Philosophical Thought - rubric Phenomenology
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Tishchenko N.V. - Gulag and Discursive Practices: Tough Route of Russian Authors in Soviet Labour Camps pp. 1-43
Abstract: The purpose of the present article is to reveal features of the discourse represented in the texts of Russian writers who were in the Soviet forced labour camps during the Stalin era. Analyzed texts were brought altogether under the rubric of “metaphysical discourse". Those were classified texts written by Russianauthors as the memories of their time in Gulag. With the help of technology discourse analysis, the author of the article defined key signs of the metaphysical discourse "prison - freedom", "power - anarchy", "knowledge - faith" and "life - death." The analysis allowed us to identify key strategies of resistance to criminal values in the social system. The special feature of the present research is that the discourse-analytical methodology was applied to the analysis of weakly structured sources - literary texts. Comparison of discursive practices suggested by literary texts to social practices shows that the metaphysical discourse project has appeared to be undemanded in our culture. It has not been updated to be used in social practices and has become the part of the historical archive. The metaphysical discourse revealed the internal contradictions that did not allow it to affect social practices. First of all, it is a latent mixture of metaphysical discourse statements with criminal traditions which was unavoidable under the conditions of the forced labour camp. Secondly, the image of the prison subculture did not have the effect it was expected. People did not treat it with disgust or intolerance. Quite on the contrary, there was the heroic image of a prizoner fighting against unfair and wrong government. That created the phenomenon of Russian culture that is known as the 'prisonization' - acceptance of standards and values of the prison subculture as an essential part of everyday life. 
Selishcheva D.V. - The Phenomenon of Das Man in Terms of Ethics pp. 20-46


Abstract: The object of research are specifics of Heidegger's 'Dasein' in its most frequent form – das Man. The subject of research is a possible correlation of das Man to an ethical perspective, ontologically inherent das Man (to the witness as element in structure of Heidegger's philosophy) ability to interact with ethical instructions, to define them – in other words, that Martin Heidegger in the works concerning ethics when speaks about "original" and "not original" ways of life of Dasein means. In this research the author has used hermeneutical, comparative-historical (in the first part of article where we investigate dynamics of Heidegger's thoughts concerning the concept of das Man) and system analysis (for designation of contours of a phenomenon of das Man and for an explication implitsitno of the Heidegger's thought of correlation of the studied phenomenon and ethical measurement of life containing in system). Scientific novelty of this work is caused by the fact that the author makes an attempt of reconsideration of idea of Heidegger's non-truth (das Man), the first on Russian-speaking space, as correlated to ethical measurement of life and containing ethical instructions. A conclusion of research is the lack of that correlation and those instructions: on the one hand, it is incorrect to interpret the concept of das Man as an appeal to nonconformism, on the other hand,  nonconformism doesn't guarantee detachment from a collectively faceless das Man.
Mikhailov I.A. - Unity in print of the early phenomenology pp. 72-82


Abstract: This article explores the establishment of German phenomenology as a collective research program.  The author carefully examines the role of Max Scheler in establishment of publishing program of phenomenologists: his efforts in popularization of phenomenology and response to the critics of phenomenology. It is also demonstrate that articulation by the editors of yearbook of the most general objectives of the publisher practically aligns with the tasks formulate back in 1907 by one of the mentors of Edmund Husserl – Carl Stumpf: it is necessary to create world of ideas, capable of encompassing the sciences on nature and spirits, which by the “power of conviction”, will subordinate the wide variety of scholars. The scientific novelty lies in the analysis of publications of the first periodical that united the researchers of Göttingen and Munich, “Yearbook on the Philosophy and Phenomenological Studies”. The author demonstrates that the aforementioned formulations anticipate both, Husserl’s idea of the regional ontologies, as well as the reflected in the “Philosophy as a Strict Science” (1911) representation on the role of philosophy in culture. Since the first years of its existences, the “Yearbook” becomes an important branch of the forming academic community, and quite rapidly turns into the battlefield for influence.
Lapatin V.A. - Phenomenological reduction of E. Husserl through the prism of Buddhist meditation pp. 81-93


Abstract: The subject of this research is the method of phenomenological reduction developed by E. Husserl. The article examines the difficulties faced by this method, as well as observes the reception of Husserl’s ideas by the adherents of phenomenology in the XX century. It is substantiated that the phenomenological reduction is unrealizable by theoretical means due to impossibility to comply in the with the initial requirements of directness and non-prerequisiteness in the verbal expression. At the same time, the author proves that the phenomenological reduction could be implemented as a practice. Buddhist meditation is taken as an example. The goal is set to examine the phenomenological reduction through the prism of meditative practice. The research methodology is based on the comparative study of phenomenological and Buddhist philosophy with regards to the subject matter. The scientific novelty lies in examination of the problem of implementation of phenomenological reduction in the context of a completely different, non-Western tradition. The analysis demonstrates that Buddhism and phenomenology, proceeding from similar ideological prerequisites and studying the same subject, come to the markedly different conclusions. The examination of meditative practice indicated the differences between the phenomenology and Buddhism in their interpretation of the problem of consciousness. The fundamental difference pertains to the problem of “Self”: Buddhism does not recognize the apodictic evidence of the empirical and transcendental ego. This opinion is grounded on observation of the variable nature of the mind in the process of meditation. Other differences considered in this article consists in the discrepancy between the phenomenology and Buddhism regarding the interpretation of such concepts as “intentionality” and “ideation”.
Pris F. - On the Two Approaches to David 's Phenomenal Concepts pp. 84-149


Abstract: In article evolution of views of David Papineau on phenomenal concepts is considered, and, in particular, two of its are in detail stated the main approach to them (Father's-2002, Father's-2006). The emphasis is placed on property of phenomenal concepts at the same time to mention and use phenomenal experience which is offered to be interpreted in the context of the vittgenshtaynovsky concept "uses" (language game). Within such interpretation the "used" phenomenal experience makes the contribution to the cognitive act. For Papineau, on the contrary, the experience associated with the use of phenomenal concepts allows to explain only existence of illusory intuition about a so-called explanatory failure in psychophysical identities, but in semantic and epistemological meanings is neutral. Similarity between phenomenal concepts and concepts perceptual, and also "similarity" between phenomenal concepts and phenomenal experience, is interpreted in the vittgenshtaynovskikh terms of family similarity. Approach Father's is compared to Ned Blok's approach. At both philosophers the solution of a so-called problem of an explanatory failure contains pragmatical measurement in psychophysical identities. In more general plan evolution of views Father's can be characterized as rapprochement with a pragmatism of vittgenshtaynovsky type which relieves of illusion of existence of an explanatory failure. "The minimum approach" Father's-2014 to concept of a phenomenal concept is limited to introduction of only one essential property of phenomenal concepts – their aprioristic independence of theoretical/scientific concepts that allows to relieve this concept of many standard objections. It is possible to agree with Father's-2014 that in effect, antimaterialistic arguments are based only on aposteriorny nature of psychophysical identities.
Chubatov A. - Philosophy in flight from rigorous science: two testimonies of one escape (M. Heidegger and E. Husserl) pp. 84-92


Abstract: This article traces the fate of the project formulated by Edmund Husserl in headline of the article “Philosophy as a Rigorous Science”. As demonstrated in the correspondence with Gustav Shpet, scientific rigor is understood as a synonym to rationality in a general sense. Following Husserl, Martin Heidegger in 1927 also speaks of the identity of philosophy and science in its original Greek sounding. It would seem that within such meaning of scientific rigor, this reasoning sounds like pleonasm. However, in fact, identification requires not only broadening of the concept of science, but also narrowing down the boundaries of mind to the limits of science. Thus becomes the question: whether or not the prerequisite of scientific rigor, regardless of the broad understanding of the latter, contradicts the underlying phenomenology principle of non-prerequisite. In such case, phenomenology, in order to remain faithful to the “things themselves”, must overcome the horizon of the rooted in classical rationalism project of structuring philosophy as a rigorous science. Heidegger makes this step back in 1929, claiming that transformation into the absolute science is not the capability of philosophy whatsoever. Husserl, in turn, if judging by the published during his lifetime works, remains faithful to his idea to the end. Nevertheless, some fragments out of the published postmortem, give cause for making a careful assumption that at the close of his days comes to realization of unfeasibility of his own aspirations. Hence, the downfall of the project of philosophy as a rigorous science not in the slightest degree means the crash of phenomenology as such, but rather is a decisive step that allows the latter gaining faithfulness to its fundamental principles.
Chubatov A. - Battle for the experience: phenomenology vs. empiricism pp. 88-100


Abstract:   The ultimate source of knowledge is the experience. Habitualness of this reasoning disturbs to think it over to the end. Being faithful to the experience in form of ἀρχή means for the philosophy the inability to find reliance in one or another theory. This leads to debunking of a myth, according to which the philosophy based on experience is empiricism (particularly, is thematized the mythology of “eternal subjects” and “sensations”). At the baseline of empiricism lies a certain theory of experience, rather than experience. The only breakthrough towards life experience within the framework of empiricism was realized by George Berkeley, but at the end, he also drowned in its personalistic metaphysics. In turn, philosophy faithful to experience, which preceded all of its theories, manifests in form of phenomenology, not only rejecting the composition of theories, but meticulously exfoliating the intergrown into the experience theoretical constructs, disaffiliating from the authority innumerous unconscious theories that silently predetermine our knowledge before we start using it. Namely such step allows heading from an opinion towards vision, from the theory in a modern sense of word towards the Greek θεωρία – contemplation. This turn received the most capacious reflection in the famous slogan “Back, to the things themselves”. Give things the ability to talk for themselves – that is what the philosophy is outlived by. Particularly the faithfulness to experience as the contact point with the world allows the things themselves to manifest for narration. Again, namely the ultimate faithfulness to the experience represents the key feature of phenomenology. Thus, this article can be considered as introduction to phenomenology.  
Kutyrev V.A. - Transcendental Phenomenology as the Philosophical and Historical (Pre)Requisite of Infocognitive Reality pp. 100-135


Abstract: The author of the article defines the place and historical signifance of transcendental phenomenology. It is the prerequisite of the structural and information revolution. Transcendental phenomenology developed many concepts and terms that are now believed to be analogies of the terms and concepts in informationism.  The key word of phenomenology, noema=item, conciousnes=mental item contains information about the 'item'. Transcendental and cognitive modeling of existence turns everything into the quantity. This is the substantial shift from existence to non-existence, from realism to constructivism and denial of the human and his life (macro-) world by modern technological science. Husserl was the first ideologists of the Trans-Modernism epoch. 
Dubovitskii V. - Husserl's and Sartre's Phenomenology of Imagination in Terms of Ontology and Aesthetics pp. 112-150


Abstract: On the basis of a detailed analysis of a number of key provisions of the phenomenology of imagination of Edmund Husserl and Jean-Paul Sartre this article identifies ways to apply these concepts to phenomenological ontology and aesthetics. In particular, on the basis of these concepts and by the example of the theme of the geometric structure as an aesthetic phenomenon (the case study of the minimalist sculpture) one possible direction of phenomenological investigation of the essence of the aesthetic imagination is planned. In connection with the theme of imagination the article focuses on the Husserl's ideation concept. Husserl believed that it was the imagination which opened up many horizons of essential knowledge. This Husserl's concept is illustrated by the author by the example of the essential terms of the discretion of the phenomenon. In his research Dubovitsky uses the methods of phenomenological description, eidetic intuition and a number of other aspects of the phenomenological method. In Sartre's imagination theory the relationship between an image and the world is viewed as that the image is not having any place in the world and therefoe is reduced to the situation of being - in - the world, and this situation is the place "from" which imagination develops. Based on this key point of Sartre's theory Dubovitsky makes an assumption about the possibility to emphasize a phenomenological imagination study from the phenomenology of "pure" consciousness of Husserl as well as phenomenological ontology in the version of Sartre to the phenomenological ontology of Dasein (represented in the analyst of human existence by M. Heidegger) and to think an image and imagination in the phenomenological ontology in terms of space, vastness, place and the world. This reemphasis (its premise, as mentioned above, is contained in Sartre's theory of the imagination) must overcome rigid opposition and confrontation of the world and consciousness within the confines of the phenomenological study of the imagination which is the determining factor in Sartre's concept.
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