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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Rubric "Religions and religious renaissance"
Religions and religious renaissance
Donets A.M. - The "Cover" Concept as an Obstacle to the Liberation of Personology in the Gelug Tradition pp. 1-10


Abstract: The subject of this research is the adopted in the Buddhist philosophy concept of “interceession” – the factors that impede the attainment of Buddhahood, the "negation" of which leads a person to enlightenment through the Buddhist practice. The article explicates the classification of "intersession", accepted in the Mahayana tradition that determines the two main types: "cover of kleshas" and the "cover of the knowable." The innate "cover of the kleshas" is defined as "coming from the eternal" view, recognizing the "truth of self-existence." This is accompanied by a set of kleshas and associated factors generated on its basis, as well as their seeds and the "cover of kleshas" acquired in life – in other words, false representations acquired in life with kleshas and other factors generated by them. "The cover of the knowable" is defined as a complex formation, consisting of the imprints of kleshas, certain types of obscuration and sinfulness. The work analyzes in detail their composition and describes the methods of practice assigned for their elimination.
Furtsev D.O. - History of establishment and functional meaning of the fasting in Judaism pp. 1-7


Abstract: This article examines the tradition of temporary abstinence from food – fasting in Judaism. Its establishment relates to the evolution of Ancient Jewish community and the state, which took place over the course of many years. Certain disasters and tragic occurrences in life of the community or an individual served as the circumstances for fasting; there is also a system of permanent fasts for commemorating global scale events. The tradition of temporary abstinence from food in Judaism rarely become an object of research among the modern scholars, except several articles that carry a rather informative character. The article describes the dependence between the emergence of temporary abstinence from food and social, political, historical, and other circumstances. The author determines the role of fasting in life of a religious congregation. The conclusion is made on the objective factors of the appearance of fasting tradition in Judaism. The article can be valuable for further research of food traditions in Judaism, as well as in educational courses on Judaism.
Klimkov O. - The doctrine of Gregory of Sinai and its impact upon the hesychast revival in the XIV century pp. 14-28


Abstract: The object of this research is the theological-mystical doctrine of Gregory of Sinai, emerged within the centuries-old monastic practice of “mental prayer”. His works made a fundamental contribution into the systematization and conceptual comprehension of this teaching in Byzantium and medieval Rus’, significantly affecting the development of the religious-philosophical culture. The subject of this research is the Gregory’s active efforts on distribution of the revived by him doctrine of silence and sobering as a true meaning of the monastic life far beyond Bizantium, as well as his contribution into the hesychast revival in the XIV century. The main chapters of the indicated teaching are the following: philosophical-anthropological views of Gregory of Sinai; his concepts of astonishment and fervor; analysis of passions from the perspective of Plato’s three parts of the soul; classification of the virtues; representation on the specificity of personality of pedagogue, orator, and philosopher; concept of spiritual feeling; admonition for Hesychius; theological demarcation of the subjects of spiritual contemplation.
Gizha A.V. - Religion in the conditions of the new-European subjectivity of classical and postmodern periods pp. 59-69


Abstract: This article examines the specificity of the religious form of social consciousness from the historical and meta-historical perspectives. It is defined by the distinctive features of Modern Time, which in one way or another are continued with the postmodern period. The enlightenment of Marxist criticism of religion is fair but incomplete, as it considers only sociopolitical factors of existence and functions of the religious form of activity and consciousness. A question is raised on the meta-historical content of religion that consists in the inherent to it experience of preconceptual cognition of the world. It carries a status of the ontologically established moral attitude, which in the abstract-unexpanded form underlies the establishment of the historically given sociality. The key method and principle of research is the logical-dialectic examination, unfolded historically and specified in essential regard. The main conclusions of the conducted research consist in reasoning on the marginalization taking place in the conditions of postmodernism of the enlightenment cultural-historical paradigm, reactualization of the rudiment naturalistic religious ideas, the historical role of religion as the prime genesis of supernatural cosmos of human existence, the need for re-structuralizing the glossary of theological discourse and conceptual revelation of the proto-experience of religious consciousness.
Urbanaeva I.S. - Introduction of meditation into Indo-Tibetan tradition in the context of gradual path of Mahayana pp. 63-74


Abstract: The subject of this research is the Indo-Tibetan tradition of Buddhist meditation, viewed in the context of Indian and Tibetan Buddhist texts, as well as Tibetan oral tradition of Dharma transmission, realized in the past by Je Tsongkhapa, and currently by the 14th Dalai Lama Tenzin Gyatso and other Tibetan lamas. The goal lies in preliminary consideration of Buddhist mediation as a phenomenon of the Buddhist spiritual practice, an important element of practical functioning of the Teaching of Buddha, determination of the place of mediation in the Noble Eightfold Path, characteristics of its concept and types. The author uses hermeneutic approach that leans on the systemic view of the functional aspect of the Teaching of Buddha, as well as hermeneutic understanding of meditation phenomenon, etymological and contextual analysis of meditation in functional relation with Buddhist ethics and philosophy. The main conclusion consists in the thesis that meditation in Buddhism is one of the three basis practices (morality, focus, and wisdom), as well as an essential technique in exercising and developing higher wisdom, and therefore a quintessential means for realization of Dharma. The Tibetan tradition practices two types of meditation – analytical meditation with such its variety as reflective meditation; as well as unidirectional focus.
Zhirtueva N. - Muslim Sufism in the context of comparative analysis of philosophical and mystical traditions of the world pp. 77-91


Abstract: The object of the research in this article is Sufism as Muslim mystical tradition. The Research is carried out in the context of comparative analysis of the philosophical and religious traditions of the world according to the three essential attitudes: 1) the substance of the Absolute; 2) the intersubordination of ideal and phenomenal beings; 3) the methods of mystic phychopractice. Sufism is complicated and contradictory philosophical and religious world view. Antinomical mystics of Islam is characterized as balancing between the immanent and transcendent poles in the perception of Absolute reality, a mixed solution of the issue of intersubordination of ideal and phenomenal beings, variety of mystical phychopractices.Methodology of the study: comparative philosophical religious analysis. The main method of the study: comparative analytical. General scientific methods: analysis, synthesis, generalization, individualization, historical narrative.The most influential mystical tradition of Islam is transcendental immanent (antinomical) Sufism aimed at “union” with the Absolute (tawhid). “The Doctrine of Love" contributed to the formation of the integrative mystical tradition. The methods of Sufism phychopractice are love-trust to the Absolute (dhikr, tawakkul), meditative contemplation of the Absolute (fikr), disciplinary asceticism (halva), psychosomatic exercise (sama). The result of mystical practice is transfiguration of the person, who is endowed with moral qualities of the Absolute.
Loshchenkov A.V. - Gyuto Tantric Monastery: preservation and translation of knowledge pp. 83-92


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the system of education in GyutoTantric Monastery, introduction to the scientific discourse of the full list of subjects and titles of the texts, their identification according to collected writings of the Indian and Tibetan authors. The author determines the fundamental sources and commentarial literature; describes the history of establishment of the monastery. Based on textological analysis, the author defines the pivotal role of Je Tsongkhapa’s texts pertinent to formation of education system in the monastery. It is found that for understanding the studied  subjects were used the textbooks comprised by Gyuchen Kunga Dondrub – the founder of the monastery. In the course of this research, the author combined the classical textological approach and contextual analysis that considered the Buddhist commentarial tradition, as well as applied the methods of analytical comparison, structural and substantive classification, textological method of precise description of education structure. The scientific novelty lies in introduction into the scientific discourse of the previously unexplored system of education and its textbooks for acquiring academic Buddhist degrees in the Tantra “Kyerimpa” and “Nagrampa”. This will allow identifying and introducing the sources under such titles, as well as commentarial literature created in Tibet, and possibly, in Buryatia. This research carries specific value for determining the education curriculum in the tantric faculties in datsans of Buryatia, on which there is basically no information, otherwise than their affiliation to the curriculum of Guyto and Gyudmed Tibetan Monasteries.   
Aleinik R.M. - Anniversary of the Reformation as a motive for discussing the nature of faith pp. 93-101


Abstract: On the 500th anniversary of the Reformation, the question of God and the essence of faith is not removed from the agenda. Luther, who initiated a debate with the Roman Church on indulgence and repentance, was not going to enter into battle with her, but it happened and has lasted all these centuries. The current celebration of this anniversary takes place in the context of a search for dialogue between churches. This is a new ecumenism, the ecumenism of personalities, ready to borrow each other's experience. The Russian Orthodox Church remained aloof from this confrontation, but traveled along its twisty path in the twentieth century from being subject to persecution to entering a time of a pro-Orthodox consensus: the majority of the population consider Orthodoxy an important element of Russian identity. But this consensus exists in the conditions of pluralism of ideologies and creeds. There is complexity in relation to confessional norms within the ROC. We still do not have a single Old Believer identity. Different understandings mutually deny the Orthodox for each other. The ideal of normality is treated differently by representatives of theology, philosophy and religious studies. Also, the question of the possibility of synthesizing science and faith, which is especially acute in the era of the "knowledge society", is also ambiguously interpreted. How is the problem of this kind being discussed by the Europeans? As the main source, the author uses the discussion between the Protestant theologian R. Bultman and the existential philosopher K. Jaspers who caused public resonance.R. Bultmann proposed to update the approach to the interpretation of Christian dogma, calling it the concept of demythologization based on the fundamental ontology of M. Heidegger. It received an ambiguous evaluation from contemporaries and prompted discussion from K. Jaspers. These materials have been published. They represent the main source of this article. The author relies on the methodological principles of historical and philosophical research, the methodology of sociology of religion and philosophical religious studies, hermeneutic analysis. The discussion touches on questions of faith and Revelation, faith and language, faith and truth, scientific and existential understanding of history. Attention is drawn to the qualitative level of this polemic, demonstrating the profound meaningfulness of the discussion and the very dialogic truth that M. Bakhtin, M. Buber, N. Lossky, E. Levinas, and K. Levi-Strauss proclaimed and the will to communicate.
Golovushkin D.A. - Orthodox Fundamentalism: An Attempt of Understanding pp. 111-155


Abstract: The article deals with the problem of Orthodox fundamentalism. Despite the importance of this topic, it was not given due consideration within Russian sociology. That brings to life numerous myths, stereotypes and media clichés. For this reason the article is primarily focused on the issues of theory and methods. It raises the issue of defining and modifying of religious fundamentalism discusses the relation between religious fundamentalism and orthodoxy, the correlation between religious fundamentalism and religious renovation, shows the sources and ideological basis of the Orthodox pseudo-fundamentalism.In order to meet these challenges it was necessary to address modern scientific concepts of fundamentalism and the spiritual heritage of Russian religious and philosophical thought of the 20th century. Work was conducted in parallel with this on the conceptualization of religious fundamentalism as an ambivalent phenomenon that does not exclude religious modernism and other opposite religious ideologies and world-views. On the basis of this the following conclusions were made:1) Orthodox fundamentalism is a complex multilevel and multifaceted phenomenon. Its phenomenology, structural and functional features and manifestations depend not only on the specific character of Orthodoxy as an original trend in Christianity but also on the social and cultural context in which fundamentalism appeared, on the nature of values and aims which are characteristic for the given period. 2) The domination of social and political agenda in the Orthodox fundamentalism in combination with under-development or ignoring of theological issues gave rise to the emergence of such a phenomenon as Orthodox pseudo-fundamentalism which makes religion an instrument of social and political activity with unchristian aims and means. 3) Orthodox fundamentalism is ambivalent and oriented not only towards archaization and conservation but also to a creative renovation of religion and society. It looks to the future, offers new guidelines, social and political models, which will have an objective impact on searching further ways of development.
Afanasenko Y.A. - Guilt: Between Punishment and Forgiveness pp. 129-178
Abstract: The topic of the research is the guiltiness (or personal guilt) as a cultural phenomenon. The subject is the relation between guilt and punishment/forgiveness. The purpose of the research is to define the opposite notions covered by the guilt concept, how these notions are conditioned by cultural environment and in what way they are related to forgiveness and punishment. Theoretical grounds for this study include Ernst Cassirer's symbolic interpretation of culture, Jung's and Horney's psychoanalysis and A. Dugin's syntagma. For us, guilt is often the problem of self-understanding and existential self-identity, therefore overcoming the feeling of guilt involves either being responsible and taking the blame upon oneself or being repressive and transfering the guilt on someone else. The authors of the article suggest their own definition of guilt and ambivalency where guilt, first of all, is a life vital phenomenon, an existential addressed directly to human existence while ambivalency is a category describing the essence of human existence in culture, especially in Art Nouveau. From the existential point of view, the feeling of guilt means self-accusation, self-condemnation or conscience. This idea of guilt is expressed only in symbolic context and this is why we can speak of a special role of the religious, philosophical and psychoanalytical vocabulary in modern culture. These are the concepts which allow human to keep the connection with the transcendental and life vital questioning and aiming at a higher moral principle, on one hand, and a constructive feeling of the 'dark' side of our own self, on the other hand. Neorotic guilt is opposed to the existential definition of guilt. Its main feature is a projective and vengeful nature, in other words, it is often transferred to other people. Neurotic guilt is typical for a person who hasn't experienced the feeling of guilt in a symbolic environment. Modern cultural environment represents the situation that contributes to the semiotic interpretation of culture, so self-accusation becomes quite an issue. 
Omarova Z.U. - Transformation of the Religious Mind: Modern Aspect pp. 160-183
Abstract: Today the Russian State exist in conditions of unstable, complicated and contradictory world, dynamic and multivariate patterns of the course of events and challenging international relations that are made even worse by the crisis. Analysis of the confessional situation allows to define tendencies typical for processes inside religious organizations, arising in connection with them as well as with the state relations and influencing  not only confessional and inter-confessional but also political and ecoomic relations in the world. 
Pershin Y.Y. - Typology of the Archaic Religious Conscience: Anthropological Grounds pp. 471-495


Abstract: The lack of the operational typology of the archaic conscience and archaic religiosity actualizes the topic of the present article. There are numerous typologies of religions, but as a rule all these typologies do not touch deep unconscious (i. e. anthropological) grounds that can serve as a basis for a typology. They usually are eurocentric and confessiocentric. But it is the human unconscious of both, primitive and modern man, that contains different types of psychic reactions on the environmental chal-lenges. These psychic reactions are genetically fixed, and they influence the choosing of the communicative religious reality if we study the human religiosity in the communicative aspect. The analysis of the mythological conscience shows that it is not homogenous and can be divided into two types. Therefore, in the article the author actualizes the problem of division of the ar-chaic religious conscience into two types: primordial, natural or physiogenous and sociogenous. The main differences between these two types of archaic religious conciseness are also presented in this article.
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