Philosophical Thought - rubric Philosophy of liberty
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Rubric "Philosophy of liberty"
Philosophy of liberty
Usmanova L.T. - Philosophical doctrine of N. A. Berdyaev on freedom that paves the way for creativity pp. 10-18


Abstract: This article analyzes the philosophical views of the prominent successor of V. S. Solovyov, supporter of existentialism that laid the grounds for N. A. Berdyaev’s philosophy of personalism. In the process of studying the proposed by Russian philosopher concept of world structure, aimed at human and representing the opposite of spirit and nature, emphasis is made on the questions of the genesis of freedom in three forms of its existence (irrational, rational and freedom with love) and justification of human in the existence of evil through creative and positive transformation of the world. Analysis, generalization and systematization of the artistic heritage of N. A. Berdyaev are founded on the following positions of his theory: spirit includes life, freedom and creativity, while nature is a thing, mind and necessity; freedom was not created by God, but existed prior to Him, and thus, God is not responsible for the human’s free will. Personality in realized through ascension of the subconscious (irrational freedom) through the conscious (irrational freedom) to the superonscious (freedom of divine love). Berdyaev’s philosophy of personalism is viewed through the dominant role of personality that possesses the divine attributes of the Creator. The creative activity of a human is presented as supplementary to divine live, as “divine-human”.
Yurasov A.A. - Critical analysis of I. Kants concept of free will pp. 22-36


Abstract: The subject of this research is Immanuel Kant’s concept of free will. The article presents critical analysis of this concept and demonstrates its ambiguity. Special attention is given to Kant’s teaching on the transcendental and practical freedom, as well as the concept of the autonomy of will. If during precritical period, Kant adhered to the traditional compatibilism, then during critical period, the philosopher created compatibilistic concept of the new type. Its distinction from his previous views is defined by the idea of independence of the free will from external circumstances. Research methodology synthesizes the historical-philosophical reconstruction of the Kant’s concept of free will with the critical conceptual analysis of its main principles. The article demonstrates the invalidity of opinions of the researchers who attempted to show that Kant advocated incompatibilism. The difficulties faced by Kant’s concept of free will relate to ambiguity of his perceptions on the thing in itself, autonomy of will, as well as improper substantiation of the thesis and antithesis of the third antinomy. The incorrectness of Kant’s teaching on the autonomy of will has a range of aspects: 1) impossibility to release the idea of universal legislation from the idea of the autonomy of will; 2) inaccuracy of the teaching on categorical imperative; 3) groundlessness of the opinion that only moral acts are free; 4) cognitivism; 5) ambiguity of Kant’s perception on the definition of will.
Mamarasulov A.R. - Problems of Definition of Freedom Through the Concept of Responsibility pp. 25-43



Abstract: The subject of the study is the cognitive relationship between the concept of responsibility and the idea of freedom. The objects of research are the philosophical categories of responsibility and freedom. The author examines in detail such aspects of the topic as the epistemological disparity of these categories, the difference in their specificity as concepts, as well as the features of responsibility and freedom in the role of effective phenomena. Particular attention is paid to the problem of the possibility of defining or objectifying freedom through the concept of responsibility in those areas where such interaction is most evident, namely: at the intellectual, metaphysical, social levels and in the field of personal being. The main conclusion of the study is: responsibility is a psychological modification of the category of necessity, which returns to the classical antinomy "necessity-freedom" and does not allow making responsibility an epistemological correlate of freedom. This theoretical conclusion is supported by an analysis of the effect of responsibility on freedom in all spheres of human existence considered in the study, where responsibility does not define freedom, but, on the contrary, levels it. The main contribution of the author to the study is that responsibility is considered not as a moral category, but as a structural phenomenon defined through the concept of "whole". The novelty of the research lies in the author's attempt, being in the field of ethics, to separate responsibility and freedom as essentially different and not having a linear cognitive connection concepts.
Viazinkin A. - The phenomenon of Russian nihilism in ideological legacy of A. I. Herzen pp. 37-48


Abstract: The subject of this research is the problem of “Russian nihilism”, developed in the philosophical works of Russian thinker Alexander Ivanovich Herzen. Placed in a more extensive context of revolutionary-democratic thought and philosophy of populism (Narodnichestvo), the phenomenon of “Russian nihilism” requires a profound gnoseological analysis. The results of this historical-philosophical analysis testify to the fact that the phenomenon carries rather philosophical-anthropological importance rather than socio-philosophical importance, as its core is the idea on the type of “nihilist”. Question about the genealogy of nihilist type aroused debates between D. I. Pisarev and A. I. Herzen, which became one of the key sources of interpretations of the “Russian nihilism” as a social and spiritual-cultural phenomenon of Russian civilization. The scientific novelty consists in considering the worldview of the Russian thinker through the prism of his aesthetic interpretation of nihilism. Russian nihilism is described as a polygenetic phenomenon of national culture, and Herzen as one of the ideological forerunner and inspirer of the “Russian nihilism”, Herzen synthesized the main problem of the Russian philosophy – liberation of man, with the idea of radical individualism (sovereign personality) and libertine. Based on a number of analytical theses, formulated in the article, Herzen’s worldview of the late 1940’s – early 1850’s is characterizes as “aesthetic nihilism”.
Parkhomenko R.N. - Veritas non auctoritas facit legem* (on evolution of the concept of public sphere of J. Habermas pp. 41-51


Abstract: The subject of this research is the concept of political public sphere considered in the works of J. Habermas. The article traces the emergence of the phenomenon of political publicity, which in Habermas’ opinion, initially appears as a requirement of the developing economy of Western countries. The political public sphere affected the formation of Anglo-Saxon model of the state that implied the primate of law and rational reasoning, as well as public discussion of the relevant economic and political questions. In accordance with the indicated paradigm of political thoughts, the appropriate in the state must coincide with the just. Methodology lies in examination of the works of Habermas, including the untranslated into the Russian language and relatively unknown in Russia. The main conclusion consists in the statement that Habermas believes that the legislation in democratic state must represent not a result of political will, but based on the rational agreement of all actors of the free market. Public sphere, therewith, is called to bring more transparency into the democratic process of decision-making in the state.
Rakhmanovskaya E. - Two images of authority pp. 62-72


Abstract: The subject of this research is the hunger for power, its origins, and ways of manifestation. Lust for power is viewed as a universal, inseparable quality of human nature. It is stated that each individual initially possesses the autocratic potential, but its fulfillment depends on the path selected for self-realization: actual growth of strength, creative activity, formation of authority, or creation of simulacrum, phantom nature of power expressed in authoritarianism, use of seizure of power, compulsion and oppression as an instrument of acquisition of power. The main method of this study lies in comparing the authoritative and authoritarian types of power and determination of the essential differences. The author applies the principles and approaches of philosophical anthropology, social philosophy, and psychoanalysis. The conclusion is made that the insurmountable lust for power evolves due to the blocked realization of the initial autocratic potential. Authority from the power is not passion, but represents a task, horizon for the development of personal qualities. It enters the field of constant struggle for self-determination due to the inevitable burden of authoritarianism.
Ukhov A.E., Kovrov E.L., Simonyan E.G. - The problem of freedom in the philosophy of John Locke: semiotic interpretation pp. 63-81



Abstract: The article shows the connection between the social constructions of political liberalism and its ontological justification in the system of J. Locke. With the help of semiotics and comparative philosophical analysis of the views of modern philosophers B. Spinoza, T. Hobbes, J. Locke, R. Filmer, J.-J. Rousseau, I. Kant, such problems as the nature of state power, the concept of freedom, natural law, social contract, the right of the people to revolution are analyzed. The semiotic context of natural law is revealed, and it is concluded that happiness, as the goal of New Age individuals quest, according to Locke, is thought to be a rational and, therefore, a free being. Linking the natural need to be a free being not only with the organization of state power, but also with religious need, Locke concludes that political participation itself can be considered not just as a way to achieve freedom, but also as the purpose for a person to improve themselves morally and politically. For Locke, state power turns out to be an integral part of society, and the balance between them always shifts towards society as the source of the social contract. At the same time, the negative meaning of freedom in Locke prevails over the positive, saving the latter from sliding into totalitarianism of the Jacobin type, as in Rousseau. The conclusion is drawn about the relevance of ideas about the need for free choice of citizens to build a rule of lawful state and develop democracy.
Alenevskii I.A. - Three knots in the problem of freedom of will pp. 68-76


Abstract: The subject of this research is the problem of freedom of will within the history of European thought that leads to the actual anthropological situation of modernity – trending towards posthumanism. The problem determines the three parts of knots subjected to untangling: existential, philosophical, and scientific (worldview). The key task lies in development of the adequate theoretical apparatus for the problem of freedom of will that allows detecting the actuality of human existence; collecting and retaining in multiplicity the forms and methods, in which a human shows his will (strong or weak, soft or firm, tense or wise, etc.); as well as making conclusions of worldview character on freedom. The scientific novelty consists in theoretical formulation of the problem of freedom of will that is capable to determine the multiplicity of forms, corresponds to reality that makes a human to grasp and show his will. The character of these forms testifies to the turbulence or crisis of willful consciousness. Unlike the metaphysics that ascribes to free will of a human the universal normative form of the moral law (Kant) or moral responsibility (modern analytical discussions), the article determines the existential part of the problem, which allows structuring the philosopheme of free will and unraveling its distinct theoretical form and practical implementation that can have aesthetic, ethical, and political dimensions.  
KOZHUKHOVSKIY P.S. - Recognition and cultural deformation of personality in Nancy Frasers philosophy pp. 77-82


Abstract: The subject of this research is such aspect of social philosophy as the philosophy of recognition. Over the two recent decades, a growing number of the philosophers and political scientists started considering the recognition of personality a promising basis for participation in the moral criticism of social life. Nancy Fraser utters strong doubts regarding the critical potential of the personality recognition theories due to the fact that they encourage the simplification of personal identity to cultural identity. The article attempts to demonstrate the drastic distinction between Nancy Fraser’s philosophy and philosophy of other representatives of the problematic of recognition. The study applies the hermeneutic methodology; problem-thematic analysis and interpretation of material; structural-functional, historical, and comparative-historical methods. The main conclusion of the conducted research consists in the relevance of problematic set by Nancy Fraser. Unfortunately, the modern Russian philosophical thought does not give proper attention to the problem of recognition, although in the West, such problematic is quite popular and one of the most discussed.
KOZHUKHOVSKIY P.S. - Axel Honneths concept of three dimensions pp. 91-104


Abstract: The subject of this research is the theory of the “struggle for recognition” of Axel Honneth, a prominent representative of the modern liberal thought. This work explores the main idea of Axel Honneth’s theory, in which he mentions about the existence of the three spheres of dimension within the phenomenon of recognition – existence as an emotional, normative (ideological-rational), and social recognition. We should note that this topic carries a relevant character in the modern philosophy and is examined by many scholars in Russia and abroad. The main conclusion consists in the actualization of the problematics presented by Axel Honneth. Unfortunately, the modern Russian philosophy does not give due attention to this subject of study, although in the West the problem of recognition is a very popular, as well as one of the most debatable topics today.
Parkhomenko R.N. - Habermas' Discursive Concept of Freedom pp. 117-148


Abstract: The article is devoted to the prerequisites of Jurgen Habermas' theory of society as well as his idea of deliberative democracy that is based on the discursive agreement of all members of the society on vital social issues. Opposed to the classical interpretation of democracy, Habermas' consensus principle states that laws and regulations are legitimate not because they are mandatory for all individuals but because these laws and regulations are willingly accepted by all members of the society. In the classical theory of demoracy laws and regulations must be willingly accepted by individuals because they are just and fair, while Habermas' principle of justice is based on the democratic principle that these laws and regulations are accepted by all individuals concerned. Therefore, grounds for accepting a law or regulation are created not by practical reason or theoretical research but by open discussion of all members of the society. As an addition to the article, you shall also find Jurgen Habermas' brief biography and an extensive list of references. 
Parkhomenko R.N. - Genesis of the Idea of Freedom in Western European Philosophy pp. 179-210
Abstract: The author of the article traces back the formation and development of the idea of freedom in Antique, Medieval and New European Philosophies up to Descartes' ideas. The analysis shows that modern definition of the ide of freedom as well as the ideas of law, justice and civil society are based on Antique and Medieval philosophies. Following philosophies and political studies only develop theoretical categories and application of these categories in formation of modern democratic states. 
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