Philosophical Thought - rubric The dialogue of cultures
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The dialogue of cultures
Khabdaeva A. - To the question on the history of establishment of Buddhist educational tradition in China pp. 8-13


Abstract:   The principles of Buddhist education played a crucial role in development of Buddhism history outside of India. Based on the Indo-Buddhist educational model within the range of the expansion of Buddhism, has been displayed a Buddhist type of personality. Existence of powerful educational traditions in China that had established prior to the emergence of Buddhism within, contribute to integration of the ideas of Buddhist and traditional Chinese teachings, which resulted in development of a specific educational model based in the principles of Indo-Buddhist system, but strongly affected by the Chinese sociocultural traditions. The era of Tang dynasty signifies the establishment of the systematic Buddhist education in China. Methodology of this work leans on the conceptual approaches in studying Buddhism, proposed by the representatives of Russian and foreign schools of Buddhism. Basing on the acknowledged academic approaches, the author advances the idea about the framework role of Buddhist education within the range of the expansion of Buddhism. The scientific novelty is substantiated by the need for systematization of knowledge on the Buddhist education as a framework factor of Buddhist teaching from the perspective of the analysis of Buddhism expansion outside of India, as well as comprehension of the sources and mechanisms of the dynamics of domesticating the foreign cultural elements and specificity of their interaction with the local tradition.  
Urbanaeva I.S. - Interpretation of Buddhism in comparative philosophy: analysis of certain approaches pp. 13-30


Abstract: The author conducts the analysis of origins of philosophical study of Buddhism – the role of Russian Buddhologists F. I. Sherbatsky and O. O. Rozenberg in development of the philosophical interpretation of Buddhism, meaning of the Masson-Oursel approach; covers certain insufficiently studied, but important approaches towards interpretation of Buddhist philosophy in comparison with the Western, formulated in modern philosophical comparative studies (“Neo-Buddhism” of B. Dandaron, procedural approach of N. P. Jacobson, historical-philosophical approaches of S. Radhakrishnan, P. Raju), as well as certain approaches of comparative philosophical study of Buddhism on the “internal” vector, particularly the writings of W. Libenthal and W. Lay on Sinification of Buddhist philosophy. Historical-philosophical and cross-cultural methodology of analysis of the origins of comparative philosophical study of Buddhism and main approaches is applied in the course of this research. The following conclusions were made: the absence of the recognized academic tradition of philosophical interpretation of Buddhism is an enormous theoretical-methodological challenge emerged in the very beginning of Buddhological studies and retained to this day; hermeneutical distortions, permitted by the Western comparativists in the process of philosophical interpretation of Buddhism, are also rooted in the fact that the as a subject of philosophical comparative studies most often become early Far Eastern forms of Buddhism, although the most mature form of Buddhist philosophy is Nagarjuna. Therefore it can be expected that the most promising trends of comparative philosophical studies of Buddhism would be associated namely with examination of Madhyamaka in its Indo-Tibetan tradition.
Dobrydneva A. - Art deco and avant-garde: the nature of interaction pp. 24-31


Abstract: The subject of this research is the distinctions between two fundamental trends in art of the XX century – art deco and avant-garde, as well as determination of the nature of their interaction. The object of this research is the original texts of artisans and art monuments belonging to both fields. Special attention is given to characteristics of the specific features of art deco and avant-garde, identification of similarities and differences of the two simultaneously developing stylistic concepts. The author examines the key event for the history of interaction of these two trends, namely the International Exhibition of Modern Decorative and Industrial Arts held in Paris in 1925, and criticism that formed views on art of the era of modernism. The scientific novelty consists in examination of the two paramount trends for grasping history of culture of the XX century in the context of their interaction. Since 1966, art deco was not recognized as an in dependent style, but rather closely connected with modernism and patterned on avant-garde. The main conclusion of the conducted research consists in revelation of adaptive cultural mechanism that allowed art deco to overcome a number of problems, among which in underlines the relation to technological progress and mass society. The author highlights that both trends should be viewed in the context of cultural dialogue. First and foremost, they were united by orientation towards modernity and development of innovative language of art.
Rubets M.V. - The view of modern Chinese researchers on Russian and Russian philosophy pp. 29-45



Abstract: Russian Russian Philosophy The purpose of this work was, firstly, to find the reasons for the interest of Chinese researchers in Russian and Russian philosophy; secondly, to identify both Chinese criticism of Russian philosophy and positive acceptance, as well as their causes. Comparative, classification method, content analysis method were used.The main reasons and goals of Chinese philosophers in the study of Russian philosophy were identified and formulated. Russian Russian scholars have given some examples of criticism of Russian religious philosophy and modern Russian philosophy, as well as works whose authors tend to positively evaluate certain achievements of Russian philosophy. The results can be used in the preparation of lectures on foreign philosophy, as well as for further research in the field of reception of Russian philosophy abroad.The general conclusion from the work done may be the awareness of the practical approach of the Chinese to the study of foreign philosophy their desire to extract the maximum benefit from the studied subject to solve the problems faced by China in the process of modernization and globalization. Russian Russian philosophy's more specific conclusions are that both the acceptance and criticism of the achievements of Russian/Russian philosophy by the Chinese are based not on theoretical, but on pragmatic grounds how important they are for the Russian or Chinese nation and the world as a whole.The scientific novelty lies in carrying out such an analysis and isolating the above positions on the material of Chinese works of the XXI century, including texts published in October 2021.
Rubets M.V. - Specificities of translation of some terms of the Russian religious philosophy of the XXI century into Chinese language pp. 30-41


Abstract: This article reviews the translation of some terms of the Russian religious philosophy of the XXI century into Chinese language. The goal consists in determination of the fundamental principles used by the Chinese translators in compiling the borrowed terminology in the indicated field. The article explores the Chinese analogues of some terms of the Russian religious philosophy. Special attention is turned to the terms of God and soul. Analysis is conducted on the translated texts of the lectures of S. S. Khoruzhiy “Synergistic Anthropology and Russian Philosophy" on the subject of the frequency of using 神 上帝as Chinese analogues of the term of God. An important role in the research is played by the interview with the researcher and translator of theRussian religious philosophy Professor Zhang Baichun on translation of the terms of God, soul, etc. into Chinese languahe, as well nuances of application of Chinese analogues of isolated terms from the perspective of the native Chinese speaker. It is demonstrated that Chinese analogues of the terms of God and soul in religious texts do not fully coincide with such in the philosophical texts. Namely, the Orthodox translators recommend the use上帝for nomination of God, while Chinese translators of the Russian religious philosophy allow using both versions depending on personal preferences and linguistic habits. For the translators of philosophical texts, the equivalent versions of the terms soul in the Glossary of Orthodox Terminology 灵魂 心灵 are divided into religious and secular analogues. The article also indicates other terms of Russian philosophy, which are translated using the techniques of transcription, calquing, and semantic translation.
Golovanivskaya M.K., Efimenko N.A. - The Idea of Fate in Russian, French, and Chinese Cultures pp. 35-53



Abstract: The article is devoted to the comparative description of the ideas of fate in three national worldviews Russian, French and Chinese. These worldviews are reconstructed from linguistic data and cultural context. In each of the languages, the synonymic series of the concept is described, etymology, mythological and philosophical origins, modern meanings and compatibility are analyzed. The result of the study is identification of similarities and differences in the ideas about the fate among these peoples. We see that the Russian field of fate is verbal, the French semantic is associated with the idea of falling-falling out, and the Chinese is associated with such actions as changing and understanding. The actual interrelationships of the Russian concept are an indication of the causes of the damage , the French one is a source of wellbeing, the Chinese one is with ideas about possibility and dependence. The Russian creation personifies the concept of fate in the image of a self-willed woman, as well as in the French picture of the world, while the Chinese figurative thinking identifies fate with a code, an assistant or a rival. In the Russian picture of the world, a person is passive in relation to his fate, in the French he is active, he fights with it, the Chinese gestalt unites both: you can passively accept, you can actively fight.
Voronina O.A. - Multiculturalism: politicization of cultural differences or the path to dialogue pp. 37-48


Abstract: The subject of this research is the contradiction between the principle of preserving cultural diversity, supported by the concept of multiculturalism, and personal rights to moral autonomy and choice of cultural identity. The relevance of this topic is justified by the need for pursuing ways to overcome conflicts arising from such cause. In the world of global transformations, an individual involved into transnational networks cannot be locked only within the confounds of his national culture. However, in parallel to globalization takes place the process of glocalization, aimed at preservation of the national ethnic culture in its traditional version. This situation escalates especially due to the growing migration flows and formation of ethnocultural enclaves. The problem is studied on the basis of scientific implications of the philosophy of culture, cultural anthropology and social philosophy in the context of relativistic methodology. The author analyzes the data from a range of political and socio-philosophical research conducted by the national and foreign authors. The scientific novelty consists in the comprehensive consideration of multiculturalism. This allowed demonstrating that the concept leans on the limited understanding of culture as a set of ethnic norms, principles and traditions, and does not take into account the philosophical understanding of culture as a semiotic system forming the profound values. Negative consequences of such approach are illustrated on the example of discussions unfolded around wearing hijab in Europe. The conclusion is made that the dialogue between cultures is possible upon the condition of accepting the common ground to recognize the values of preservation of national traditions; and such instrument can become the concept of human rights. Such approach eliminates the essential contradiction between the collective rights of ethnoses to preservation of the distinction of their cultural traditions, as well as the personal rights to cultural identity and moral autonomy.
Rubets M.V. - Clash of the two types of rationality on the example of junction of Western and Chinese medicine (XIX XXI centuries) pp. 45-58


Abstract: This work reviews the clash and mutual knowledge of the traditions representing two types of rationality – Western and Chinese medicines upon their most considerable divergence (XIX century). The article describes the opinions of the representatives of Western analytical cognitive type in medicine regarding Eastern medical practices in the XIX century, which demonstrate rejection of the fact on the existence of medical science in Eastern tradition. The principles of translation of Western medical terminology into Chinese language developed by the English translator John Fryer are examined. The author provides the examples of application of scientific methods developed in the West for studying and verification of the achievements of Eastern medicine, as well as an attempt of implementation of automation and machine analysis in the Chinese medicine for establishment of diagnosis that help to assign appropriate therapy in the XXI century –  as an experience of interaction between the two types of rationality. The scientific novelty of consists in the analysis of the experience of junction and mutual knowledge of two civilizations in the aspect of medicine as a junction between two opposite types of rationality. An assumption is made on correlation between the existence of a logical law of non-contradiction that emerged in Western scientific worldview, and inability of the Western missionaries of the XIX century to recognize alternative medicine (same as correlation between absence of this law in Eastern philosophy and recognition of Western medicine as equal). Prevalence of analytical approach towards terminologization in holistic tradition in the work of John Fryer leads to the conclusion on inefficiency of inculcation of the approaches, methods and terminology developed in one tradition for assessment and development of another. The author suggests on the possible constructiveness of synergetic approach for the development of a new comprehensive knowledge.
Zykin A., Aref'ev M.A. - On the Question of the Cultural Role of the Russian Orthodox Church (on the Example of the Altai Spiritual Mission) pp. 50-63



Abstract: In this paper, the activity of the Altai Spiritual Mission (Western Siberia) is considered from the standpoint of the methodology of the culturological approach, the axiological paradigm and the interdisciplinary features of regionalism. The semantics of the term "mission" is analyzed in line with the topics stated in the work. It is indicated that the institute of Spiritual Missions in the aspect of the Christianization of peoples arose in the XVI century, and the understanding of the "Spiritual Mission" as a special church preaching institute in the XIX century due to the creation of the Altai model for other missions. The work also describes the history of creation and its originality, analyzes the activities that led to the following results, social and cultural transformations: the transition of the autochthonous population to the Orthodox faith (sedentary lifestyle, benefits, indulgences), versatile arrangement and organization of life (cultivation of land, the order of household life), education (literacy), the creation of an array of ethnographic, cultural and linguistic works that retain their uniqueness and relevance for researchers of the cultural origins of this region to this day. Of particular note is the creation of alphabets and the compilation of alphabets, which made it possible to translate the Gospel and other religious works into local languages. All this work has led to the emergence and growth of educational institutions and the spread of Russian culture. Translation activity is invaluable, which led to the acquisition of the spiritual culture of the Altai ethnic groups to historicity and its infusion into the Russian one.
Mishchenko I.E. - Representation of the images of army and military man in the U.S. mass cinematography of the 2010s pp. 61-75


Abstract: The author explores the problematic of the images of army and military in mass cinematography on the example of U.S. film industry of the second decade of the XXI century. The object of this research is the sociocultural representation of army and war via expressive means of cinematographic art. Within the Russian science, this problematic is poorly studied; at the same time, its relevance cannot be overestimated, since cinematography is an important component in formation of “soft power” of the country. According to the testimony of numerous Russian experts, namely cinematography of the United States has highest impact potential and forms mental images of the army and military not only among the U.S. citizens, but also for the Russian society, which always triggers questions related to the cultural aspects of national security. It is worth noting that modern U.S. military cinematography becomes the special subject of scientific research for the first time. The author comes to the conclusion that in the recent decade, U.S. film production in military genre has undergone substantial transformations. The films on the World War II and the Vietnam War are replaced with the films on global war on terrorism and local national conflicts. Among other peculiarities of recent years in U.S. military cinematography, the author notes female film directors in this sphere, personification of the images of enemy, deconstruction of the image of military man as a mythological defender and rescuer. The latter noticeably contradicts the Russian film tradition and culture, for which the army and military history remain the important points of national self-identity, key components of formation of images of the great past and common future.
Nagdalieva S.A. - Azerbaijans model of multiculturalism in cross-cultural communication: problems and solutions pp. 83-98


Abstract: This article analyzes the Azerbaijani model of multiculturalism from the perspective of its goal, civilizational, ideological-value, historical-cultural, everyday bases and political prospects. The identification of the characteristic features of the Azerbaijani model of multiculturalism as "Azerbaijanism" - the cultural code of the Azerbaijani identity - is the topical task not only in a narrowly local, but also general theoretical manner, as is poses a question about the additional impetus for the strategy of multiculturalism, which in the author’s opinion that yet have not exhausted its potential. The methodological basis of the research was culturological analysis, based on a complex interdisciplinary study of the ethnic, religious, social, domestic, cultural, political, legal and ideological traditions of Azerbaijan. Such approach allows tracing the origins and prospects of "Azerbaijanism" in the current environment. Modernization introduces certain aspects into the process of translation of the traditional values. However, in general, the orientation towards flexible combination of historically proven methods of social adaptation of the population of a polyethnic and polytheistic country to the practice of maximally non-confrontational cross-cultural communication demonstrates its relevance relatively to the new challenges of a global world. Based on the analysis of legal acts and practice of realization of multiculturalism in Azerbaijan, the author concludes that during the implementation of state cultural policy, the only benefited cultural directions and "local cultural environments" that correspond to "Azerbaijanism" as the adopted in the country system of values. Consideration of the increasing role of religious factor alongside the specifics of negative propaganda of political opponents of Azerbaijan, allowed tracing the "problematic points" that comprise the field of potential ideological conflicts within the framework of the strategy of multiculturalism, as well describe the possible ways for its prevention.
Urbanaeva I.S. - Experience and prospects of philosophical interpretation of Buddhism in comparison with the ideas of L. Wittgenstein pp. 88-100


Abstract: The subject of this article is associated with the fact that the philosophical comparativistics, rapidly developing in the late XX century, due to the countermotion of the philosophers of both world traditions – East and West – demonstrates higher interest towards Buddhism. After the pioneering works of F. I. Shcherbatskoy, multiple publications oriented towards the search for possible parallelisms between the West and Buddhist philosophical teaching have appeared in the West. The article is dedicated to the critical analysis of experience of the comparative examination of L. Wittgenstein’s ideas, who had a revolutionary impact upon the modern philosophical thought, with the philosophy of Buddhism, particularly Madhyamaka that represented the explication of Prajñāpāramitā by the Ancient Indian philosopher Nagarjuna and his successors (Buddhapālita, Bhāviveka, Chandrakirti, and others), as well as the turned to be the philosophical foundation Indo-Tibetan Mahāyāna. The goal of the work consists in the critical consideration of the key moments of K. Gudmunsen’s comparative approach towards interpretation of the Madhyamaka philosophy, substantiated from the perspective of analytical philosophy within the platitude of comparison betwee the Nagarjuna’s doctrine of the late Wittgenstein. Conclusion is made that there are opening the heuristic abilities for development of the new approaches towards the problematic of “reality, consciousness, language” , using the ideas of Wittgenstein as a hermeneutic “key” to interpreting Madhyamaka and its comprehension in the context of modern world philosophy.
Eselev E.A. - The Other in Philosophy of Difference pp. 175-194


Abstract: The article is devoted to the problem of the Other in modern philosophy as a variant of development of general ontological problem concerning the relationship between catigories of "the same" and "the other". The Other is the central term in philosophy of difference. Methods and approaches founded by Heidegger, Levinas, Deleuze lead to full reconstruction of ontology and ethics.
Chernenko V.A. - Bhagavad Gita and the Book of Job: Experience of Metaphysics of Forgiveness pp. 278-294


Abstract: The article conctains the analysis of philosophical and ethical aspects of the writings 'Bhagavad Gita' and 'the Book of Job'. The author of the article concludes that both writings represent similar ethical and philosophical views on the source and cause of suffering. This raises fundamental questions about the purpose of world creation and attempts to overcome the gap between ethics and ontology in developing ethical phenomenology of forgiveness. Human seeks to be forgiven. He needs it to change (transform) his deliberate accident into accidental deliberateness. This is realized through human opportunity to oppose his individual suffering to the world. Thus, the measure of human uniqueness (personality) is directly proportional to the measure of uncertainty human is ready to be responsible for. Job and Arjuna were brave enough to bear such responsibility and to ask God about the reasons of the gap between what there is and what there should be, and this is the reason why God answers them. 
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