Philosophical Thought - rubric Ethics
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Mekhed G.N. - The idea of meta-subjectivity and the problem of autonomy in Kants ethics pp. 12-25


Abstract: This article examines Kant’s ethics through the prism of general philosophical idea of meta-subjectivity, the most basic theoretical foundation for which is the embarked by Kant in the “Critique of Pure Reason” substantiation of the principles of critical rationalism. The author demonstrates how the idea of meta-subject (transcendental subject), introduced by Kant in the theory of cognition, affects his interpretation of a number of fundamental traditional concepts of ethics, such as “moral subject”, “freedom of will”, and especially “autonomy”. It turns out that the concept of autonomy and its interpretation by Kant is associated with a number of emanating problems, particularly the problem of moral evil and problem of responsibility, “authorship” of the doings. Methodology of the research leans directly on Kant’s texts with fairly loose interpretation, as well as comparative research of the key sources of Kant studies with regards to autonomy. The article allows tracing the conceptual link between Kant’s transcendentalism and other related philosophical teachings, all the way from Upanishads in Antiquity until the contemporary “open individualism” of D. Kolak, as well as the concepts in spirit of the “integral approach” of K. Wilber.
Mekhed G.N. - Morals as the Absolute Bounds of Reason in Immanuel Kant's Ethics pp. 17-44


Abstract: The author of the article analyzes Kant's ethical theory in its communication with methodological aspects of his general philosophy and its central problem, definition of concept and bounds of reason. According to Kant, ethics are the highest form of philosophy. At the heart of the Copernican revolution made in philosophy by Kant there is not the constructivism introduction in the knowledge theory but bringing of the good (good will) to the level of the only absolute lies not so much. Thus the chronology of works of Kant does not always coincides with internal logic of movement of its philosophy: from the moral law to the star sky, i.e. from Criticism of practical reason to Criticism of pure reason. The idea of freedom as identities of will and good is necessary Kant as the valuable matrix defining his constructivism in the theory of knowledge. Kant considered idea of freedom as the main postulate of practical reason, so and its main limit. Thus freedom is understood by it as an exit out of limits of the empirical subject and coincidence to the transcendental subject of morals. Kant's this approach corresponds to crisis of rationality of the middle of the XX century when after Einstein, Bohr and Gedel's major opening the confidence of opportunities of human reason to learn an objective truth was shaken.
Platonov R.S. - Sociocultural aspect of Platos dialogue The Republic pp. 18-34


Abstract: The object of this research is Plato’s dialogue “The Republic”; the subject is the practical component of Plato’s ethical doctrine in form that it presented in this dialogue. The author sets the goal to determine the specificity of sociocultural practices generated by the moral theory of Plato; and for this purpose examines the practice of deception that is expressed in this dialogue in the most distinguish and gradual way. It is determined what type of problems are solved by Plato through the practice of deception, and what kind of problems it can lead to. Based on the analysis of application of the notion of “lie”, the author reconstructs the concept of deception in text of the dialogue “The Republic”. The scientific novelty lies in providing a holistic and structured reconstruction of the concept of deception in Plato’s ethical doctrine (dialogue “The Republic”) in its relation to the anthropological and ontological problematic. A conclusion is made that the designed by Plato arrangement order of the life of polis leads to sociocultural gaps between the three types of citizens, disintegration of polis; and such gaps must be overcome, according to Plato, by the practice of deception aimed at formation of certain worldview. However, gradual reconstruction of such practice described by Plato demonstrates that the problem of sociocultural gaps only enhances, and moreover – it leads to disruption of moral foundations of life of the polis.  
Skorokhodova T.G. - The Ethical Thought of the Bengal Renaissance:
The Neo-Hindu Conceptions (18801910)
pp. 19-37



Abstract: A development of ethical thought by Neo-Hindu philosophers in Nineteenth early Twentieth century Bengal is depicted in the article based on hermeneutic readings of the texts by Bankimchandra Chattopaddhyay, Swami Vivekananda, Aurobindo Ghosh. From the one hand, Neo-Hindu philosophers continue Rammohun Roys line of criticism of Indian societys moral condition, consciousness and conduct. From the other hand, they formed their own ethical conceptions to present Hindu normative ethics. The research demonstrated for the first time the becoming of Modern Indian ethics in the conceptions of Bengal Neo-Hindu thinkers who are the real founders of ethics as philosophical discipline in India. Growing up from indigenous ancient tradition of exegesis of scriptures, Neo-Hindu conceptions of ethics are the new adogmatic interpretation of the native religious ethics in broad context of Modernity. The Bengal Renaissance thinkers had made an intellectual breakthrough in Indian philosophy. The result of intellectual works are following: 1) bringing morality to the fore in dharma to differentiate ethical issue-area as meaningful in thought and practice; 2) definition of universality of Hinduism s moral consciousness in the core; 3) normative ethics along with its imperatives and rules had presented as established and fixed in ancient Hindu scriptures; 4) the ethical ideal was found in images of sages and epic heroes as well as in their teachings; 5) ethical norms and ideal are practically oriented for the criticism of societys morals and future development.
Vasilenko Y.V. - Systemic hedonism as an ethical doctrine pp. 28-38


Abstract: The subject of this research is the genesis of such ethical doctrine as hedonism; the object is the concept of “systemic hedonism” proposed by the contemporary Russian expert in the field of management I. V. Volochkov. By placing “systemic hedonism” into a broad historical context of ethical teachings – since the times of Ancient Greece (Cerenaics Aristippus and Hegesias) until modern American hedonists (David Pearce) – formulating the questions of achieving happiness through delight and pleasure, the author claims that “systemic hedonism” can be recognized as a variety of “spiritual hedonism”, similar in its ideological-value content to eudemonism of Aristotle and Epicurus. The author juxtaposes the ethical teaching of “systemic hedonism” with the cognate teachings, revealing the unique aspects of the first. The presented in the article concept of “systemic hedonism” is revealed as ethical doctrine aimed at subsequent and gradual development and self-improvement of a modern human. The main conclusion consists in the statement that in the context of growing tendencies of social development, “systemic hedonism” may be viewed as an incipient ethos of the modern Russian bourgeoisie yearning for conscious consumption strongly restricted by the ethical framework.
Maximov L.V. - On methodological dilemmas of theoretical ethics pp. 31-40


Abstract: This article reviews the three methodological dilemmas of theoretical ethics on the subject of determination and accentuation of their conceptual relatedness, intersection and complementarity. The detailed analytical procedure gradually permeated onto other dilemmas, potentially could simplify and systematized the historically established multifarious problematic of this area of knowledge, as well as contribute to more productive polemic of the proponents of various methodological approaches. The author’s selection of particular dilemmas is based on many years of experience of his work in the conceptual field of metaethics and analytical ethics; such experience demonstrated that dilemmas, formulated in the terms of “cognitivism – non-cognitivism”, “transcendentalism – naturalism”, and “psychologism – anti-psychologism”, together form a significant part of methodological basis of theoretical (not “normative”) ethics. A “thought experiment” on the subject of possible unification (or convergence) of some multifarious methodological ideas was conducted namely of the presented material. The content of these dilemmas and particular approaches is described in such way, that their connective attributes would be visible in the text itself. In conclusion, the author claims that “non-cognitivism”, “naturalism”, and “psychologism” (as separately taken parties of the indicated dilemmas), practically comprise the uniform complex of “related” approaches, alternative to the other complex, which included the rest of the designated positions. Thus, the three dilemmas, examined individually for the most part, could certainly yield to the one, “integral” dilemma, in the methodological discussions.
Maximov L.V. - Moral duty: the problem of substantiation pp. 35-45


Abstract: In modern meta-ethical literature, the analysis of various approaches towards rational substantiation of morality is one of the leading research trends. If in ethical thought of the past, the object of substantiation was manly the “ethical law” as a peculiar (metaphysical) essence, in meta-ethics it usually means the substantiation of ethical paradigms of the actual subjects of morality, in other words, foregrounding the arguments that can convince a certain nominal skeptically inclined individual to accept and adhere to the norms of morality established by society. In particular, the author notes an inappropriate substitution of reasoning with explanation, moral duty – with other modalities that are formally signified by the same term. The article uses the methods of logical-linguistic analysis applicable to such ethical and meta-ethical discourses that represent the different versions of substantiation of moral duty. The work demonstrates that it is namely intention of the duty, rather than its specific subject vector is the determinant attribute of moral motivation (because the subject content of moral norms and motives can be the object of both, moral duty and immoral incitements). Therefore, the fundamental impossibility of rational substantiation of such intention should be considered the theoretical disputes that touch upon the general problems of substantiation of morality.  
Skorokhodova T.G. - The Ethical Thought of the Bengal Renaissance:
A Discovery of Morality in Indian Tradition (18151870)
pp. 52-68



Abstract: The origin of Modern Indian ethical thought is described in the article. The author depicts the genesis of ethics as originated from the works by key personalities of the Bengal Renaissance XIX early XX century. The juxtaposition with traditional Indian thought permits to present the intellectual process in Modern Bengal elite minds as discovery of morality. Based on hermeneutic analysis of the texts on moral problematics from Rammohun Roy and the Brahmo Samaj thinkers to Krishnamohun Banerjea, the author reconstructs the becoming of Indian ethical thought in the context of their striving for the moral regeneration of traditional society. For the first time the genesis and becoming of thinking of Indian intellectuals about morality in its connections with the present condition of social decline in colonial India are disclosed in the research. The experience of Bengal thinkers of 18151870th demonstrates the solution of super-task to find ethics in ancient sacred texts and next to build religiously based ethics. The super-task had been settled by the method of interpretation that permits to see high moral precepts in high faith in One God of original religion as it opposed to polytheistic Hinduism. The result of applying the method was embodied in the creative and high conception of Hindu morality based on ethical God Creator. The Bengal thinkers are firmly convinced that displaced into periphery of Hindus consciousness morality as a code of normative ethics must be revived and turned into leading imperatives of consciousness of people.
Platonov R.S. - Central problems in Aristotles ethics in the context of historical-philosophical research pp. 54-72


Abstract: The subject of this research is the systematization of the core concepts of Aristotle’s ethical doctrine within the framework of historical-philosophical approach. The author examines such problems as the authenticity of Aristotle’s texts (three Ethics: Nicomachean Ethics, Eudemian Ethics and Big Ethics); wholeness of his philosophical system (interconnection of metaphysics and ethics – its substantiation in Unitarian approach and criticism of Unitarianism); moral and non-moral grounds of the definition of happiness (interpretations of Aristotelian understanding of good: inclusivism, exclusivism, instrumentalism); functional capacity of the concept of virtue as a mean; ambiguity of the definition of friendship and its role in formation of the moral. The main conclusion lies in ascertainment of the positive impact of historical-philosophical approach upon studying Aristotle’s ethics – in all incompleteness of results and continuous discussions on each of the indicated questions, the scientific approach allowed to not only reconstruct the collection of Aristotle’s works, but also meticulously analyze the structure of his ethics, nuancing the key concepts. The scientific value of the conducted research consists in guiding the emerging researchers of Aristotle’s philosophy, as well as philosophical ethics overall, in the problematic field of the Stagirite's ethical doctrine.
Babanov A. - The phenomenon of consent with yourself pp. 59-71


Abstract: This article is dedicated to analysis of the phenomenon of consent with yourself. Leaning on the ideas. H. Arendt, the author analyzes various aspects of consent with yourself, as well as their interconnection. This phenomenon is viewed in three aspects: 1. attitude of a subject towards himself (psychology); 2. “Socratic” thinking as inner speech; 3. moral act. All three aspects of this phenomenon are based on the concept of “Socratic” thinking as an internal dialogue; therefore, special attention is turned to examination of its peculiarities. A comparative analysis is conducted on the “Socratic” thinking and other concepts of thinking, namely M. Heidegger’s. Consent with yourself in each corresponding aspect has the following meaning: 1. Positive attitude toward yourself reflected in self-regard. It is demonstrated that consent is only one-sided attitude, thus its more accurate characteristic would be self-regard, rather than “friendship with yourself”. Self-regard can stem from the experience of reasoning as a conversation with yourself on your thoughts and actions; 2. A condition of thinking, namely as consent in thought (non-contradiction) and with thought. Consent with yourself is not reduced to the logical law of non-contradiction. As a manifestation of existential process of thinking, it is not a formalized procedure and depends on the personal attitude and values of the subject. It is assumed that self-regard as a manifestation of consent is impossible without the judgment of internal dialogue; 3. Leaning on the ideas of H. Arendt, the author outlines the possible interpretation of consent in thinking as an ethical principle or internal standard of conscience, spreading to the actions of an individual.The conclusion is made that the phenomenon of consent with yourself has full significance only for the “Socratic” thinking, which makes responsible a thinker himself, rather than history, world spirit or being.
Rusakov S.S. - The concept of subject and subjectivation in the philosophy of Spinoza: interpretation of G. Deleuze pp. 62-71


Abstract: This article explores the concept of subject in the works of Baruch Spinoza. The peculiarity of this research lies in the juxtaposition of the Cartesian concept of subject and the concept of subjectivation, which was developed in M. Foucault’s works of later period The goal is to disclose the specificity of the concept of subject in the works of Spinoza, formulate the key definitions used for revealing this topic, and to conduct a comparative analysis with the concept of subject of R. Descartes. The author examines such aspects of Spinozism as the interrelation between the higher subject and the mode of being, the concept of individuality and affects in interpretation of G. Deleuze, etc. The novelty of this research consists in providing a comprehensive analysis of some provisions of Spinoza's doctrine concerning the basic aspects of the concept of subject, as well as in determination of the crucial elements of the concept of subjectivation. The author concludes that Spinozism has shifted significantly from the Cartesian tradition. The first difference from Descartes lies in the ontological attitude of the Dutch philosopher, according to which a human can be viewed as a subject, not as a substance, but as a mode only. The second difference lies in introduction of the principle of dynamism, according to which the individual mode can have greater or lesser perfection, which could not comply with the permanence of Cartesian cogito.
Chernenko V.A. - Socrates Alain Badiou: the parallels of ethical discourse pp. 67-74


Abstract: The object of this research is the ethical discourses of Socratic philosophy and “Ethics” (published in 2003; translated to Russian in 2006) of the modern French philosopher Alain Badiou. The subject of this research is the conceptual parallels, which emerge between them as a result of similar ontological, gnoseological, and ethnical orientations of the Ancient Greek philosopher and our contemporary. For both, Socrates and Badiou, the initial property of humanness consists in ability towards the impartial interest in the search of ethos (consistent) foundation of the Universe. This, in turn, institutionalizes human as a creature, in which his animalistic beginning can be disrupted or canceled by the faithfulness of the truth, which being excessive with regards to our biologically temporal nature, forms our subjectness capable of immortality. The author concludes that ethical discourse of the Socratic dialogues and A. Badiou’s “Ethics” reveal similar conceptual parallels:Infinite otherness (multiplicity);Truth is indifferent to differences;We possess an ability to be what is called by certain truth towards own identity;There is no ethics except the ethics of processes of the truth (science, love, art, politics or Good – Truth – Beauty);Immortal in human appears as the position of impartial interest in the World as a purposeful self-worth;Tension of the moral discourse lies in horizon of the constant choice between the ethics of endless/necessary; real/possible;Truth can manifest itself only in the dialogue (polylogue). Truths make their singular penetration [percee] only through the fabric of opinions. We all need to communicate...It is we ourselves, as ourselves, who expose ourselves to the becoming-subject…Every absolutization of the power of a truth organizes an Evil.
Prokofyev A.V. - Transformation of representations on the normative content of morality in moral philosophy of the Early Modern Age pp. 91-107


Abstract: The object of this research is the philosophical representations on the normative content of morality in their historical dynamics. Unlike its formal and functional characteristics that include objectivity, universality, priority with regards to other regulators of human behavior, the content of morality implies the general requirements and criteria for approval that form the image of a morally perfect individual and set the parameters of morally appropriate behavior. Although on the level of utmost generalizations, Western European idea of morality retains the normative content typical to the Judeo-Christian tradition; its instantiation constantly varies. The goal of this work consists in tracing the changes of such instantiation occurred in Western moral philosophy of the XVI – XVIII centuries (Early Modern Age). The indicated historical process is the subject of analysis. Research methodology suggests determination of the long-term trends in the history of normative ethics and their correlation with the socio-historical context. The analysis of sources on the topic demonstrates that understanding of ethical requirements and criteria for approval in understanding of moral philosophers of the Early Modern Age have experienced the following fundamental changes: 1)  displacement to periphery of the morality of responsibilities of moral figure before himself, 2) transition towards understanding of the good of other person through the prism of his wellbeing and opportunities for unhindered personal fulfillment, 3) emergence of correlation between responsibilities to other person and regards of his individual rights. In relation to the latter change, the three factors had crucial significance:  advancement of the idea of religious tolerance beyond the religious wars, countering the paternalistic custody by absolutist regimes, as well as the development of universal empathy based on the new forms of description of inner experience of a human. Although some conclusions acquired in evolution of the ideas of recent decades contradict to the explanation of the process of implementation of the individual rights into the moral legal discourse, which relies on the aforementioned three factors, it remains most promising according to the author.
Iarkeev A.V. - The ethics between possibility and impossibility pp. 101-108


Abstract: The subject of this research is the modern being of ethics in the paradoxical-bordering situation of possibility/impossibility. It is demonstrated that the limit of Kant’s ethics, which is being structured from the position of the absolute subjectivity by the analog with the scientific principles of objectivity and universality. The author explains the abstract nature of the categorical imperative, the requirement of which is incompatible with life. The ultimate embodiment of failure of the ethics is the Nazi concentration camps that completely destroy the human dignity and negate any moral. The true ethics is confirmed as possible impossibility or impossible possibility. The methodological foundation of this research lies in the fundamental ontology of M. Heidegger, which is based on the principle of the law of identity of the being and reason. The main conclusion consists in the fact that ethnics initially represents the residence of human existence (“ethos”) based on the law of identity between the being and reason, which requires to be in accord with yourself, as well as the entire world. The denial of reason and necessity is accompanied by the nihilation of being constituting in various manifestations of the social evil.  
Artemieva O. - The problem of imperativeness in the virtue ethics pp. 125-138


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the analysis of the problem of imperativeness in modern ethics. The author highlights the two aspects: 1) discussion of imperativeness as one of the manifestations of morality; 2) criticism of the imperative in ethics. In the second case, the theoretical perception of morality as a mostly compulsory power is subjected to criticism. The article reconstructs the foundations of criticism of the imperative ethics, as well as analyzed the critical argumentation. Due to the fact that the majority of supporters of the virtue ethics do not deny the importance of moral imperative, the article clarifies the question of what is the role and place of this phenomenon within the virtue ethics. It is demonstrated that the aretaic criticism of ethical imperative was caused by the understanding of unsatisfactory attempts within the framework of the imperativistic concepts of clarification of the normative content of morality, its substantiation and systematization. The supporters of the virtue ethics solve these tasks through inclusion into the area of their study of the goals and values associated with the human existence. They believe that the imperatives can be explained only through the correlation with these goals and values. In the foundation of criticism in the virtue ethics of imperative lies the understanding of the fact that the phenomenon of morality cannot be reduced to one of its manifestations, in this case – the imperative. Morality is complicated and divergent in its composition. Particularly, it manifests not only through the imperatives, but also through the virtues. Insisting on the opinion that morality is not reduced to the imperative, the supporters of the virtue ethics attempt to establish the concept of morality, which will reflect the diversity of the moral experience of a human.
Mekhed G.N. - The experience of comparative analysis of the ethics of I. Kant and F. M. Dostoyevsky: methodological commentary pp. 130-143


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the determination of methodological ground for comparative research of the ethics of Kant and Dostoyevsky. The researchers of Dostoyevsky creative works have not yet come to a consensus on the question of whether or not Dostoyevsky was familiar with Kant’s philosophy, at least in general. The author carries out an analysis of a broad circle of literature on the topic “Dostoyevsky and Kant”, as well as reconstruction of the concepts of a few thinkers, who could affect Kant and Dostoyevsky, as well as contribute to the introduction of Dostoyevsky to Kant’s philosophy. The work substantial the thesis about the formulation of a peculiar philosophical-literary method by Dostoyevsky for cognition of ethical phenomena, which makes possible the reconstruction of Dostoyevsky’s philosophy based on his compositions, and thus, direct comparison of Dostoyevsky’s ethics with Kant’s ethics. The author also supports and explains the idea of N. N. Vilmont that Dostoyevsky was familiar with the fundamental ideas of Kant’s philosophy through F. Schiller. In conclusion, the author underlines that Kant’s ethics and Dostoyevsky’s ethical philosophy had at least one common source of influence consisted in the philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau. All of these together allows making a conclusion about the methodological substantiation of comparative analysis of the ethics of Kant and Dostoyevsky.
Mamarasulov A.R. - The necessity of metaphysical moment in rational definition of the notions of good and evil pp. 138-147


Abstract: The subject of this research is the ethical categories of “good” and “evil”, analyzed in the context of modern moral consciousness. The object is the metaphysical aspect of ethics, examined as one of its most essential grounds. The author meticulously explores such aspects of the topic as the interrelation of the utilitarian-pluralistic, imperative, and creative concepts in comprehension of the basic notions of ethics, conceptual contradictions between them, as well as identifies the rational and metaphysical foundation for the theoretical understanding of the categories of “good” and “evil” applicable to the modern moral culture. The author applies axiological method as the key for defining the content of the study, as well as the method of structural analysis. The following conclusions were made: the biosocial perception of the categories of “good” and “evil” that forms the common moral consciousness, cannot serve as substantial grounds for ethical consciousness; ethics originates from metaphysics, and the basic notions of ethics are defined in terms of the metaphysical ideas of inherent value and freedom of an individual. Author’s special contribution consists in analysis of the creative concept in comprehending the categories of “good” and “evil”. The scientific novelty lies in the attempt to rationalizes the conceptual component of the ethical consciousness regarding its metaphysical content.
Latyshev D.M. - Mission of the military chaplain on the battlefield and the Orthodox ethics during the World War I (on the example of Orenburg and Siberian Cossack troops pp. 139-148


Abstract: Military clergy was one of the core translators of military norms and regulations in the Russian army during the early XX century. The goal of this article is to examine the concepts of Orthodox culture within the ethics of war of the military chaplains. Leaning on the memoirs of A. Turundaevsky and archival documents of the Orenburg and Siberian Cossack troops, the article reconstructs the mission of the military chaplain on the battlefield, analyzes the structure of concepts of Orthodox ethics therein. The study of the structure of the elements of Orthodox ethics in the mission of the military chaplain reveals the key ethical principles that are fundamental to military conflicts, when one of the parties grounds its military regulations on the Orthodox culture. It is determined that in the conditions of new requirements established for military clergy during the World War I (1914–1918), there were instances that the norms of the Orthodox ethics contradicted the mission of the chaplain on the battlefield. The acquired results reveal that the underlying principle of the mission of military chaplain, as the representative of the “militant church”, on the battlefield was “love for one's neighbor”. The understanding of Russia as the center of Orthodox culture and the perception of soldiers as “warriors of the church” prompted the clergy to implement the concept of “meekness” in their actions, as well as the concepts of “recumbence”, “Divine Providence”, etc. for comprehension of their actions.
Chernenko V.A. - Peter - Jesus -Judas: Ethic Triangle pp. 171-183


Abstract: The author of the present article doesn't claim to describe the ethic concept of the New Testament. There are several reason to that. First of all, the author is not an expert in theology. Secondly, the article is too short to discuss such a topic. And thirdly, the author believes that the ethics of the New Testament is more co-existential than conceptual. Therefore, the author only focuses on some aspects connecting fates of St. Peter, Jesus and Judas with the integral co-existence where the author trie to describe ethic symmetry -and assymetry of Peter-Jesus and Jesus-Judas relations. Christ is viewed as the core of such relations and a living personification of Forgiveness leading to Atonement and Transfiguration. Peter's and Judas' fates evolve around this core and represent the two stories about existence. Both of them include Forgiveness but in the first story, Forgiveness leads to Transfiguration and in the second story, Forgiveness leads to Destruction. Why?  Speaking of Peter and Judas we don't only remember the story that happened long, long ago. We talk about what is happening to us here an now. Just like Peter and Judas, we and the whole world are facing the same choice: to lead the path of Transfiguration and Forgiveness or Betrayal. 
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