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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Rubric "Philosophy of technology"
Philosophy of technology
Baeva A. - The concept of D. Baird’s material epistemology pp. 62-66

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2018.8.27131

Abstract: This article makes an attempt to reconstructs the main positions of the concept of material epistemology of the contemporary scholar D. Baird on the example of his book “Thing knowledge: A Philosophy of Scientific Instruments”. In modern scientific research, knowledge is understood as a homogenous field of propositional forms of perception, but rather a heterogeneous field of dynamic elements existing in the nonlinear and historically variable relations of coordination. Renunciation of the attempt to describe science as a whole leads, on one hand, to elimination of the problem of searching for the unified foundation of scientific knowledge allowing to focus on the particular scientific practices, namely laboratory practices, which are not reduced only to propositional form of the perception of knowledge. On the other hand, such renunciation problematizes the sociocultural factors of the formation of scientific knowledge. Instrumental realization of theoretical constructs becomes an intrinsic part of experimental science of Modern History: new equipment and technologies ensure science with actions that are not subordinate to nature beyond the tuned optics. Baird’s concept of material epistemology is based on the idea about knowledge that belongs to the thing themselves: equipment and instruments of scientific knowledge. This materialized knowledge defies the propositional description similar to the practices of the formation of knowledge. In terms of radical augmentation of the research objects and increase of the orders of reflection, instrumental epistemology becomes inseparable with the material ontology, perceiving the “thing knowledge” as a certain research artifact.
Yastreb N.A. - Work practices with technical knowledge: epistemological analysis pp. 68-74

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2018.2.25237

Abstract: The subject of this research is the practices of production and application of the technical knowledge that underlay the cognitive situations in the area of modern technologies and undergone substantial changes if compare to the traditional technologies. The main focus falls on the modern technical objects, as well as the specificity of knowledge related to these objects; and transformed compared to the preceding stages of development of the technical knowledge epistemic procedures that occur in the sphere of modern technologies. Special attention is given to examination of the phenomenon of knowledge as an object of technical research. Methodological foundation includes the technical-scientific approach, in the context of which knowledge is viewed in unity of the fundamental and applied aspects, as well as epistemological analysis. The article demonstrates that the most significant transformation of cognitive situation within the modern technical knowledge caused by the progress of modern technologies consists in the fact that the knowledge itself becomes a technical object. Technical knowledge is no more limited by the sphere of design and use of machinery and mechanism, this must be comprehended in a broad sense, as such knowledge that allows obtaining the planned result based in the causal relationships. Cognitive activity in the area of modern technologies is described as a combination of epistemic practices, in other words, methods of work with technical objects aimed at increasing the efficiency of such knowledge that they are structured upon. The author determines the universal for modern technical knowledge epistemic practices of the reverse engineering and cyclic verification.
Galanina E.V., Akchelov E. - Virtual world of a videogame: cultural philosophical analysis pp. 97-111

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2016.7.19313

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the relevant problem of cultural philosophical study of the phenomenon of videogames. The subject of this research is the virtual world of videogames. The authors analyze the essence of the notions “virtual”, “virtual reality”, “virtual world”, “and virtual world of a videogame”. The work presents the results of the conducted analysis of the foreign and Russian literary sourced, dedicated to the questions of examinations of the virtual worlds. The author trace the evolution of the notion “virtual world” within the scientific literature, as well as formulate a generalized definition of the virtual world as a computerized three-dimensional or two-dimensional environment that simulates the real world, and in which the users represented by the avatars are capable of synchronized and simultaneous communication. It is noted that the ability of implementation of a similar definition in examination of the non-computer virtual worlds is limited within the cultural philosophical aspects. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that for the first time the definition of the “virtual world of a videogame” is being formulated. The work also gives definition to the notion “virtual world”, which can be applied not only to a cultural philosophical research of the virtual worlds constructed by videogames, but also to the analysis of the essence of the virtual worlds of non-computer origin.
Samarskaya E.A. - Technocratic Power and Fortunes of Democracy pp. 590-624

DOI:
10.7256/2306-0174.2013.6.605

Abstract: This article is a response to Critique of Technocratic Reason by Marcos Garcia de la Guerta published in Paris in 1996. Marcos Garcia de la Guerta discusses the idea that democracy is needed for overcoming technocratic tendencies. The author makes an assumption that in order to fight technocratic tendencies, it is enough to understand that technology is what makes politics and ideology. As a result, his work does not reflect all the influence of technology on democracy and social life in general. Agreeing with some ideas of Guerta and disagreeing with the others, the author of the given article describes different forms of technocratic reason (that view technology as a neutral device, political and ideological phenomena or an expression of the state institution structure). In this article the author expresses an idea that technocratic reason creates a threat for democracy because it substitutes political demands dictated by human interests with scientific targets. In the end, the author discusses particular ways of confrontation to technocratic reason and technocratic power suggested by Herbert Marcuse, Jacques Ellul, Cornelius Castoriadis and Jürgen Habermas.
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