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Philosophy of science
Fedorin V.V. - Philosophical and methodological substantiation of the projects of human genetic engineering pp. 1-10


Abstract: The subject of this research is the analysis of the projects of human genetic engineering, as well as attempts of improving of his ethical and physical qualities. The significance of new discoveries in medicine and biology has drastically increased in the recent years. Human finds himself in a new role – an object of manipulations. The methods of genetic engineering provide the opportunities for changing the genetic base of a human, which is the prerequisite of being in creation of its identity. In order to comfortably exist in a rapidly changing world, a human needs certainty in understanding of how the methods of genetic engineering can affect his being, as well as interrelation with other people. The author conducts the analysis of the projects of human engineering from various perspectives, as well as presents the assessment of possible consequences of implementation of the “human-oriented” biotechnologies. The growing opportunities of biotechnologies in transformation of the human genetic nature should certainly be controlled; and the level of intervention into genetics of a human should be determined by social ethics and scientific level.
Astakhov S.S. - Critical reception of the actor-network theory: from Machiavellianism to the problem of the Other pp. 1-15


Abstract: This article represent a review of the most widespread arguments against the actor-network theory (B. Latour, M. Callon, and J. Law). In the first part of this work the author examines the accusations in descriptivism, Machiavellianism, and intentionally esoteric language. As a separate issue, the argument of S. Schaffer is being highlighted, regarding the fact that Latour does not touches upon the “status quo” in distribution of the authority between the acting powers. In the second part, the author describes the conflict between the actor-network theory on one hand, and sociology of the scientific knowledge on the other. The differences between the Bath and Edinburgh Schools are being clarified. In the third part of the article, the author explores the arguments of the researchers supporting Latour. The author proves that Latour can be included into the relativist tradition, because he takes to the boundaries of logic the thesis on incommensurability of the theories. A hypothesis is proposed that the most importance for the development of the actor-network theory lies in the criticism of the internal circle and overcoming of the problem of the Other. It is also suggested to generalize the problem of the Other to the formal problem of the off-network.   
Poberezhnyi I.A. - Intuition in mathematics: from intuitivism of Henri Poincaré to intuitionism of L. E. J. Brouwer Hermann Weyl pp. 1-6


Abstract: Leaning on the works of H. Poincaré, H. Weyl, A. Heyting, V. F. Asmus and other, this article demonstrates the correlation between the ideas of intuitivism of H. Poincaré and the ideas of intuitionism of L. E. J. Brower and H. Weyl. The subject of this research is the role of intuition in formation of the fundamentals of mathematical science. The author examines the state of mathematical science at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries, as well as the crises of the foundations of mathematics. The firs trend of the philosophy of mathematics pursuing to overcome this crisis became the Russell’s logicism – an attempt to form mathematics on the logical basis, excluding the intuitive elements. Leveling criticism at this trend, H. Poincaré develops a doctrine on the priority of intellectual intuition in the formation of mathematics. The article reveals the heuristic value of Russell’s ideas for both, the advancement of science, and comprehension of the nature of scientific creativity. The author describes their correlation with the ideas of H. Poincaré regarding the priority of intellectual intuition. The ideas of intuitionists, in turn, expressing the moods of scholars with humanistic reasoning, became a fruitful ground for the development of ontological and gnoseological foundations of mathematics.
Voronina N., Tkachev A. - Worldview prerequisites of the successful functioning of Galisons trading zones pp. 10-17


Abstract: He subject of this research is the impact of worldview representations in “trading zones” proposed by Peter Galison upon the development of interest in science and scientific communication. The authors determine the levels of formation of scientific interest, as well as reveals, that the representations in groups are the result of evident and latent concordance, where the latent plays the key role. The article considers the problem of successful and unsuccessful interaction in “trading zones”, and makes an attempt to identify the worldview nature of closeness and openness for the successful scientific cooperation. In the course of this work, the authors applied the general scientific methods along with the hermeneutic methodology for describing the worldview elements that affect the interest towards science. The scientific novelty lies in the suggestion to complement Christian List’s theory of judgment aggregation and Peter Galison’s concept of “trading zones” with consideration of the latent worldview elements that affect communication in the academic environment. At the same time, the authors determine certain specific worldview elements that influence the interest towards the scientific creativity and successful cooperation of scholars.
Maximov L.V. - Cognitive science: new life of the old paradigms pp. 11-24


Abstract: The subject of this research is the interrelated reductionist trends that are presents in the modern cognitive science (namely in branches of the philosophy of mind and psychology that are part of the interdisciplinary complex). These are the radical cognitivism – reduction of mental to cognitive (not considering the specificity of emotional-conative components of psyche); and physicalism – reduction of cognitive (interpreted as a synonym of mental) to neurophysiological processes, which in turn are assimilated to the information-calculating operation in computer. Cognitivism and physicalism are very old methodological paradigm (although received their names fairly recently); as a part of cognitive science they appeared in a somewhat new, modified form, not losing the reductionist orientation. Methodology of this work is the anti-reductionism, in other words, criticism of reductionism not as a supplementary (and fully justified in this function) method of scientific propaedeutics, but rather as inappropriate conceptual approach, fraught with grave mistakes in theory and its practical application. As demonstrated in the article, the initially established problematic of cognitive science alongside the formulated by it conceptual and terminological apparatus significantly contributed into the entrenchment of the indicated reductionist approaches it its research programs. Both of the paradigms have formed a unified, solid methodological cluster due to the common concept of “cognitive” interpreted in the cybernetic (theoretical-information) sense. If overcoming of the aforementioned types of reductionism was possible, it would require the substantial changes in the subject and methods of cognitive science.  
Belyaev V.A. - "The Third Scientific Picture of the World" and Transystem Orientation of Modernism pp. 20-76


Abstract: This paper is an attempt to consider one of the areas of post-modern philosophy of technology called 'technetics' by its author B. I. Kudrin. The so-called "third scientific picture of the world" is formed within the framework of this direction. Technetics and the third scientific picture of the world are considered by the author in the context of the overall logic of modernism (modern European culture) on the basis of the project-system approach: first, that modern thinking as the world project (or projects); secondly, we must think of these projects as answers to a certain system of life challenges; third, we must see in these projects primarily anthropological content. Following the logic design system approach, the author considers the general idea of "nature" that emerged in early modernism as a projection of an "open universe" on the reality on the other side of the person. This view is expressed in a classical scientific worldview called "the first scientific picture" by Kudrin. Between Kudrin's "third picture" which is a way of going beyond the "system" of the organization of humanity and of the universe and "the first picture" there is "the second picture" in which this system organization and thematised. This paper shows how the formation of the logic of modernism reflected, among other things, in the aforesaid three "scientific pictures of the world". The author also shows the immediate context of the formation of the "third picture".
Surovyagin D.P. - The problem foundations of mathematics as a philosophical puzzle pp. 30-41


Abstract:  The subject of this research is the problem of foundations of mathematics in works of the representatives of logical empiricism and Wittgenstein. It is demonstrated that their solutions were original and significantly differed from the logicistic solution. If logicism suggests accepting this problem as a fact and develops the technical means for its circumvention, the logical empiricism tries to eliminate it as a pseudo-problem (and Wittgenstein as a philosophical puzzle) that occurred as a result of the intricacy of the language. Analyzing the problem of impredicative definition of mathematical concepts, the non-positivists and Wittgenstein acted in their usual role of analytical philosophers who clarify the meaning of the propositions of science. Textological analysis of the works of B. Russell, F. Ramsey, R. Carnap, P. Kaufman and L. Wittgenstein illustrates that neo-positivists and Wittgenstein grounded the solution of the problem of foundations of mathematics on the attempt of rectification of mathematical concepts (such as multiplicity, function, and definition), as well as initiating of mathematical and natural scientific discourses. Their approach is a vivid example of the analytical philosophy of science, if the philosophy of science is viewed as systematic comprehension of a certain scientific problem. The scientific novelty lies in identification of the elements of constructivism and finitism in the philosophy of mathematics of the aforementioned representatives of analytical philosophy. The author draws an original comparison between the positions of logicism, neo-positivism and Wittgenstein regarding the question of logical admissibility of the impredicative formation of concepts. Because the criticism of neo-positivists and Wittgenstein was aimed against the inaccurate application of the concepts, it is valuable in itself as a model of thought, despite the fact that at the time it did not lead to the revolutionary changes in mathematics.  
Fedorin V.V. - Human genetic modification: prospects, inevitability, and the question of moral-ethical justification pp. 30-41


Abstract: The subject of this research is the genetic engineering of a human, risks it produces, prospects, and moral-ethical aspects. Technological progress inevitably leads to infiltration of cultural sphere into human corporeality through genetic engineering. The development of innovative technologies in the area of manipulation with the genetic code necessitates to choose how these technologies would be used. In this regard, there is a possibility of transition towards a new type of corporeality, not limited by biological predetermination alone, but rather culturally substantiated, being a result of implementation of the human-created project, which underlines the need for socio-humanitarian analysis conducted in this article. Viewing medicine as one of the fields of culture allows concluding that humanity to some extent has already faced certain projection with regards to human corporeality. In this aspect, medicine manifests as a tool for implementation of the project of a “healthy human”, and genetic engineering, as its part, would inevitably implement this project, and gradually expand the field of culture and fulfill the project of an “improved human” as a natural advancement of the idea of expansion of freedom through modification of corporeality.
Kulikov S.B. - Contemporary Self-reflections of Science and Antique Ideal of Knowledge pp. 31-53


Abstract: Object of research is clearing of opportunities of a scientific and extra scientific reflection in the course of creation of a relevant image of science. The author allocates and describes reflection types, achieving the objectives clearing of circumstances at which separate types of a reflection become the supplementing ways of understanding of images of science. The methodology includes realization of the phenomenological approach allowing repeating ways of judgment of idea of science which roots go to antiquity, but in modern conditions of the essence of research activity appearing in the form of essentially different contexts of understanding within the scientific and extra scientific spheres of society and culture in the structure. During research the conclusion was received that the image of science arising in borders of a scientific reflection coincides with the autonomous basis belonging to processes of self-justification of science. This image is expressed in the form of consistent generalization of basic elements of a scientific picture of the world. At the same time the fragmentariness of science within which finding of integrity can be interpreted as extremely remote purpose, which could be realized by scientists under influence of extra scientific spheres of society and culture. Therefore the most exact image of science is under construction within a science self-reflection, but the self-reflection remains are essentially incomplete without participation of philosophers in its institutionalization.
Gusev D.A., Potaturov V.A. - Scientism and anti-scientism as two images of the philosophy of science, two worldviews, and two systems of life guidance of a person (historical-philosophical and general theoretical aspects) pp. 32-51


Abstract: The question on the polemics between scientism and anti-scientism being different sociocultural orientations and opposite worldview poles remains insufficiently covered within the modern philosophy of science. The object of this research is the controversy of scientism and anti-scientism as the two images and concepts of the philosophy of science. The subject is the worldview companions of scientism and anti-scientism, as well as the two systems of ideological, ontological and practical orientations of human and social existence built upon them. The goal of the article consists in identification of the two possible and opposite images of the philosophy of science, suggested by the concept itself, their interrelation, and establishment of worldview chain links beginning with scientism and anti-scientism, and clarification of opposing systems of life orientation of a person. One of the results of the conducted research consists in determination of two images of the philosophy of science and related to them scientism and anti-scientism, which are not only and not much different and in a worldview sense “neutral” sociocultural orientations, as the other way around, “loaded” from a worldview perspective intellectual positions, fairly conforming with the certain ideological paradigms, which in entirety and complementarity, form the two opposing worldviews and two systems of life guidance of a person.
Pris F. - Illusions of Opportunities and Real Opportunities pp. 45-70


Abstract: The problem of an explanation of illusions of possible violations of physical and psychophysical identities is stated and analyzed. The epistemic and settlement explanations offered by Kripke and the "if - in - reality" explanation are unsatisfactory. They, in particular, do not always satisfy to Stephane Uayblo's psychoanalytic criterion. These explanations also assume that some real opportunities which existence explains illusions always are behind illusory opportunities. Explanations of illusions of the opportunities offered by Perry and Hill who don't assume that there are real opportunities behind illusory opportunities are provided. Research is conducted within the framework of Wittgenstein's standard pragmatism and naturalism. The concept of family similarity plays the central role. the author of the article suggests that we should use Wittgenstein's explanation of illusion of possibility violating a necessary posteriori identity which, according to the author, satisfies Stephane Uayblo's psychoanalytic criterion. Illusion is explained by the fact that in other contexts concepts entering identity could be used in a different way. It is claimed also that in mathematics not all illusions of opportunities are purely epistemic.
Pris F. - Heidegger's Quantum Phenomenology pp. 46-67


Abstract: In article arguments of that Heidegger's phenomenology, also as well as late Vittgenshtayn's philosophy, can be useful to a solution of the problem of measurement in quantum mechanics and to understanding of nonclassical physics in general are adduced. Realistic understanding of quantum mechanics possibly only within not metaphysical realism. Distinction between classical and quantum concepts is entered and their application is illustrated. Connection between a measurement problem, a difficult problem of philosophy of consciousness and a vittgenshtaynovsky problem of following to the rule is established. Research relies on alleged communication between Heidegger and Vittgenshtayn's philosophy, on vittgenshtaynovsky pragmatical "dissolution" of a problem of measurement, and also on interpretation of philosophies of Heidegger and Vittgenshtayn as standard pragmatism and naturalism. Is established that quantum concepts function as vittgenshteynovsky rules for formation of new objektivirovanny reality, but not as the concepts describing the metaphysical reality which isn't depending on the observer in absolute sense. The measurement problem in quantum mechanics has the same structure, as the difficult problem in consciousness philosophy, and can be reduced to a vittgenshteynovsky problem of following to the rule. In theoretical metaphysical language of Heidegger language game of Vittgenshtayn is Dazayn. Addition of this philosophical concept to a conceptual framework of quantum mechanics allows to solve a measurement problem theoretically.
Iashin B.L. - Pythagoreanism and Platonism in mathematics: history and modernity pp. 47-61


Abstract: The subject of this research is such philosophical and mathematical disciplines as Pythagoreanism and Platonism, which remain relevant at the present time. The author demonstrate the contribution of Pythagoreans to mathematics, their role in creation of geometric algebra, importance of the discovery of incommensurable segments that propelled the Pythagorean mathematics into crisis. The work examines the essence of the concept of mathematical Platonism, reveals its peculiarities, and demonstrates its dissimilarity from the concept of mathematical Pythagoreanism. The presently existing various forms of mathematical Platonism, as well as their peculiarities are explored. The article provides the main arguments of modern critics of Platonism in mathematics and their weaknesses. The author demonstrates the value of the concept of mathematical Platonism as a model visual thinking, and underlines that a large number of mathematicians remain its adherers. The scientific novelty is defined by the fact that the work actualized the ideas of Pythagoreanism and Platonism, as well as the consequence of a dispute that originated in ancient times and continues today between the supporters of Platonism and their opponents related to the fundamental grounds of mathematics. The author concludes that the results of modern mathematical science give valid arguments that confirm the performance and high efficiency of the concept of Platonism in comparison with other philosophical concepts of mathematics.
Zholkov S. - Philosophic issues of pragmatic theories: genesis and architectonics, II pp. 47-59


Abstract: The subject of this research is the real pragmatics; in other words, the purposeful activity of social subjects (individuals, human associations). Real pragmatics as overall, in unity and interaction of the natural and human realms is the subject of pragmatic theories. From the practical perspective, the actual tasks of the analysis and large systems management, as well as their systemic analysis in cohesion with the natural scientific and socio-humanitarian components – is the actual necessity. The article determines the requirements to information base and architectonics of pragmatic theory essential for structuring the trustworthy scientific theory of real pragmatics. The author conducts a comparative analysis with the construct of “theoretical knowledge” proposed by V. S. Stepin; applies the interdisciplinary systemic approach: methods of theory of information, mathematical logic, systemic analysis, concept interpretation of conclusions and adequacy analysis. The author formulates the general laws and requirements to the architectonics of the components of accurate and substantial pragmatic theories. As a result, the article is first to demonstrate that the pattern of structuring the fundamental and argumentative pragmatic theory is fully compatible with the construct of (post-nonclassical) "theoretical knowledge” of V. S. Stepin. The necessary clarifications and inclusion are provided. It is illustrated that the pattern of theoretical knowledge proposed by V. S. Stepin leans not only on the physical theories that were meticulously examined by the scholar, but also the mathematical theories.
Loktionov M. - Philosophical and Methodological Principles of the Critical Theory and Critical System Approach in Modern Interpretations of Social Processes pp. 48-79


Abstract: Object of research of this work is the history of the Frankfurt school in aspect of its attitude towards treatments of public processes and critical system approach. The subjects and approaches of school united round the general aspiration to mobilize the potential of critical consideration of the settled socio-political dogmas are investigated, calling in question authoritative lines of the modern world and specifying ways of their transformation by means of "not authoritative and nonbureaucratic policy". Problems of management, the organization and use of system methods in the organizational analysis are investigated. The following is distinguished from them: (a) dialectics of an era of Education; (b) one-dimensionality and consumerism of the developed capitalist societies; (c) criticism of a technocracy; (d) communication actions. The technique is based on research of critical approach of the Frankfurt school, in particular Yu. Habermasa and his critic of technical and practical knowledge, and their applicability to system management. In work the short history of emergence and development of the Frankfurt school is stated, and also is shown that modern system theories of management, in particular such as gentle system approach and critical (emansipatsionny) system approach in - much grow from J. Habermas's theory about various types of knowledge, and his critics of a modern technocracy.
Zholkov S. - On logical pluralism and alternative pragmatic theories pp. 52-66


Abstract: This article analyzes the forms of logical analysis in the pragmatic theory and the requirements necessary for structuring the authoritative pragmatic theory. The author compares the various logical schemes and their use pragmatic theories. The article examines the origins and peculiarities of institutional mathematical logics and discusses the specificities of logical calculus structured by L. I. Rosonoer (1983); PCont equivoluminar paraconsistent calculus PI s built by A. Arruda; and LPCont and LP1Cont in which the classical logic plays a role of formal metalanguage for the paraconsistent calculus PCont. The author analyses the three distinctions of para-tautology from institutional tautology; discusses refusal from the principle ECQ (ex contradictione quodlibet) and execution of the “principle of unprovability from the extraneous thoughts” in the (non-trivializing) paraconsistent logic; as well as applicability of logical pluralism for various pragmatic theories. The article carries out a comparative analysis of the various logical systems and their potential application in pragmatic theories, in creating an artificial intelligence and regulation of discussions. The author analyzes the theoretical-plural motivation of para-compatibility suggested by K. Mortensen. In accordance with Mortensen’s position, is proposed an approach for verification of fundamental ideas and conceptual logical schemes, which is called the principle of mathematical tolerance. The work also analyzes the cases of use of the paraconsistent logic in pragmatic theories and crucial causes for the inconsistent pragmatic positions and the alternative theories of real pragmatics.
Iashin B.L. - Paradoxes in scientific cognition and nonclassical logics pp. 53-64


Abstract: The subject of this research is the scientific paradoxes and such means for its resolution as nonclassical logics. The author defends a thesis that paradoxes often stimulate the scientific development. It is demonstrated that most vividly the problem of paradoxes manifested in crises in the fundamentals of mathematics; the attempts for its resolution in many ways contributes to the emergence of nonclassical logics. It is substantiated that nonclassical logics helped to resolve and explain the paraded occurring in scientific cognition. Comparative analysis is conducted on the capabilities of  three-valued “quantum logics” of Garrett Birkhoff and John von Neumann and “logics of complementarity” of Hans Reichenbach. Potential of the three-valued logics of D. Bochvar and nonclassical systems of A. Zinoviev in resolution and explanation of logical paradoxes, as well as importance of temporary logics of G. H. Wright for the philosophy of science is revealed. Special attention is paid  to the paraconsistent logics. The author determines two points of view in understanding of their essence and value for science and philosophy, which juxtaposition shows that none of them fully complies with the actual state of affairs. The main conclusion consists in the statement that paradoxes of scientific cognition should not be assessed just negatively; they also carry a positive meaning: detection of paradoxes in the theory testifies to the need for their elimination, more detailed research and stricter approach towards development of the theory, which in solution of this task can be accomplished by nonclassical logics.
Kuzmin V. - Existence and relativity: Modus perception of predication of existence pp. 60-77


Abstract: Speaking of any object, it can be said that it exists, possible, does not exist, or its existence is unknown. Based on phenomenological approach, the author explicates the method of meting out existence of an object depending on its “internal” status (modus) and “external” (edged) factors. For each intentional object, matters only one meaning (modus) of its predicate of existence (function of objectification). Such function takes place at the moment of intention. It is determined in relativity towards cognizing subject. Depending on the character of such relativity, four types of modes of the object are distinguished: object at the moment of intention streamlines towards “Self”, Other (Others), “here and now” and/or “there and then”. The external (edged) factors of object’s existence are defined by the situation (context) of its study and cognition. For meting out existence of an object, its modus is imposed with limitations (natural paradigms) substantiated by the set goals, which help to constitute the object. Applicable to the scientific cognition, the four types of such limitations are differentiated: contemplation, discussion, observation and experiment. As to the object, viewed relatively to “Self” and potentially unlimited amount of Others, the strongest measure of existence belongs to an object constituted in the experiment. On the contrary, the objects that are determined with regards to “Self” with limitation of “contemplation” represent the cogitable, imaginable objects (for example, undiscussed hypotheses); and by limiting “discussion” represents the debated with someone Other objects (hypothesis, messages, etc.). Such approach to meting out the existence of object can be implemented in various fields of knowledge.
Brandenburg V.Y. - To the problem of formation of scientific knowledge: from classical science to modern stage pp. 66-73


Abstract: The subject of research is the widespread in the Russian philosophical-methodological literature, the concept of the historical types of scientific rationality. According to the author, this concept is contradictory and it does not correctly reflect the dynamics of the development of modern scientific knowledge. The article gives a brief historical and philosophical analysis of the basic stages of development of natural science and socio-humanitarian disciplines of the second half of the nineteenth – twentieth centuries. The validity of the time frame of the formation of non-classical rationality and the selection of concepts post-non-classical rationality and post-non-classical science is called into question.The author of the article relies on the methodology of philosophical analysis and scientific methods of system analysis. In particular, general logical, dialectical, critical methods, analysis and synthesis are used.On the basis of the accomplished historical and philosophical analysis, it is proposed to determine the formation of a new (modern) type of rationality and a new image of science the timeframe of the end of 19th – the last third of the 20th centuries. The name «non-classical rationality» and «non-classical science» is offered to retain (by analogy with the notion of non-classical philosophy).
Grebenshchikova E.G. - The ethos of extra-institutional forms of the production of knowledge in the area of biotechnologies pp. 66-72


Abstract:  The DIY-bio movement (do-it-yourself biology) unites the amateurs, enthusiasts, students and scholars that attempt to introduce such principles of hacker ethics as openness, decentralization, free access to technologies into the sphere of bioscience, and reorganize the biotechnological research towards achieving the equality and social justice. The ethical-axiological landmarks of the movement can be conceptualizes in view of the two models – American and European – the relationships with society, commercial organizations and government structures. At the same time, the activity of “garage biologists” is  considered not only as a new type of network and socially distributed methods of the production of knowledge, but also as a possible response to the criticism of modern academic science and industrial sector. The “garage biology” contributes into the establishment of new communication channels between the science and society, which are not limited by the initiatives “from the top to bottom”, but rather focus on cooperation patterns and social interests.  
Zadorin V.V. - Substantive controversy and dialectics pp. 68-74


Abstract: The subject field of this work refers to logic, which is examined as a sector of philosophy along with physics (philosophy of nature) and ethics (philosophy of spirit). Such an extensive interpretation of logic, which includes various forms of controversy and dialectics, is not universal in the history of philosophy: for example, Kant and Popper, unlike the Stoics and Hegel, review dialectics outside the limits of the logic, and consider it separately. In methodological aspect, the author supports the results formulated in structuring of the formal systems and mathematics of Kleene, namely the finite methods in mathematical reasoning on the properties of controversy of the formal systems – deduction and return induction on the finite set. The adjustment of methodology developed in the course of the intensive progression of logic in the context of mathematics, to the subject field of logic understood in Hegel’s, dialectical-materialistic, and Stoic sense, will contribute into the expansion of methodological potential of a scholar regardless the subject field of his conceptual theory, because hopefully it will suggest the more efficient ways of expansion of the preceding theoretical tasks and set the new goals.
Borzykh S.V. - Two Paths of Science Development pp. 72-90


Abstract: The object of research of this article is the non similarity of approaches natural and the humanities in a knowledge question acts. It is supposed that representatives of these two camps differently look at the world and, therefore, see different regularities, the phenomena and subjects. Estestvenniki simplify reality, reducing it to abstractions that allows them to remove the equations and formulas concerning its nature. Humanists uvyazat in details, trying to embrace immense that does their works as less scientific. Thus we have two ways of development of science. As methods of this research personal experience of the author, the comparative-historical analysis, induction, supervision, a metaphor and analogy, separate cases from science history served Novelty of this work consists not so much in display of division between natural and the humanities, how many illumination of that its party which is usually not noticeable to neither scientific, nor ordinary people. The conclusion is served by the different nature of knowledge at two camps. Humanists unique seek to be Estestvenniki the first. But also that, and another in a wound of degree is necessary for science as that.
Loktionov M. - Critics of the Implementation of Critical Theory and Critical Systems Approach in Modern Concepts of Social Development pp. 86-106


Abstract: Object of research of this work is the criticism of application of the critical theory and critical (emansipatsionny) system approach in the theory of management and modern concepts of development of society in general. The review of the criticism which is "external" in relation to the critical theory and, therefore, calling in question its philosophical and methodological bases and "internal" who is generally kindly adjusted in relation to the critical theory is provided and concentrates the attention on difficulties which the critical theory meets during implementation of the research program. Method of research is detection of distinctions between criticism "external" in relation to the critical theory and calling in question its philosophical and methodological bases and "internal" which is generally positively adjusted in the relation to the critical theory. The conclusion that critical system approach is based on various assumptions of the nature of society developed in other system approaches is drawn and acknowledges the possibility of contradictions in social systems, existence of the conflicts and suppression of one groups of interests by others. Is shown that to the relation to other system methodologies critical system approach inherently anticipates development of the complementarist approaches.
Prokhorov M.M. - Society - Economics - Economism. pp. 113-163


Abstract: The article presents the results of the study of economic science at the level of philosophical fundamentals in comparable empiric and theoretical study level. The author reveals the phenomenon of economism, introducing the relevant term, discussing its influence on economics, being an important part of social life, which includes other spheres bearing negative influence of economism.  The object of studies includes interrelations between society, economics and the phenomenon of economism, which is an attempt of the society to submerge everything into economics, which is perceived as an all-inclusive reality in comparison towards the social reality. The methodological basis for the studies includes dialectics, and it is specialized with the methodological principles of objectivity, development, raising from abstract to specific, unity of historic and logical elements.  The methodological principles are complemented by the opposition of positive (classical) dialectics and negative  (new historical form of opposition of dialectics and metaphysics) dialectics.  It is shown that they have identical approach towards the philosophical worldview, which they attempt to substitute with themselves, while showing inadequacy to being and its development.  The mechanicism is related to an attempt to substitute general philosophical categories with the categories of natural sciences (in the attitude of positivism), while economicsm follows the post-modernism standards and attempts to substitute philosophical provisions with the terms of humanities, attempting to substitute the social reality and its dynamics.  It is no less important for uncovering the nature and overcoming economism (and mechanicism) to show its inadequacy towards objective contents and dynamics of science, the process of its ascent from classical rationality to non-classical rationality and then to post-non-classical rationality. This is the process within which the understanding of ontology of an object, part and whole, their correlation were revised, and it contradicts both mechanicism and economism. The conclusions are of importance for both general and social philosophy.
Zholkov S. - Philosophical problems of the pragmatic theories: genesis and architectonics, I pp. 117-127


Abstract: The subject of this research is the real pragmatics, i.e. targeted activity of the members of society (individuals, human associations). Real pragmatics, in general, in unity and interaction of the natural and humanitarian worlds is the subject of pragmatic theories. In practical aspect, the actual tasks of the analysis and large system management alongside their systemic analysis in unity of the natural scientific and socio-humanitarian components – is a pressing need. The article reveals the requirements to information background and architectonics of the pragmatic theory essential for establishing a reliable scientific theory of the real pragmatics. A comparative analysis with the construct of “theoretical knowledge” proposed by V. S. Stepin is carried out. The author formulates the general laws and requirements to the architectonics of components of the reliable and substantive pragmatic theories. The detailed comparative analysis demonstrates that the scheme of structuring the fundamental and argumentative pragmatic theory is fully compatible with the construct of (post-nonclassical) “theoretical knowledge” of V. S. Stepin. It is underlined that the scheme of theoretical knowledge proposed by V. S. Stepin leans not only on the meticulously examined by the scholar physical theories, but the mathematical theories as well.
Surovyagin D.P. - Explanatory model of reduction: epistemological and ontological aspects pp. 128-142


Abstract: The subject of this research is the explanatory model of reduction, which was originally formulated by E. Nagel and further developed by C. Hempel, P. Oppenheim, J. Kemeny, K. Schaffner, W. Stegmuller and other philosophers of science. The article clarifies the definition of reduction and determines its two basic aspects – epistemological and ontological. If the ontological aspects suggests the reduction of the ideal characteristics and essences to material, then the epistemological aspect implies studying of logical relations between the terms and propositions of scientific theories. The pivotal thesis of the article consists in the statement that the majority of problems of reduction occurs due to the fusion of ontological and epistemological aspects. Therefore, such problems can be eliminated through philosophical analysis of the language of modern epistemology. Examination of epistemological reduction must be separated for the discussions around reductionism, because such discussions are the result of improper interpretation of the terms, and caused by bringing ontological problems into epistemology. The author critically reviews the epistemological status of binding laws, idea of emergence and value of the specifics of certain areas of scientific knowledge. The novelty of this work lies in clarification of the idea of reduction, comparative analysis of reduction and its explanation.
Pris F. - About (Non)Existence of A Priori Conclusion About Physico-Physical and Psycho-Physical Identities pp. 157-182


Abstract: In the article discussion between Blok & Stalnaker and Chalmers & Jackson about physico-physical and psychophysical identities and, in particular, about (not) possibilities of their a priori conclusion is analyzed. It is offered to allow this discussion by correction of both positions, generalizations of concept of a conclusion of a priori, and also elimination of some mixtures between epistemological and ontologic research levels. In the article the points of view of other philosophers relating to a considered perspective also are in brief analyzed. The analysis of positions is carried out in the spirit of late Wittgenstein's pragmatism and in a context of a so-called problem of an explanatory failure to consciousness philosophies. Thus as the basic of not defined concept the vittgenshtaynovsky concept of spontaneity is used. Is established that Chalmers & Jackson exaggerate a priori role in traditional sense whereas Blok & Stalnaker underestimate it. "Aprioristic" elimination of an explanatory failure in identities is possible, and it is possible only post factum and that is generalized a priori with residual spontaneity.
Iakovlev V.A. - The Formation of the new European science: antique metaphysics and Christian values pp. 244-308


Abstract: This article analyzes the basic directions in modern philosophy of science in relation to their treatment of the genesis of theoretical knowledge. It presents the notion that during the Middle Ages, cogitative complexes, incidental to the epoch and connected to classical metaphysics and Christian values, were subtly formed. These new ideas, both epistemic and axiological, came to the fore, and during the Renaissance they formed the fundamental and determinative responses to the genesis of classical science. Using the proposed systems-probability approach, science as a whole is considered to be a specific result of innovative cultural processes, the consequence of a resolution to a difficult situation in the history of creative ideas, and the result of a creative process which was part of the transition from the localised innovations of the Ancient Greek civilization to the universal innovations of European culture.
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