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Ethics
Mekhed G.N. - The idea of meta-subjectivity and the problem of autonomy in Kant’s ethics pp. 12-25

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2018.5.26160

Abstract: This article examines Kant’s ethics through the prism of general philosophical idea of meta-subjectivity, the most basic theoretical foundation for which is the embarked by Kant in the “Critique of Pure Reason” substantiation of the principles of critical rationalism. The author demonstrates how the idea of meta-subject (transcendental subject), introduced by Kant in the theory of cognition, affects his interpretation of a number of fundamental traditional concepts of ethics, such as “moral subject”, “freedom of will”, and especially “autonomy”. It turns out that the concept of autonomy and its interpretation by Kant is associated with a number of emanating problems, particularly the problem of moral evil and problem of responsibility, “authorship” of the doings. Methodology of the research leans directly on Kant’s texts with fairly loose interpretation, as well as comparative research of the key sources of Kant studies with regards to autonomy. The article allows tracing the conceptual link between Kant’s transcendentalism and other related philosophical teachings, all the way from Upanishads in Antiquity until the contemporary “open individualism” of D. Kolak, as well as the concepts in spirit of the “integral approach” of K. Wilber.
Mekhed G.N. - Morals as the Absolute Bounds of Reason in Immanuel Kant's Ethics pp. 17-44

DOI:
10.7256/2306-0174.2014.5.12351

Abstract: The author of the article analyzes Kant's ethical theory in its communication with methodological aspects of his general philosophy and its central problem, definition of concept and bounds of reason. According to Kant, ethics are the highest form of philosophy. At the heart of the Copernican revolution made in philosophy by Kant there is not the constructivism introduction in the knowledge theory but bringing of the good (good will) to the level of the only absolute lies not so much. Thus the chronology of works of Kant does not always coincides with internal logic of movement of its philosophy: from the moral law to the star sky, i.e. from Criticism of practical reason to Criticism of pure reason. The idea of freedom as identities of will and good is necessary Kant as the valuable matrix defining his constructivism in the theory of knowledge. Kant considered idea of freedom as the main postulate of practical reason, so and its main limit. Thus freedom is understood by it as an exit out of limits of the empirical subject and coincidence to the transcendental subject of morals. Kant's this approach corresponds to crisis of rationality of the middle of the XX century when after Einstein, Bohr and Gedel's major opening the confidence of opportunities of human reason to learn an objective truth was shaken.
Platonov R.S. - Sociocultural aspect of Plato’s dialogue “The Republic” pp. 18-34

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2018.12.28075

Abstract: The object of this research is Plato’s dialogue “The Republic”; the subject is the practical component of Plato’s ethical doctrine in form that it presented in this dialogue. The author sets the goal to determine the specificity of sociocultural practices generated by the moral theory of Plato; and for this purpose examines the practice of deception that is expressed in this dialogue in the most distinguish and gradual way. It is determined what type of problems are solved by Plato through the practice of deception, and what kind of problems it can lead to. Based on the analysis of application of the notion of “lie”, the author reconstructs the concept of deception in text of the dialogue “The Republic”. The scientific novelty lies in providing a holistic and structured reconstruction of the concept of deception in Plato’s ethical doctrine (dialogue “The Republic”) in its relation to the anthropological and ontological problematic. A conclusion is made that the designed by Plato arrangement order of the life of polis leads to sociocultural gaps between the three types of citizens, disintegration of polis; and such gaps must be overcome, according to Plato, by the practice of deception aimed at formation of certain worldview. However, gradual reconstruction of such practice described by Plato demonstrates that the problem of sociocultural gaps only enhances, and moreover – it leads to disruption of moral foundations of life of the polis.  
Maximov L.V. - Moral duty: the problem of substantiation pp. 35-45

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2018.12.28213

Abstract: In modern meta-ethical literature, the analysis of various approaches towards rational substantiation of morality is one of the leading research trends. If in ethical thought of the past, the object of substantiation was manly the “ethical law” as a peculiar (metaphysical) essence, in meta-ethics it usually means the substantiation of ethical paradigms of the actual subjects of morality, in other words, foregrounding the arguments that can convince a certain nominal skeptically inclined individual to accept and adhere to the norms of morality established by society. In particular, the author notes an inappropriate substitution of reasoning with explanation, moral duty – with other modalities that are formally signified by the same term. The article uses the methods of logical-linguistic analysis applicable to such ethical and meta-ethical discourses that represent the different versions of substantiation of moral duty. The work demonstrates that it is namely intention of the duty, rather than its specific subject vector is the determinant attribute of moral motivation (because the subject content of moral norms and motives can be the object of both, moral duty and immoral incitements). Therefore, the fundamental impossibility of rational substantiation of such intention should be considered the theoretical disputes that touch upon the general problems of substantiation of morality.  
Chernenko V.A. - Socrates – Alain Badiou: the parallels of ethical discourse pp. 67-74

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2017.1.18554

Abstract: The object of this research is the ethical discourses of Socratic philosophy and “Ethics” (published in 2003; translated to Russian in 2006) of the modern French philosopher Alain Badiou. The subject of this research is the conceptual parallels, which emerge between them as a result of similar ontological, gnoseological, and ethnical orientations of the Ancient Greek philosopher and our contemporary. For both, Socrates and Badiou, the initial property of humanness consists in ability towards the impartial interest in the search of ethos (consistent) foundation of the Universe. This, in turn, institutionalizes human as a creature, in which his animalistic beginning can be disrupted or canceled by the faithfulness of the truth, which being excessive with regards to our biologically temporal nature, forms our subjectness capable of immortality. The author concludes that ethical discourse of the Socratic dialogues and A. Badiou’s “Ethics” reveal similar conceptual parallels:Infinite otherness (multiplicity);Truth is indifferent to differences;We possess an ability to be what is called by certain truth towards own identity;There is no ethics except the ethics of processes of the truth (science, love, art, politics or Good – Truth – Beauty);Immortal in human appears as the position of impartial interest in the World as a purposeful self-worth;Tension of the moral discourse lies in horizon of the constant choice between the ethics of endless/necessary; real/possible;Truth can manifest itself only in the dialogue (polylogue). Truths make their singular penetration [percee] only through the fabric of opinions. We all need to communicate...It is we ourselves, as ourselves, who expose ourselves to the becoming-subject…Every absolutization of the power of a truth organizes an Evil.
Yarkeev A.V. - The ethics between possibility and impossibility pp. 101-108

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2016.9.20399

Abstract: The subject of this research is the modern being of ethics in the paradoxical-bordering situation of possibility/impossibility. It is demonstrated that the limit of Kant’s ethics, which is being structured from the position of the absolute subjectivity by the analog with the scientific principles of objectivity and universality. The author explains the abstract nature of the categorical imperative, the requirement of which is incompatible with life. The ultimate embodiment of failure of the ethics is the Nazi concentration camps that completely destroy the human dignity and negate any moral. The true ethics is confirmed as possible impossibility or impossible possibility. The methodological foundation of this research lies in the fundamental ontology of M. Heidegger, which is based on the principle of the law of identity of the being and reason. The main conclusion consists in the fact that ethnics initially represents the residence of human existence (“ethos”) based on the law of identity between the being and reason, which requires to be in accord with yourself, as well as the entire world. The denial of reason and necessity is accompanied by the nihilation of being constituting in various manifestations of the social evil.  
Artemieva O. - The problem of imperativeness in the virtue ethics pp. 125-138

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2016.12.2119

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the analysis of the problem of imperativeness in modern ethics. The author highlights the two aspects: 1) discussion of imperativeness as one of the manifestations of morality; 2) criticism of the imperative in ethics. In the second case, the theoretical perception of morality as a mostly compulsory power is subjected to criticism. The article reconstructs the foundations of criticism of the imperative ethics, as well as analyzed the critical argumentation. Due to the fact that the majority of supporters of the virtue ethics do not deny the importance of moral imperative, the article clarifies the question of what is the role and place of this phenomenon within the virtue ethics. It is demonstrated that the aretaic criticism of ethical imperative was caused by the understanding of unsatisfactory attempts within the framework of the imperativistic concepts of clarification of the normative content of morality, its substantiation and systematization. The supporters of the virtue ethics solve these tasks through inclusion into the area of their study of the goals and values associated with the human existence. They believe that the imperatives can be explained only through the correlation with these goals and values. In the foundation of criticism in the virtue ethics of imperative lies the understanding of the fact that the phenomenon of morality cannot be reduced to one of its manifestations, in this case – the imperative. Morality is complicated and divergent in its composition. Particularly, it manifests not only through the imperatives, but also through the virtues. Insisting on the opinion that morality is not reduced to the imperative, the supporters of the virtue ethics attempt to establish the concept of morality, which will reflect the diversity of the moral experience of a human.
Mekhed G.N. - The experience of comparative analysis of the ethics of I. Kant and F. M. Dostoyevsky: methodological commentary pp. 130-143

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2016.11.2030

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the determination of methodological ground for comparative research of the ethics of Kant and Dostoyevsky. The researchers of Dostoyevsky creative works have not yet come to a consensus on the question of whether or not Dostoyevsky was familiar with Kant’s philosophy, at least in general. The author carries out an analysis of a broad circle of literature on the topic “Dostoyevsky and Kant”, as well as reconstruction of the concepts of a few thinkers, who could affect Kant and Dostoyevsky, as well as contribute to the introduction of Dostoyevsky to Kant’s philosophy. The work substantial the thesis about the formulation of a peculiar philosophical-literary method by Dostoyevsky for cognition of ethical phenomena, which makes possible the reconstruction of Dostoyevsky’s philosophy based on his compositions, and thus, direct comparison of Dostoyevsky’s ethics with Kant’s ethics. The author also supports and explains the idea of N. N. Vilmont that Dostoyevsky was familiar with the fundamental ideas of Kant’s philosophy through F. Schiller. In conclusion, the author underlines that Kant’s ethics and Dostoyevsky’s ethical philosophy had at least one common source of influence consisted in the philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau. All of these together allows making a conclusion about the methodological substantiation of comparative analysis of the ethics of Kant and Dostoyevsky.
Mamarasulov A.R. - The necessity of metaphysical moment in rational definition of the notions of “good” and “evil” pp. 138-147

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2017.12.24822

Abstract: The subject of this research is the ethical categories of “good” and “evil”, analyzed in the context of modern moral consciousness. The object is the metaphysical aspect of ethics, examined as one of its most essential grounds. The author meticulously explores such aspects of the topic as the interrelation of the utilitarian-pluralistic, imperative, and creative concepts in comprehension of the basic notions of ethics, conceptual contradictions between them, as well as identifies the rational and metaphysical foundation for the theoretical understanding of the categories of “good” and “evil” applicable to the modern moral culture. The author applies axiological method as the key for defining the content of the study, as well as the method of structural analysis. The following conclusions were made: the biosocial perception of the categories of “good” and “evil” that forms the common moral consciousness, cannot serve as substantial grounds for ethical consciousness; ethics originates from metaphysics, and the basic notions of ethics are defined in terms of the metaphysical ideas of inherent value and freedom of an individual. Author’s special contribution consists in analysis of the creative concept in comprehending the categories of “good” and “evil”. The scientific novelty lies in the attempt to rationalizes the conceptual component of the ethical consciousness regarding its metaphysical content.
Chernenko V.A. - Peter - Jesus -Judas: Ethic Triangle pp. 171-183

DOI:
10.7256/2306-0174.2013.11.9201

Abstract: The author of the present article doesn't claim to describe the ethic concept of the New Testament. There are several reason to that. First of all, the author is not an expert in theology. Secondly, the article is too short to discuss such a topic. And thirdly, the author believes that the ethics of the New Testament is more co-existential than conceptual. Therefore, the author only focuses on some aspects connecting fates of St. Peter, Jesus and Judas with the integral co-existence where the author trie to describe ethic symmetry -and assymetry of Peter-Jesus and Jesus-Judas relations. Christ is viewed as the core of such relations and a living personification of Forgiveness leading to Atonement and Transfiguration. Peter's and Judas' fates evolve around this core and represent the two stories about existence. Both of them include Forgiveness but in the first story, Forgiveness leads to Transfiguration and in the second story, Forgiveness leads to Destruction. Why? Speaking of Peter and Judas we don't only remember the story that happened long, long ago. We talk about what is happening to us here an now. Just like Peter and Judas, we and the whole world are facing the same choice: to lead the path of Transfiguration and Forgiveness or Betrayal. 
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