Philosophical Thought - rubric Theological foundations of being
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Rubric "Theological foundations of being"
Theological foundations of being
Plakhtii S.V. - Elucidation of the term energy in the Philosophy of the name of A. F. Losev pp. 24-39


Abstract: The subject of this research is the interpretation of the term “energy” in the “Philosophy of the Name” of A. F. Losev. An attempt of philosophical comprehension of the nature of the name and word is one of the primary topics in the works of the prominent Russian philosopher. Particular interest to this topic is substantiated by Loves’s commitment to philosophically explain such perspective on the nature of the Name of God, which was introduced by the adherers of imyaslavie (onomatodoxy) during the imyaslavic disputes of the first quarter of the XX century. Using the philosophical methods, A. F. Losev attempted to reveal the exceptional and precise sense the Orthodox doctrine on the Name of God, one of paramount components of which is the Palamite theology about the energies of God. The task is set to determine the extent to which Losev's philosophical concept of onomatodoxy, and namey the understanding of the term “energy”, corresponds to the teaching of the Holy Fathers on the energy of God. The scientific novelty of this research lies in contribution to the comprehensive analysis of Losev's interpretation of the term “energy” in the context of patristic theology. This is especially relevant due to the fact that the appeal to Palamism (teaching on the energies of God) is one of the key arguments in the apologia of imyaslavie. The conclusion is drawn that proposed by Losev scheme of the Name of God, and his understanding of the term “energy” in particular, not just formally, but essentially is based on the philosophical provisions of Neo-Platonism. This is why the such system is not quite accurate interpretation of the patristic teaching on the energies of God and the Name of God.
Titlin L.I. - Does the Buddhist doctrine of non-self denies the concept of subject? pp. 42-58


Abstract: The object of this research is the Buddhist doctrine of non-self; while the subject is the content of this doctrine and its evolution with the course of time. Special attention is given to demonstration of the fact that initially the Anatta doctrine did not imply the denial of existence of the subject (self) as such. The author examines such aspects of the topic as the doctrine of non-self in the early Buddhism (Pāli Canon) and the problem of interpretation of the phenomenon of self in modern Buddhism, including by such cultural and philosophical figures as Ngawang Lobsang Tenzin Gyatso (14th Dalai Lama). The novelty of the conducted research consists in carrying out the first in Russia comprehensive study of Buddhist doctrine of non-self and outlining a new perspective on the problem. The author’s special contribution is lies in translations of the passages from Sutta dedicated to Anatmavada, which allowed formulating the fundamentally new conclusions. The following conclusions were made: 1) throughout history, Anatmavada underwent a difficult path from solely soteriological teaching that did not imply denial of self or subject to the open denial of subject in Buddhism of later period (the author sees recent interpretation of Anatmavada as incorrect); 2) two concepts of Anatta in early Buddhism can be determined: more common Anatmavada-2 and more “marginal” Anatmavada-1, which tends to denial of Anatta; 3) Anatmavada has evolved over the course of history from Anatmavada-2 to more nominalistic interpretations observed in the Buddhism of later period in form of the denial of self as such; 4) early Buddhism is not interested in ontological discourse on the existence of self; 5) Skandha in early Buddhism should be viewed from soteriological perspective – as a subject for meditation on the emergence, existence and elimination of certain moments of experience.
Matyash T.P., Mekushkin A.A., Matyash D.V., Vodenko K.V. - Images of the human within Christian culture pp. 44-52


Abstract: The subject of this research is image of the human within Christian culture. The author examines such aspects as the ideas of Christian theologians and Russian religious philosopher, according to whom formation of image of the human is greatly affected by religion. This implies the inner and in-depth justification by the Christian culture of images (perceptions, representations) of the human. The authors refer to the topic of religious justification of image of the human on the basis of history of the Russian religious philosophy, as well as the representatives of the modern Orthodox theology. The main research method became the hermeneutic reconstruction, when the reference to the texts of religious philosophers allows reconstructing concept of the human. The scientific novelty consists in the analysis of factors, due to which the established in history Christian confessions substantiate the differentiation of specificity of image of the human, content of his spiritual life, namely related to perception of dichotomy “earthlier-heavenlier”. The authors conduct a comparative analysis the stance on earthly prosperity of the representatives of various Christian confessions; as well as analyze why the specificity of such attitude justifies the emergence of the worldview and cultural gaps between the Christian nations.
Suslov A.V., Gusev D.A., Potaturov V.A. - Theism, atheism and pantheism in the context of solution of the central philosophical question: anthropological aspect pp. 92-113


Abstract: The object of this research is a centuries-old worldview polemic between the philosophical representations on the world and human associated with theism, atheism and pantheism. The subject of this research is the theoretical and practical attitudes and conclusions of anthropological nature that result from these intellectual models. The authors dwell on the worldview correlations of materialism and idealism with their worldview companions, such as atheism, evolutionism, scientism, anthropological voluntarism  on the one hand, and theism, creationism, antiscientism, providentialism – on the other. Special attention is given to examination of ideological link of atheism and pantheism with the anthropocentric attitude, as well as the questions of life navigation of a human in the context of confrontation and polemics of anthropological voluntarism  and providentialism. The novelty of this research consists in substantiation of authenticity of the philosophical idealism as a model that implies theistic and creationist view of the universe and fundamental incompatibility of the central idealistic thesis on the primacy of spiritual reality with the nature of being from the perspective of pantheism. The novelty also lies in the authors’ statement on the worldview similarity of atheism and pantheism, each of which is a specific substantiation of anthropological voluntarism  that is opposed to theistic providentialism. The conclusion consists in acknowledgment of the fundamental dichotomy of the worldview choice and life orientation of a human between the anthropocentric and providential poles, despite all ideological multifacetedness and diversity of the philosophical and religious representations.
Vlasova V.B. - Modernization of socio-religious orientation of culture in Biblical texts pp. 99-117


Abstract: This article base on the material of Bible examines the questions that in one or another way align with the globalization and modernization processes, which in the author’s opinion, have been taking place back in the ancient Jewish culture. Moses had given the Commandments to previous generations, which are still followed by the entire civilized humanity. He teaches us how to coordinate the means and goals of social practice in order to make it efficient. As far as Jesus, he discovered for the humanity the new ways of moral and intellectual improvements, as well as indicated the social ideals to the world achieved only through altruism and nonviolence. And most importantly, he is the first out of the thinkers of Ancient East to understand the need for unification of people all over the world on the basis of humanistic principles, which today are applied in globalization politics by both, the believers and atheists. Texts of the Old and New Testaments manifest as the specific examples of reasoning of the socio-philosophical nature. At the same time, the author uses the information accumulated by the historical science. Special attention is given to the examination of the indicated process as a necessary consequence of the religious-political (the times of Moses) and religious-ethical (the era of Christ’s ministry) practice. The article analyzes the similarities and differences of the work of the Prophet and the Messiah. The study of this question was carried out in the aspect of globalization-modernization paradigm.  
Yangutov L. - About the categories of Chinese Buddhism pp. 122-126


Abstract:   This article analyzes the content of categories of the Chinese Buddhism, formed as a result of collision of the categorical apparatus of the Indian Buddhism with the categorical apparatus of the Ancient Chinese philosophy. The author examines the peculiarities of its establishment on Chinese cultural platform in the context of worldview orientations of the Buddhist philosophy and soteriology. The work considers the hermeneutics of Buddhist concepts revealing their semantics, which depends on the gnoseological, ontological, psychological, and soteriological context, as well as affiliation of text that contains these concepts to one or another direction or school. The article provides the analysis of content of the categories of Chinese Buddhism, which reflect the specificity of Buddhism perception of the world base on dialectics of conditional and absolute truth, as well as peculiarities of categorical apparatus of the Ancient Chinese philosophy. The author determines the specificities of these categories characterized by polysemy on one hand, and semantic identity on the other.  
Mishurin A.N. - On the Interpretation of Genesis pp. 153-184


Abstract: Subjects of the given research are the first two chapters of Genesis. Author offers a new interpretation of the first two chapters of the Book in order to show the logic, which stands behind explicitly illogical biblical account about creation of the world and man by almighty and omniscient God. Since if we are able to understand thoughts ascribed by Bible to God, than man is able to understand God with his own mind. Author use the method of “cautious reading”, which he have created and tested on antique literature and which enables him to explain some logical problems accrued during reading Genesis as a particular and Bible as a whole. Novelty of the research consists in using previously unfamiliar to that material hermeneutic method and its conclusions. The main conclusions of the research are following. First, author succeeds in discovering principles of the order of creation in the biblical account. Second, using the text of the Book, author displays initial position of man from the point of view of the Bible – twofoldnes of man’s nature corresponds with twofoldnes of the account man’s creation. Finally, author draws a conclusion about a goal of the biblical account – depreciation of heaven and heavenly bodies.
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