets this case from the point of view of the difference between instinctive knowledge and reflexive/introspective (and, in particular, phenomenal) knowledge. The author uses a classical definition of knowledge as a justified true belief. The author assumes existence of special causal and standard process of formation of the reflexive knowledge establishing the relation of family similarity between more or less reflexive types knowledge. The main conclusion of the conducted research includes possibility of existence of deeply instinctive knowledge treats without the corresponding reflexive knowledge and vice versa. The author also believes that any knowledge finally has the phenomenal (in a broad sense) nature that allows to close epistemological "failure" between reasonable opinion and knowledge. The author interprets Gettier cases as the cases of true beliefs with incomplete justification.
Mikhailov I.A. - The idea of hermeneutic phenomenology pp. 1-15


Abstract: The subject of this research is the causes of “convergence” of the modern methods of philosophical analysis, which in classical phenomenology (Husserl) were considered incompatible, but turned into a stable program in the works of Husserl’s followers (Heidegger, Ricœur). In the first part of the article the author distinguishes the major milestones in the development of the theory of explanation and interpretation that led hermeneutics from texts to interpretation of human being. By clarifying the ontological meaning in Heidegger's philosophy, the author, basing on the general orientations of phenomenology, demonstrates what caused the necessity to combine the phenomenological and hermeneutic methods. The following conclusions are made: In the works of Heidegger and Ricœur the definition of “hermeneutic phenomenology” has two clearly distinct meanings: a) method used for formation of the foundations of scientific knowledge; this method radicalizes the notion of prerequisitness of science by turning to human existence which already contains an explanation, “clarity” of the world (Heidegger); b) method that our cognition of the world has its prerequisites and historicity, as well as language substantiation (Ricœur). It is determined that these two methods also have several significant differences: precisely the “method” is the hermeneutic phenomenology of Heidegger; every step of philosophical study is simultaneously phenomenological and hermeneutical. Ricœur, under his hermeneutic phenomenology, means a rather general philosophical approach, which alternatively applies phenomenological and hermeneutical methodology, as well as allows structuralistic and psychoanalytical techniques, or analysis from the position of common language.
Filatova M.I. - Category of potential infinity: new outlook upon the problem of correlation between philosophy, theology and science pp. 1-35


Abstract: The subject of this research is the partial appearance of the potential infinite: in constructive realism – the ontological aspect, in Zeno’s aporias – the logical aspect. Self-insufficiency of each aspect suggests the need for comprehensive approach. In the ontology of constructive realism, the representation on the potentially infinite reality is “prior” to the possibility of its conceptualization. First steps made for the purpose of replenishing the inferiority of such ontology, lead to the aporias of Zeno of Elea, which clarify many of the unsolvable for the constructive realism itself issues. However, Zeno’s reasoning remains problematic. Answering some questions, it leads to the more complicated ones. The article uses the methods of interpretation, as well as critical analysis of ontological and logical aspects of the category of potential infinity. This publication is first to demonstrate that Zeno’s reasoning find justification in admitting that he comes to the concept of new reality. In turn, the problem of new reality has already been discovered in the onto-theological doctrine of Gregory Palamas in the unity of three components: 1) experience of transformation of the “old” nature; 2) revelation; 3) theoretical justification of the possibility of experience based on the explicit knowledge. The conclusion is made that such paradigm is universal. The problem of potential infinity is an exception. The ontological and logical aspects of this problem correspond with its first and last component. At the same time, due to the absence of correspondence with the second component, the problem of potential infinity remains pretty unsolvable. But it is open to contemplation on the path of its recognition as an exception to the paradigm of Palamas' and consideration in such context.
Shimelfenig O.V. - Problem of quasi-boundaries in the Universe and its projection upon life pp. 1-13


Abstract: Modern science and culture reappraises the objectivistic-materialistic paradigm towards considering human and psychological factors in the worldview, which also leads to problematization of the concept of boundaries of the objects and phenomena in the Universe. Methodological tool for this research became the narrative-play paradigm based on the universal categories of plot, scenario, likeness, two-dimensionality and game, which generalizes the systemic approach, liberating it from a dangerous tendency towards objectivism and one-sided materialism; reveals the latent process of formation of shared life through interaction of individual perceptions, sensations, thoughts and actions. Leaning on the narrative-play methodology and polemics with the opponents, the author examines the concept of quasi-boundary (as there could be no absolute boundaries in the totally interconnected Universe), which determines the forms of material structures, as well as contradictory boundaries that appear to be the subject of various conflicts. Such approach expands the creative abilities of a person, contributing to the development of activity programs in various spheres of life: education, resolution of ethno-confessional issues, innovation management, personal growth, as well as solution of the crucial task that defines the fate of earth dwellers – upbringing each person in harmony of the spiritual and material, in understanding oneness of the Universe, their place within it, and personal responsibility for the shared present and future.
Levin G.D. - Gnoseological research of geometric (by origin) method of analysis and synthesis pp. 1-14


Abstract: The subject of this research in the method of finding proof of theoretical hypotheses based on their content. It demonstrated that historically this method emerged in geometry, and thus is called geometric (by origin) method of analysis and synthesis. Then it was shifted to mechanics by Galileo, and later to other sciences, never obtaining the status of the universal method for confirming theoretical hypotheses. The author conducts gnoseological analysis of this method. First, gnoseological analysis of the three initial forms is carried out on the basis of the three elementary geometric theorems. Then description is given to qualitative transformations that followed its transfer to other sciences. The author discusses the correlation of this method with the classical method of analysis and synthesis, as well as with experimental and hypothetical-deductive method. The main conclusion consists in the thesis that in accordance with its gnoseological status, the method of geometric (by origin) analysis and synthesis is on the same level as the classical method of analysis and synthesis, as well as experimental and hypothetical-deductive method. The author’s special contribution lies in substantiation of the thesis that with the development of science, this method of geometric origin was generalized to the method of finding proof of any theoretical hypotheses. Determination of qualitative changes that occurred in terms of its transfer from geometry to special sciences has an important methodological meaning. The author notes the role of idealization in the process of shifting into theoretical description of researched objects the results of practical actions with them.
Tikhonov A.S., Semenov V.G., Mikhailova R.V., Agaeva E.V., Vorobev D.N., Ivanova E.N., Sergeeva N.A. - From Cognitive Archaeology to a Theory of the Mind, Involved in the Material World. The Foundations of Lambros Malafouris' Material Engagement Theory pp. 1-14



Abstract: The aim of the study is to uncover the conceptual foundations of Lambros Malafouris' Material Engagement Theory. In order to realise this aim, we have used comparative-historical and analytical-interpretative methods to explicate the genesis, basic assumptions and concepts of the theory. In particular, we have shown that the theory of mind development, involved in the material world, arises in the framework of Colin Renfrew's cognitive-processual archeology. Using evidence from material culture, its proponents attempt to answer the question of the emergence and development of human cognitive functions. To find an answer to the question, Malafouris uses the treatment of the mind as extended into the external world, applying the metaphor of creative dynamic co-evolution. Mind emerges and functions through an ongoing process of mutual enactment of embodied mind and material environment. To identify the specifics of this co-evolutionary treatment, we have explicated the key concepts of material engagement theory: metaplasticity, material agency and material-enactivating signification. They characterise the effects of the cognitive-material engagement process. The scientific significance lies in the fact that of the study contributes to understanding the heuristic potential of Material Engagement Theory, which is emerging within the research programme of embodied cognition.
Gribkov A.A. - Genesis of equifinality and multifinality of open systems pp. 1-9



Abstract: The subject of research in the article are the properties of equifinality and multifinality of open systems, widely spread in all subject areas, at all levels of organization: in physical, chemical, biological, economic, social, etc. open systems. Equifinality is a dynamic property of a system that realizes movement (transition) in different ways from different initial states to the same final state. Multifinality is the dynamic property of a system to reach fundamentally different final states under insignificant changes in initial conditions. Examples of realization of the properties of equifinality and multifinality in systems of different nature: physical, biological, economic are considered. The genesis of these properties is investigated. On the basis of the study of the genesis of the properties of equifinality and multifinality its commonality is revealed: both properties are a consequence of the transformation of quasi-continuous quantitative changes into discrete qualitative forms, as well as the limited variety of these forms caused by isomorphism. The origin of the multiplicativity property (increased sensitivity to variation of input parameters) and its difference from multifinality are revealed. The multiplicativity property is manifested in systems with unequal stability, including those possessing positive feedback mechanisms. In some systems, such as meteorological mathematical models, the properties of multiplicativity and multifinality appear simultaneously and cannot be unambiguously distinguished.
Gribkov A.A. - The problem of loss of integrity of modern philosophical and scientific knowledge pp. 1-9



Abstract: The article deals with the actual problem of social development, the development of sciences and, in general, the development of human civilization a gradual departure from reliance on a system of established generally accepted ideas and, as a result, the loss of the integrity of philosophical and scientific knowledge. The ability of various models to reliably describe areas of cognition that are outside the area on the basis of knowledge about which these models are formed is considered. The general theory of systems is considered, the central idea of which is the existence of isomorphism of forms and laws in various subject areas and at various levels of the universe, through which the integrity of the world is manifested. The necessity of relying on a system of generally accepted ideas about nature, society, ethics and aesthetics is justified, even if these ideas are not indisputable and final. The necessity of returning philosophy to the leading role in cognition is stated, since only philosophy is able to ensure the integrity of the knowledge system. It is stated that such a property is possessed by models that are able to fit into a holistic picture of the world. The idea is put forward that the General theory of systems can become the basis for building a holistic picture of the world. To do this, it should be expanded by defining the methodology of formation and describing particular manifestations of isomorphism, as well as supplemented with an ontological part containing an explanation of the genesis of isomorphism.
Pris F. - Gettier problems as cases of explanatory gap pp. 8-23


Abstract: The subject of this research is the existence of supposed connection between the anti-luck epistemology of cognitive abilities of Duncan Pritchard and epistemology of Sanford Goldberg. The latter one appeals to the notion of epistemically admissible suggestions and sympathizes with the beginning-knowledge-epistemology, while the firs one offers a dual-component analysis of the term of knowledge. The common of these two approaches lies in the introduction of a condition of explicability of the veritical explanandum – the fact that an opinion is true. At the same time, the nature of explanation to which resort the philosophers, is different. Within the framework of Pritchard’s approach, explanation is given using the terms of epistemology of epistemic abilities, and in the context of Goldberg’s approach – in terms of epistemically admissible suggestions. The work compares the functionality of both approaches leaning on one of the proposed by Pritchard examples, when the true opinion is secured and received as a result of application by a subject of this epistemic abilities, but is not the knowledge. The author believes that the approaches of Pritchard and Goldberg are joint, as well as manifest as a rational reconstruction of the more fundamental approach that is referred as the beginning-knowledge-epistemology. The article also interprets the Gettier problems as cases of the “gap” in implicit assumptions in the process of implementation of the concept of knowledge.  
Iashin B.L. - Constructivism in philosophy and mathematics: Pro and contra pp. 11-24


Abstract: The subject of this research is constructivism, the interest to which, in the author’s opinion, is caused by the discontent with classical epistemology, awareness of its limitation, and also the fact that such variety as "epistemological constructivism" not only expresses a number of features of modern anthropological sciences and contemporary culture in general, but also gives answers to the questions, which encourage the understanding of opportunities and limits of human cognition and what is the role of the cognizing subject in cognitive activity. This article makes actual the problems of dispute between realists and antirealists, which have direct relation to the fundamental grounds of scientific knowledge. Based on the analysis and comparison of the ideas of certain representatives of epistemological, social, and radical constructivism, constructivism in mathematics, works associated with discussion of the problems of the effect of sociocultural factors upon the development of mathematics (particularly works in the area of ethnomathematics)  and science as a whole, as well as works of the Russian philosophers dedicated to the questions of constructivism in philosophy and science, the author makes the following conclusion: the results of modern science (including cognitivistics) provide fairly weighty arguments which confirm the realistic interpretation of cognitive process and its result – the knowledge. It is underlined that this interpretation contributes into more detailed understanding and more adequate explanation of the scientific factors, opens opportunities for development of the research programs, which in the context of antirealistic epistemology would be impossible.
Volkov D. - Psychological approach as a solution for the problem of sameness of identity pp. 13-25


Abstract: The problem of sameness of identity within the modern analytical philosophy consists of two aspects: question about identification, and question about re-identification. However, such approach faces the problem of reduplication, which is determined by the modern philosophers B. Williams and D. Parfit in conceptual experiments “Guy Fawkes” and “Teleportation”. In the author’s opinion, there are three main ways of overcoming the problem of reduplication: criticism of conceptual experiments; additional criterion of the absence of duplicates; and four-dimensional model of identity. It is demonstrated that the first two ways lead to substantial difficulties for the psychological theory of the sameness of identity. The conclusion is made that namely the third ways is the most promising for the psychological theories. The object of this work is the problem of sameness of identity within the modern analytical philosophy, particularly the question of re-identification of personality in various moments of time. The subject of this work consists in psychological approach towards the aforementioned issue. According to this approach, one personality is identical to personality in different time, if there is a psychological succession between them. The scientific novelty consists in the author’s proposition on the introduction of the four-dimensional concept of personality. Despite the fact that the psychological approach is the most widespread in modern analytical philosophy, at the present stage there are very few works dedicated to the analysis of this theory. Moreover, there are no special research regarding the ways of overcoming the problem of reduplication from the perspective of the supporters of psychological approach.
Medvedev V. - "Subject - object" Relations in Humanities pp. 13-24



Abstract: Specific character of subject-object relations in humanities is analysed. The article gives the critique of naturalist approaches, which demand to determine social events on the basis of external observational features. It is proved that it is impossible to fix social events without taking into account agents motives and without references to the meaning which events has to them. Meaning is the most important concept in humanities, so it is impossible to describe social reality ignoring the world of meanings. Social reality is not independent from our ways of understanding and interpreting meanings. Moreover, our representations of social reality are the most important part of this reality. From the other side, man as a subject of humanities is formed by society and culture which he tries to study. He cannot regard them from outside as an usual external object. We cannot exactly calculate in what degree our thought is determined by socio-cultural factors in order to deactivate those determinations on the way to objective knowledge. Socio-humanitarian knowledge has transcendental status. Discussing how socio-class interests or language effect our knowledge we concern fundamental conditions of cognitive experience as such. Because of that natural sciences (technological) model of knowledge cannot be applied in humanities. Here we do not investigate some outer object for the sake of manipulation. We make our self-understanding deeper. Double mutual penetration of subject and object in humanities constitutes its fundamental difference from natural sciences.
Borzykh S.V. - The answer to the Fermi paradox pp. 18-26


Abstract: This article considers the so-called Fermi paradox, according to which we should have been, but never met another intelligent life. The essence of the answer lies in the fact that we could not and will not be able to establish a contact due to multiple reasons, particularly because there is not enough time due to the fact that any intelligent life in the end destroys either itself or its planet. Methodological apparatus includes the general philosophical and general scientific approaches, such as analysis, synthesis, comparative analysis, as well as the methods applied in biological sciences. The scientific novelty consists in suggestion of the biological perspective, rather than physicists’ approach that formulated the examined paradox. Based on such approach, a conclusion is made that any intelligent life, including human, with great probability ends its life on the same planet that it has originated.
Sobolev V.E. - Quantum of knowledge and information as gnoseological issue pp. 19-27


Abstract: The subject of this research is such hypothetical object as the quantum of knowledge, identified within the framework of this work with the quantum of information. Quantum of knowledge is being examined as a minimal volume of knowledge, which can be acquired by an object during the process of cognition of the surrounding world. The problem of existence of the quantum of knowledge is being analyzed in the context of modern perception of quantum physics, digital physics, cybernetics, and theory of information. The article discusses the properties of information as a theoretical object which defines the knowledge of a subject about the material and ideal essences. The main initial motive of the conducted research is the ideas of the modern quantum physics on the quantumness of the Universe and the existence of the minimal physical quantities (quanta). The author demonstrates that the need for existence of such object as the quantum of knowledge is a logical result of the quantumness of the Universe.  The author conducts a quantitative assessment of the minimal possible volume of space which can be viewed as a material carrier of the quantum of knowledge. The conclusion is made that the quantum of knowledge represents an infinite semantic multiplicity, in other words, it can have an infinite amount of possible conceptual interpretations.
Gusev D.A. - Scepticism as the Highest Form of Discursive Realism pp. 21-68


Abstract: The concept of realism is considered as a philosophical discourse in the context of which in the history of philosophy and science eyelids put and solved a complex problem of the attitude of our knowledge towards reality. The naive realism usually is understood as so-called natural installation of consciousness according to which the world is such what we see it, – the installation which is most of all coinciding with common sense, life experience and habitual expectations. It is possible to call the following and higher step of realism scientific realism: the science which is under construction on theoretical thinking doesn't trust common sense, is beyond empirical data, and allegedly gets into an essence of things, finding out as the world "actually" is arranged. However scientific theories and pictures of the world often are mutually contradicting, competing and change each other in the history of science owing to what the question of their relation at the objective world remains open. The last and highest step of realism is the philosophical realism which represents no other than scepticism. A methodological basis of research is the unity of etymological, logical and historical approaches, and also the principle of systemacity and some germenevtichesky receptions (in particular, interpretation and understanding). Also the method of historico-philosophical reconstruction which includes receptions primary (by consideration of sources) and secondary (at different attraction of literature on the studied subject) researches at selection of necessary material, methods of the immanent interpreting analysis (in the analysis of philosophical concepts of antique sceptics) and the komparativistsky analysis (when comparing epistemological ideas of the Hellenistic, or late ancient philosophy with modern concepts in the field of science philosophy) and a synthesis method as compounds of the interpreted material in new quality is used. Scepticism as the self-doubting doubt is a philosophical realism - the last and highest form of diskursivny realism after naive and scientific realism. One of essential differences of scepticism from traditional types and forms of philosophical thinking is that skeptical "the world picture" is essentially mobile and plastic, and, as a result, skeptical philosophical concepts usually don't lead to any certain results, but at the same time they are open for various points of view and therefore are alien randomly and unsubstantially, finally, to the adopted provisions, nothing "put outside brackets" thanks to what see correctness (as well as a wrongfulness) any philosophical idea owing to what scepticism is a search of truth, but not denial of possibility of its achievement as the skeptical philosophy is rather often interpreted. Antique scepticism made reopening of a question of the nature of truth and was original attempt of a reflection of theoretical knowledge, having in many respects anticipated modern not only epistemological, but also social and philosophical concepts.
Vorobev D.N. - Genealogy of truth. To the question of social legitimation of epistemological realism pp. 21-33


Abstract: The opponents of epistemological constructivism traditionally accuse it of relativism, the desire to serve society, rather than the objective reality. In response to such accusations, leaning on the principle of sociology of knowledge, the author explores the question of social legitimation of the position of epistemological realism. The article analyzes the content of the two competitive paideia projects – Isocrates and Plato, in the aspects of correlation between the key notions of the virtue, power and truth. As a result of the victory of Plato’s project were formed the dispositions of metaphysical realism. A conclusion is made that the strive for cognizing the objective truth is an intrinsic component of elitaristic ideology in Plato’s metaphysics. The ideology of elitarism was complementary to monarchical regimes; it ensured social legitimation of philosophy as intuition, called to nurture the mind and judge the truth. This research allows to better understand not only the contemporary discussions between the realists and constructivists, but also the sociocultural importance of metaphysical realism that for centuries became an example of the Western philosophy as such.
Medvedev V., Nazirov A. - Language as an object of rational structuring: from classical philosophy to modern science pp. 24-35


Abstract: This article presents a philosophical analysis of the idea and attempts of rational structuring of the language of science and philosophy. This idea was especially popular in philosophy of the Modern Age. The correlation of this idea with the existing features of New European Philosophy is revealed. It is demonstrated that instrumental approach towards language was not accidental: it stemmed from the idea on the sovereignty of mind, which in the XX century was revived in the logical positivism. It was also implemented in practice of modern science since the beginning of scientific revolution of the XVII century. The authors compare the reasoning of the representatives of classical New European Philosophy and representatives of logical positivism with the practice of modern science. Paradoxes of the concept of ideal language are determined. On the one hand, its formation should become a preliminary means for smoothing the path to cognition; while on the other – it is necessary to cognize the world before building it. Moreover, the introduction of ideal language is possible only on the grounds of the natural. Thus, the flaws of the natural should be eliminated with help of the natural. The dependence of rationally structured language from the natural is retained in the language of modern science. Any of its formalizations and terminologizations is partial. The system of meanings of the traditional language remains the basis and background for interpretation of any scientific theories. Natural languages ensure our affiliation to a certain socio-cultural community with the inherent to it ways of interpreting meanings, within the framework of which the value of scientific cognition becomes evident.  
Medvedev V., Kushelev V. - Socio-humanitarian cognition between science and ideology: the problem of objectivity pp. 26-35


Abstract: Scientific knowledge traditionally qualifies for objectivity, regardless of what manifested as the object of cognition – nature or society. Are there crucial differences in this regard between the natural and humanitarian sciences? Is anything changing, when a human and the society he lives in become the object of cognition? The subject of this research is the peculiarities of articulation of the problem of objectivity applicable for the sciences on human and society, as well as differences in interpretation of this problem in classical and nonclassical philosophy. The research is conducted on the basis of analysis and interpretation of texts and ideas of the representatives of classical philosophy along with the philosophers and sociologists of the past two centuries. The author claims that the law of the sociology of knowledge, which proves the fundamental dependence of social knowledge from social interests, should be applied not only for debunking the ideological illusions of the others, but also for analyzing the own ideas. The principles of objective scientific analysis in sociology require that the researcher’s personal ideological position would not affect his works; in order to achieve this, he must be aware of the level of its influence upon cognitive activity. However, it is merely impossible to fully apprehend the historical, social and cultural determination of our understanding. Therefore, the objectivity of natural scientific type in socio-humanitarian sciences may not be feasible. Most often, objectivity is being reached through constant attention to the potential ideological substantiation of personal ideas.
Pris F. - Knowledge as the most common factive mental state pp. 29-35


Abstract:     The subject of this research is the arguments of Mark Schroeder claiming that the perceptual mental state “seeing that”, as a matter of fact, is not knowledge, and thus, knowledge is not the most common factive mental state. This conclusion contradicts the position of Timothy Williamson. The article particularly analyzes the Schroeder’s positions that the existence of knowledge necessitates the existence of opinion, and knowledge is the norm for an opinion, which he shares with Williamson. Methods of this research consist in the knowledge-first epistemology of Timothy Williamson, and Wittgensteinian in spirit therapeutical method of the analysis of notion of perceptual experience, suggested in the works of Jocelyn Benoist. It is established that Schroeder’s arguments are based on the false prerequisite that the perceptual experience itself can have a representational content. “Seeing that” is not a pure perception, but a conceptualized perceptual experience suggesting knowledge. The author expresses preference towards the position of Williamson. The scientific novelty of this work consists in combination of the analytical and therapeutical methods.    
Gashkov S.A. - Episteme as a path to knowledge. Heuristic potential of the concept of Foucault's episteme for socio-ontological conceptions of language and history. pp. 30-40


Abstract: The subject of this article is the definition of episteme as a concept. The author is not limited by the original interpretation of the French philosopher Michel Foucault (1926-1954) in his works of “archeological” period. The goal is to demonstrate that the definition of episteme manifested in the work “The Order of Things” as basic for structuring of the social ontology that had never been created by the philosopher. Thus, the author considers the definition of episteme as a separate socio-philosophical concept applied in the philosophy of history and philosophy of language. It is underlined that even Foucault himself does not have an unequivocal understanding of the heuristic nature of episteme. The author suggest to view “episteme” not as a post-metaphysical positivity, but a path to cognition of social institutions, language and history in their overall development. Using the methods of historical-philosophical and linguo-philosophical analysis, an attempt is made to penetrate the essence of episteme as a concept that is foremost understood as the bases of the “unwritten” by Foucault ontology of the socio-humanitarian knowledge. Among the main results of research are the following: 1) analysis of evolution of the definition of episteme in Foucault’s works from the standpoint of socio-philosophical heuristics; 2) historical-philosophical determination of specificity of the notion of “episteme” in its epistemological and socio-philosophical meaning; 3) applicability of this notion for the philosophical-historical and socio-philosophical analysis. The article also demonstrated that it would be inappropriate to associate Foucault’s “archeology” exceptionally with the theory of discourses, while putting the “episteme” alongside the attempts to understand the scientific rationality leaning on the data of the history of sciences. A hypothesis is made that episteme can be considered a heuristic concept for the establishment of socio-philosophical ontology.
Pilyak S.A. - The evolution of hermeneutic approach in studying cultural phenomena pp. 30-38


Abstract: The problem of methodology of interpretation of cultural heritage assumes special importance. Throughout several centuries, the leading method in interpretation of semiotic system has been and remains to be the hermeneutic method, which initially emerged as a pattern for interpretation of sacred texts. The interpretation of cultural values and material cultural heritage is one of the most widespread types of their development and creative comprehension. From the perspective of perception and interpretation of language, which is general sense represents any system of symbols, the key scientific vector of which is the philosophical hermeneutics. The very concept of hermeneutics is usually interpreted as the art and theory of textual interpretation. Thus in the wide sense, it emerged along with speech and writing system. Hermeneutics contributed to creation of methodology of interpretation; therefore, many of its provisions, principles, and forms of interpretation take into account the specificity of interpretation of cultural values. The historical experience demonstrates multiple examples of application of hermeneutic techniques for reaching understanding of different masses or unanimous understanding for groups of dissimilar people. Utilization of hermeneutic approaches can be observe when there comes a moment of potential disintegration of countries, territories or regions, the unification of which is advantageous. The author reviews the historical transformation of hermeneutic approach in studying cultural phenomena.
Maslakov A.S. - David Hume: from criticism of cognition to new gnoseology and ethics pp. 31-46


Abstract: The object of this article is the philosophy of David Hume in its wholeness, unity and interrelation of all its sections, positions and fragments. The subject is the correlation of D. Hume’s theory of cognition with his concept of human and socio-historical cognition overall in the context of the problems of modern gnoseology, philosophy and history of science. The goal of the research lies in analyzing the basic positions of D. Hume’s theory of cognition within the framework of general doctrine on human and society and their relation to the issues of modern socio-humanitarian knowledge. Methodologically, the work leans on the comparative-historical approach, hermeneutic analysis of sources, as well as general scientific methods of analogy, generalization, abstracting, systematization, and others. The following conclusions were made: 1) the skeptical paradigm in theory of cognition is used by D. Hume’s exclusively from the methodological, rather than ontological standpoint; 2) D. Hume redeems confidence in the subject of cognition (with its customs), as well as in the object – in other words, nature that includes human in its context by default ; 3) human himself as the cognizing subject becomes not a substantial entity, but a construct of intersubjective act, derivative of “sympathy” that unites him with other people, first and foremost, through the affective nature; 4) revelation of the initial sociality and intersubjectivity of the human Self immeasurably simplifies the analysis of ethical problems, as well as the questions of socio-economic and political development, because the socio-institutional order is viewed as an organic part of human nature; 5) all of the aforesaid, allows D. Hume to quite drastically reconsider the capabilities and functionality of historical cognition. 
Rosengren M., Nydahl M., Vorobev D.N. - Human as a measure. Conversation with Mats Rosengren about the context of the emergence of doxology pp. 32-42


Abstract: The subject of this conversation is the social context of the emergence of doxology – the naturalizes theory of cognition, proposed by the Swedish philosopher Mats Rosengren. He believes that the human knowledge has never been and will not be epistemic (in Platonian sense). It is always culturally and historically substantiated, situational and inconsistent. In the course of conversation, Rosengren talks about the specificity of doxological understanding of the constructive nature of scientific cognition, as well as the importance of the reception of French philosophy of the XX century for the emergence of doxology. Professor Rosengren gave an interview on June 14, 2018 in Stockholm in the house of Swedish Writers' Union; the synchronized translation from Swedish was provided by Michael Nyudal. The scientific novelty lies in the fact that it allows to better understand what is and what is not the doxology claimed by its author as a modern variation of Protagorean theory of cognition.
Maslakov A.S., Kondrat'eva S.B. - Thomas Hobbes and the Paradoxes of Early Modern Thinking pp. 33-72



Abstract: The object of this work is the philosophy of T. Hobbes in its integrity and unity of its main parts, including logic, the so-called "first philosophy", physics, the doctrine of man, the doctrine of morality, politics and law. The subject is the internal connection of the concept of the Leviathan state with the theory of cognition and ontology in the context of a number of problems of modern epistemology, philosophy and the history of science and the history of philosophy of Modern times. Methodologically, the work is based on a comparative historical approach, hermeneutic analysis of sources, as well as general scientific methods of analogy, generalization, abstraction, systematization, and others. Results of the study: 1) T. Hobbes is not so much an experimental theorist as a popularizer of science, confident that such popularization in itself can both lead a person to the truth and help solve a number of socio-political problems; 2) Hobbes' attitude radically breaks with a number of provisions of both the philosophy of nature and socio-in the political philosophy of Antiquity, translating the aporicity of the latter into paradoxicity and, as a consequence, antinomianism; 3) T. Hobbes discovers the logically abstract world of science as an analytical-synthetic transformation of the everyday world given in sensation, while the first necessarily generates something third - a world that exists by itself, an unknowable world; this makes him to strictly approach the definitions of the boundaries of knowledge God, soul, morality and law; 4) the concept of Leviathan solves the problem of the mutual transition of the universal and the individual in a very typical way for early Modern times through the fundamental paradox of the interaction of the abstract scientific world of science and the "objective" world itself opposed to it; this paradox is one of essential features of philosophy and science of early modern times.
Kachay I.S., Petrov M.A. - The problem of creative imagination. Kantian and Schellingian concepts of productive imagination as an epistemological and ontological source of creativity pp. 36-46



Abstract: The object of this research is the problem of creative imagination. The subject of the research is the ontological and epistemological nature of productive imagination in the context of the philosophical searches of I. Kant and F.W.J. Schelling. The purpose of this work is to conceptualize the ontological and epistemological determinants of productive imagination on the basis of Kantian and Schellingian philosophical doctrines. The methodological foundation of this research is the original works of these thinkers of German classical philosophy, as well as the actual works of domestic and foreign specialists in the field of creative philosophy. The authors of the study in their work were guided by comparative-historical, analytical-interpretive, hermeneutic and phenomenological methods. The scientific novelty of the work consists in revealing the ontological and epistemological rootedness of productive imagination. In addition, the authors distinguish between imagination as the ability to generate original images based on the synthesis and transformation of empirical material and fantasy as a way of "virtual" realization of unsatisfied needs and escape from reality. The main conclusion of the study is the position that in the philosophical teaching of I. Kant, productive imagination is revealed in an epistemological perspective, presenting as a general cognitive ability and a condition for the transcendental synthesis of sensuality and reason, while in Schellingian philosophy productive imagination is considered from an ontological point of view, being justified as the ability of the subject to endow physical objects with ideal reality.
Pris F. - Knowledge as a genuine substantiated opinion and the Gettier-cases pp. 41-52


Abstract: This article examines the definition of knowledge as a genuine substantiated opinion, as well as considers certain quasi-standard definitions of knowledge. The arguments are adduced that in order to solve its issues, epistemology requires the philosophy of language and philosophy of consciousness. Particularly, the author pursues parallel between a “difficult problem” of the philosophy of consciousness and the problem of definition of knowledge. The article suggests the definition of knowledge as a “successful” opinion, namely a genuine substantiated opinion, on the condition that an epistemological “gap” between the substantiation (opinion) and the fact (knowledge) is “pragmatically” closed in the sense of Wittgensteinian problem of rule-following. The second Wittengstein’s philosophy combines with the knowledge first epistemology of Timothy Williamson. Knowledge is accepted as a fundamental epistemic rule (norm) for the opinion. It is stated that the so-called Gettier-cases first and foremost have a conceptual status, underlining that the standard definition of knowledge leaves something out of account. The proposed point of view on knowledge is similar to such of Stephen Hetherington, according to which knowledge is a genuine substantiated opinion, on the condition that any specific circumstance is being understood in epistemological sense.
Kulikov D.K. - Evolution of the problem of reasoning in the teachings of Xenophanes of Colophon and Heraclitus of Ephesus pp. 46-58


Abstract: The subject of this research is the evolution of philosophical problematic of reasoning in the teachings of Xenophanes and Heraclitus. The main goal consists in establishment of substantial content in the nature of reasoning that was revealed and understood by these philosophers. The work is structured based on the famous survived fragments by Xenophanes and Heraclitus, their translation into the Russian language published by present time, and analytical literature on the topic at hand. The author implements the approach, according to which the central for the early Greek philosophy was the gnoseological problematic, associated with the rethinking of mythopoetic tradition and search for the new criteria of knowledge. The scientific novelty lies in revelation of specificity of the comprehension of reasoning by Xenophanes and Heraclitus. The research claims to contribute in overcoming the limited attention of Russian science to the gnoseological issues of the early Greek philosophy. The fundamental content unveiled in reasoning by Xenophanes and Heraclitus consists in the universal as the goal of cognition and criteria of the truth. They views reasoning as the conceptual relationship between the order of nature, perceptions and actions of people. Xenophanes establishes skeptical argumentation, opposing the universality as characteristic of the divine knowledge to limitedness of the cognition efforts of a human. Heraclitus, on the contrary, searches in the reasonable ability of the cognitive convergence of the human mind and global logos. Heraclitus’ teaching is related to Xenophanes’ teaching same as the dialectical method relates to skepticism. Their ideas generate such aspects of comprehension, as the universal and individual in reasoning, differentiation of cognitive processes, primacy of the objective content over the form of thought.
Kulikov S.B. - Corporal and Incorporeal Phenomena, Foundations of Human Emotions and Field of Culture pp. 54-74


Abstract: Object of the article was the regularities of modification of fundamental intentions in understanding of the nature and essence of emotions in the context of culturological researches. An author approved that the possibility of transformation of basic intentions of understanding of emotions coincided with features of structure of psychological, biological and culturological knowledge. The empirical data, which were saved up in biology did not receive adequate generalization within psychological theories, demanding introduction of additional general scientific hypotheses. In particular, it was necessary to actualize one of the ideas making part of antique legacy. Adequate understanding of human emotions was possible only at their interpretation as the functions of harmonious development of the corporal and incorporeal origins of a human nature. The methodology of research included synthesis of the natural-science and philosophical and culturological principles of understanding of a place and role of emotions of the human in the course of his sociocultural development as the being having corporal (material) and incorporeal (ethical, esthetic and others) manifestations. Novelty of research was in the proof of the thesis that the leading role in formation of emotions was played by the conflict between the natural and cultural origins in the human. The role of the corporal sphere in formation of human activity, its active influence on activity along with culture was disclosed. The interpretation of sociocultural life of emotions allowed actualized some antique ideals for understanding of harmonious unity of the corporal and incorporeal phenomena in human being.
Iakovlev V.A. - Information and Communication Structure of Epistemology of Innovation pp. 60-115


Abstract: The subject of the research is the information and communication structure of new epistemology - epistemology of innovation. The author of the article examines the major ability of consciousness to generate not only the knowledge necessary in ordinary practice but also to create and translate epistemological structures that are necessary for all spiritual practices exercised by culture and society. It is underlined that the information and communication approach more and more asserts itself in modern natural science and humanities. The concept of information plays an especially important role in cognitive disciplines – neurology, cognitive psychology, sociology and artificial intelligence theories altogether forming the scientific basis of new epistemology. In his research Yakovlev has used the method of the reconstruction of the conceptual structure of Plato's dialogues 'Symposium' and 'Timaeus' and the method of the critical analysis of modern epistemological concepts and approaches to explaining the grounds of mathematics . The researcher also analyzes each level and stage of the development of science in historical, institutional and personal aspects. The novelty of the research is caused by the the following. The author describes the structure of new 'innovation' epistemology that is based on the information and communication approach to cognitive activity. The described conceptual structure of epistemology of innovation as a transformation of 'novation' into 'innovation' is confirmed by particular episodes of the development of new programs in modern physics and cosmology. The author also describes isomorphism of innovative communication and information processes of the genesis and establishment of science in culture, activity of academic communities and researches of particular scientists. 
Komissarov I.I. - External and internal analogies in social and philosophical knowledge in the context of the problem of homogeneity-heterogeneity of societies pp. 65-77



Abstract: The subject of this work is social models that are constructed by using external and internal analogies. External social analogies imply a reference to an object that is studied within the framework of a science being external to social knowledge (physics, chemistry, biology, etc.). In particular, the mechanistic, elementary (chemical) and geological varieties of them are considered. Internal analogies imply a reference to an object that is directly related to the social sciences, social philosophy. Hence, the Baudrillards symbolic exchange, McDonaldization and eBayization models are analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the dichotomy of homogeneity-heterogeneity of societies which is revealed within the consideration of corresponding antagonistic social concepts. As a result, after classifying social models from the point of view of external and internal analogies used by creators of these models, the reasons were identified explaining that analogical thinking is so generally accepted and popular in social philosophy. Namely, analogies allow a social model to be more tangible and visual as well as they give it credibility and novelty. In relation to the idea of the homogeneity or heterogeneity of human societies, external and internal analogies allow us to conceptually color these abstract notions. The spread of internal analogies presupposes the emancipation of social science from the influence of the idea to build social models in accordance with natural science the idea that finds vivid expression in models based on external analogies.
Vorobev D.N. - To the question on the novelty and heuristic potential of doxology in Protagorean version of modern gnoseology pp. 93-102


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the determination of novelty and heuristic potential of doxology as a Protagorean version of constructivist epistemology. Analyzing the problem of epistemological relativism on the context of antagonism between the supporters of epistemological realism and constructivism, the author outlines the problematic field, on the background of which the novelty and heuristic potential become evident. In the course of this research were used the method of interpretation and critical method of philosophy, supported by the principles of historicism, unambiguity, and systemic consideration. The novelty of doxology consists in the expanded interpretation of the structure of cognition, which central elements are the realistic rendering of a cognitive subject and the idea of functional circle of cognitive activity (logos) and its object (doxa). The heuristic potential of doxology consist in its contribution to solution of the problem of relativism: focusing on the methods and factors of producing by the subject of what is considered real, intersubjective in certain area or culture at the moment, doxology contributed to formulation of methodology for understanding the consistent and intersubjective character of the relativity of knowledge.
Kutyrev V.A., Nilogov A.S. - On Expansion of High (Post-Human) Technologies, its Prospects, Creators and Victims pp. 164-202


Abstract: This article is written in the form of a dialogue. To be specific, this is the continuation of the interview by Aleksey Nilogov with the author of the book 'Time Mortido' Vladimir Kutyrev. Their conversation started with the question 'Is it possible to manage the progress?' (See Philosophical Researches Journal Issue 8 published by Note Bene in 2013). The interview progressed into a conversation which represented a hidden but quite sharp dispute between the 'progressor' and 'conservative'. The interlocutors make different, often quite oppositive evaluations of the humankind prospects. They talk about being and nothingness, post-modernism transformation of human into the 'other', destruction of life grounds as the result of disappearing line between genders and creation of weak (thinking) and strong (programmed) zombies. As the author of the books 'Time Mortido',  Vladimir Kutyrev speaks against the infinite expansion of innovative (i.e. post-human) technologies, in particular, the idea of 'im-provement' of people. It is his opinion that the main goal of a modern human should be the preservation of civilization in its anthropomorphous dimensions. The freedom declaring rights of an individual (the part) should not dominate over the rights of the society (the whole). 
Tsendrovskiy O. - Epistemiology of the Phenomenological Constructivism: Possibilities of Overcoming Gaps in the Classical Concepts of Truth pp. 187-211


Abstract: In article two leading approaches to a problem of essence of truth and methods of its achievement are considered: realism and constructivism. During the short review their contents reveals and radical shortcomings, logical problems and argument deadlocks come to light. The author offers version of their decision within the concept called by it by phenomenological constructivism. And as a method and the more so as the term it is a little mastered, at the same time allowing to go beyond a vicious circle of a dichotomy realism – constructivism. On the one hand, phenomenological constructivism leans on proclaimed on different manners E. Gusserl and M. Heidegger need to clear experience of naplastovaniye of multiple interpretations, having reduced them to more initial structures. With another, the concept makes a start from need to recognize constructive, instead of objective nature of got experience: it is determined biologically, individually and socially (in discourse. Having taken for a reference point the term Dasein entered by Heidegger (presence, here - life) as initial, dointerpretatsionny empirical existence, the author suggests to remove from the agenda the correct relation of knowledge to a subject as criterion of truth and objectivity as an ideal, at the same time paying attention to deadlock nature of extreme constructivism. After I. Kant's intuitions locates that we deal not with things, and only with phenomena of own consciousness (reduced to Dasein), the only possible form of knowledge – hypothetical, and criterion of truth can be only practice that is skilled check.
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