Philosophical Thought - rubric Frontiers and theories of knowledge
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Rubric "Frontiers and theories of knowledge"
Frontiers and theories of knowledge
Bogdanova V.O. - Constructivist Models of Philosophy in their Development and Interaction pp. 1-109


Abstract: The article gives a brief overview of the main trends of constructivism and describes continuity and interaction between these trends in the process of their development. In the process of phenomenological analysis, the author highlights the key constructs which create the basis for these trends and serve as their conceptual elements. These constructs are called "constructivist models of philosophy". The author of the article suggests an optimal method of classifying them in three ways depending on the subject and method of philosophy: constructivist models of phenomenology, evolutionism and structuralism. These areas are the basis for the formation of the methodological principles of constructivism.
Borisov S.V. - Exposition or 'Philosopher's Eye' for Science pp. 1-99


Abstract: The article 'Scherzo or Science and Mind' is the forth publication of the series 'Symphony of Science or Science Through the Eyes of Philosophers'. The present article is a sympophonic absorbption in the external and internal polemics regarding the main interpretations of classical science and its scope of problems. Many contradictions and conflicts faced by the modern society derive from blind belief in scientific progress. The social institution of science itself has turned into a series of rituals long ago. This creates numerious illusions about science and its scope of problems and forms an uncritical attitude to the process and outcome of scientific research. The article is written in the form of a dialogue which allows to transform the 'internal' scientific polemics into 'external'. This method also allows to define many contradictions and dramatic moments in scientific development and to see the 'other side' of it behind the beautiful and pretentious facade. 
Los' V.A. - Dynamics of the Modern System of Environmental Knowledge: Between Biologism, Sociologism and Globalism pp. 1-36


Abstract: The author makes an attempt of identification of evolution of social-and-ecological knowledge according to which "biologism" of traditional ecology for the XX century is steadily supplemented with its "sociologism". The ecology with which contacts not only detection of regularities of relationship of live organisms with Wednesday, but also the analysis of specifics and features of relationship of the person (and society) environment is a question of continuous expansion of a subject. In the 70-80th years the idea of ecological development (as an alternative to traditional economic growth) in a scientific form was structured in the form of social ecology as disciplines (or systems of scientific knowledge) about rather general regularities of relationship of the person, society and the biosphere. Since the beginning of the 90th years the ecological context becomes a component of the theory (strategy) of a sustainable development as the reply of the world scientific community to a sharpening of world biospheric intensity. Later the tendency of global integration of modern scientific knowledge (and efforts of society) for the analysis is distinctly shown and overcoming of contradictions of global scale the Ecological knowledge at the present stage of its development is a phenomenon of immanently integrated type which subject field unites subsystems of fundamental and applied knowledge; elements of the natural, technical and social sciences reduced in a whole of ideas of a survival of the person (and mankind) in historical prospect.
Ivanov E.M. - Mind-body problem in the context of the modified Everett-Mansky theory pp. 1-10


Abstract: The subject of the study is the relation of consciousness and physical reality, which is considered in the context of the modification proposed by the author of the theory of quantum measurement of Everett-Mensky. In this connection, the conceptual basis of measurement theory in quantum mechanics is also explored, in particular, the possibility of modifying the Everett interpretation of the measurement process in such a way as to exclude the need for any "splitting" of both the universe and the observer entity is investigated. Further, it is investigated how from the received picture of measurement it is possible to receive conclusions concerning character of communication of consciousness and quantum reality. The research methodology is based on the principle of interdisciplinarity (related issues of philosophy of physics and philosophy of consciousness), comparativeness and system analysis. An original approach to the solution of the psychophysical problem based on the philosophically rethought "multi-world" interpretation of quantum mechanics by H. Everett is proposed, as well as Mensky's idea of the identity of awareness with the process of selection of the quantum alternative. An explanation is given of the apparent psychophysical interaction (when the principle of the causal closure of the physical universe is taken into account) and the process of reduction of the wave function in quantum mechanics.
Sorokin R.V. - Post-nonclassical certainty and the basis of structural organization of knowledge pp. 1-12


Abstract: This article turns to one of the key gnoseological problems – the problem of “knowledge”. In the context of the ongoing transition from nonclassical scientific rationality towards post-nonclassical, the author assets the existence of value component of the modern scientific (scientific-philosophical) knowledge. The common to post-nonclassical rationality representation on irrecoverability of the value component of knowledge, confronts the scientific-philosophical rationality and the known modern ideas of relativism, skepticism, pluralism, and postmodernism. In this aspect, the post-nonclassical approach to knowledge is revealed as a topical general philosophical problem of the basis of modern public functioning and development. Therefore, the subject of this research becomes the epistemological specificity and public perspectives of post-nonclassical definition of knowledge. Research methodology leans on the methods of analysis, synthesis, abstraction, idealization, comparison, generalization, systematization, historical-logical method, system approach, hermeneutics and heuristics. The conducted analysis leads to acceptance and recognition of the theoretical productivity of post-nonclassical assertion of the value basis of knowledge. It is revealed that the current and future impact of relativism, skepticism, pluralism and postmodernism is directly attributable to an ultimate focus of modern civilization on ensuring decent and free life of the people. It is underlined that the responsible for emergence, functioning and development of modernist civilization knowledge loses its worldview significance. The modern monistic scientific-philosophical tradition must constantly confirm the leading role in social life in the context of equitable communication on all important questions with all other traditions and points of view.
Volkova V., Kamin A. - henomenon of Fantasy as a Form of Human Consciousness pp. 1-14



Abstract: The article deals with the problem of fantasy as a form of consciousness. Ideas about consciousness change along with ideas about human nature. One form of the existence of consciousness is fantasy. Fantasy becomes a part of an anthropological study project about human existence as a reality of dominance of integrative knowledge. The era of conceptualization forms a request for awareness of a priori grounds for figurative perception of information and its living as an object in a fantasy form of consciousness. A feature of fantasy is that in the imagination there is a translation from perception into a generalized transcendental representation by creating a chain of associations, a drawing, a narrative. Non-linear description of the feelings and thoughts of a person in the epoch of romanticism, feeling surpasses intelligence. The formation of fantasy states of consciousness is associated with overcoming mirror reflection and getting into the noumenal world in higher dimensions, similar to mathematics and physics. External situation turns out to be a surface hiding fantasy as a dimension of human creative potential. Modern discussions of the reality of fantasy oppose it as a special form of reality, equal in its properties to the mind. Fantasy is the source of human experience of his being, embodied conceptually in the process of imaging. Imaginative cognition conceptually connects the experience of previous generations preserved in images with experiences in one's own life and the lives of others. As a source of creativity, fantasy extends to scientific knowledge, creating syntheses of different sciences
Nilogov A.S. - Michael Polanyis concept of tacit knowledge as a foreknowledge of the philosophy of anti-language pp. 12-35


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the concepts of personal knowledge of the British methodologist Michael Polanyi (1891-1976), according to which any knowledge handled by a scholar always carries an individual imprint. A private example of this concept is the hypothesis about the existence of tacit (implicit) knowledge, which is suggested in gnoseological experience by the virtue of using the language. The anti-language interpretation of the hypothesis of tacit knowledge comprises the problematic part of the work, during the course of which was possible to plan the heuristic decisions based on the non-standard semiotic and meta-semiotic material. The scientific novelty of the research consists in the following: the concept of tacit knowledge is of Polanyi is interpreted through the concrete base of anti-language data, by means of which this concept becomes methodologically accurate. In turn, the consideration of the linguistic intuitions of Polanyi allowed confirming a number of anti-language hypothesis that illustrate the sphere of the inexpressible in both, language and meta-language of science.
Yastreb N.A. - How is Technical Creativity Possible? pp. 15-25



Abstract: The article deals with the problem of sources, possibilities and limitations of technical creativity. Technical creativity is defined in the article as the creation of objects that are qualitatively different from all previously created artifacts. The problem of impossibility, improbability and unthinkability of creativity is analyzed. The possibility of its solution in the case of technical creativity is considered. The role of the subject and the environment in the emergence of new objects is revealed. The limitations and conditions of inventive activity are considered, including the role of previously created technical devices. The methodological basis of the work is the three-act concept of P.K. Engelmeyer and the theory of affordances (possibility) by D. Gibson. It is shown that in ontological terms, technical creativity can be considered as the realization of those possibilities that are determined by the characteristics of the environment, in particular, physical laws, but due to various circumstances are not updated without the participation of the subject. At the same time, technical evolution should be considered in the unity of its own internal laws and human activity. Internal patterns are due to the fact that the emergence of new devices creates new opportunities (affordances) for constructive human activity. The role of the subject in this case is to actualize the potential, that is, the practical implementation of those opportunities that appear in the "man-environment" system. The limitations of technical creativity are logical, physical, paradigm consistency and praxeological admissibility. On the example of generative neural networks, the possibilities and limitations of machine creativity are considered.
Pris F. - Werner Karl Heisenberg's Philosophy of Physics and his Concept of the Closed Theory in Terms of Late Wittgenstein pp. 25-71


Abstract: In article a philosophical opinion of Werner Karl Heisenberg is stated, the concept of the closed theory entered by him is interpreted, and also Heisenberg, Niels Bohr and Paul Dirac's views of the nature of inter-theoretical communications are compared. Heisenberg's philosophy is interpreted as a pragmatism and not metaphysical realism of Wittgenstein's type. Unlike Aliza Bokulich preferring Dirac's position concerning the nature of communications between various physical theories the preference is given in article to Heisenberg's position. In article the answer to the questions raised by Erhard Shayboy concerning concept of the closed theory is also offered. Method of research is the philosophy of ordinary language of Ludwig Vittgenshtayn understood as a naturalistic pragmatism, and contextual Wittgenstein's approach of Zhoslin Benuast. Is established that the closed physical theory has the status of the Wittgenstein's rule / concept, or that is equivalent, "life forms". Its validity logical that is Wittgenstein's "philosophical grammar". It can be or applicable or isn't present, but can't be false. According to this interpretation and contrary to a position of the Popper criterion (closed) theory which settled scientific is its not falsifiability.
Petrosov T.A. - The logic of truth: on the relevance and impossibility pp. 34-40


Abstract: The author examines the possible approaches established within the Western European philosophical and logical traditions towards the definition of truth for the purpose of revealing the possibility of consistent and adequate notion of truth. In particular, the article reviews the correspondent concept of truth, negation of truth, notions of a priori knowledge applicable to the definition of truth, as well as notions of coherent and absolute truth. The indicated concepts are subject to analysis from the well-known perspectives along with the author’s original. Leaning on the logical methods of argumentation, the author finds the established within the Western tradition approaches towards definition of truth as self-contradicting or inadequate. The conclusion is made that each of the listed methods has strong contradictions or difficulties, which as a result leads to the necessity for double position relatively to the notion of truth: impossibilities of its nonexistence and impossibilities of its definition, i.e. the absence of its presence.  
Ursul A.D., Ursul T.A. - Global Direction of Science pp. 58-120


Abstract: It has been stated that the beginning of the global direction in science should be referred to the first half of last century.The authors of the article view related processes of globalization of knowledge and formation of global knowledge. The authors believe it is necessary to define the place of global direction in modern science, form the general concept and assess opportunities for further development of global studies. It is assumed that global studies, whether the subject of global studies is narrow or broad, is just part of a broader science - global research and general process of globalization of science. Changes in the subject of global studies and global researches making this subject even broader require not only historical, but also evolutionary approach to current and future global processes. The authors also describe the evolutionary approach (that is different from historical approach) to global researches and especially to global studies of different global processes and systems including global natural processes, globalization and global issues. Evolutionary globalization is focused on studying the development and co-evolution of global processes and their synergetic phenomenon - global development. Formation of global knowledge and global transformations in science are also viewed from the point of view of the transfer to sustainable development and formation of the sphere of reason - noosphere. 
Spektor D.M. - Deflecton of the Truth in the Meaning of Rationality Borders (On Overcoming Mechanicalism of Quantum A Priori) pp. 69-83


Abstract: Set of interpretations of intelligence protect it from possibility of reconsideration. Certainty of assumptions displaces the center to mechanisms in which the sense is changed for the validity. The last is alien to sense of understanding which the sense serves. In Kant's aprioristika mekhanitsizm ghosts are also covered. Sense and (on - with-) knowledge conduct continuous fight for the right of a primogeniture; but the arbitration of consciousness is limited to his belief in impossibility out of - and to - logical thought. Mystifications of rules are captured by ecstasy of the firm law which is eternal, constitutes life (in Kant interpretation – human) and embodies an absolute form of truth before leading under it the material contents. Overcoming of an aprioristika philosophy of life didn't lead to cardinal change of initial installations. Research traces their logic (rocking of logical dispositions) in the directions subconscious and the authorities. But results don't meet requirements of purity of a bespredposylochny outcome as still operta on clearings of Augean stables of consciousness and don't allow unconscious as the constituting life basis (again and again reviving an aprioristika). The denial of metaphysics leans on the next round of reconstruction to - conscious, immersed in the history environment (sacred madness). In renunciation from before - intellectualism of a reflektornost (aprioristik of "incentive reaction"), accentuation of spontaneous reaction, transcendental and esthetic owing to aiming at its razdelennost, in an institutionalization of Another (a substance prototype) the sense finds the first concreteness under which other community and a community of other is brought. Other (another) as a universal form of sensual synthesizable concreteness is also constituted by the world which reasons of a podsobnost and speeds of reactions will transform to the material.
Galkin I.V. - Monistic Epistemology of Benedict Spinoza pp. 141-170
Abstract: Key words: attribute, epistemology, essence, existence, modus, monism, principle, rationalism, substance.The present article deals with a problem of epistemology in Benedict Spinoza’s monistic philosophy. It is widely known that the system of this great Hollander thinker is one of the most original in philosophy and his conception is a real milestone in European rationalism. According to Spinoza’s thoughts, the unity of the creation is established on pantheistic monism of the substance and every thinking individual is nothing than the idea or modus in God’s mind. Therefore, his epistemology possesses some monistic features which originate in the identity of subject and object of cognition.
Gusev D.A. - Social background of the Origin of Ancient Scepticism and the Specifics of the Stoic Theory of Knowledge pp. 148-191


Abstract: The turn of ancient philosophy to the Hellenistic period put the issue of human rights and human thinking in a new way: there was the kind of reopening of the question about the relation of man and his knowledge on the real world and about the nature of truth; that is why the philosophy of that period, among other things, was a reflection of theoretical knowledge and in many ways anticipated today's epistemological and socio-philosophical concepts. Differences between skeptically oriented philosophical schools of the Hellenistic period, even though they were obvious and fundamental for their era, faded away in the historical perspective and today their similarities come to the fore and become important for consideration of a dialogue between epochs separated by approximately two thousand years. The article shows that the Hellenistic stoicism largely anticipated historical and postmodern trends in philosophy of science. Thomas Kuhn showed that only historical practice of science was the criterion of scientific truth and the priority motivation of scientific development was not just the pursuit of objective truth now coming within the competence of time and history. This priority motivation specifies the stoic theory of knowledge with its automaticity achieve truth, «the consent of thinking with oneself» and, consequently, the transfer of the importance of the truth to the procedure. The stoics in general formulated the idea that truth was not the main issue in cognition and the main issue was the transfer of cognition from the empirical level to theoretical level. 
Zholkov S. - Kant's Mathematical Antinomies are not Antinomies. Solution of the Problem pp. 166-211


Abstract: The article is devoted to the problems raised by Kat in his ‘mathematical antinomies’. Analysis is carried out in original formulation of Kant’s own terms and as a part of his own philosophical argumentation. The same problems are also viewed disregarding Kant’s philosophy. Validity and evidence which make it possible to structure analysis in a form of rigorous theory as it is seen by modern mathematics, allow to categorically state that Kant’s classification lacks grounds and his reasoning regarding ‘mathematical antinomies’ can’t be considered to be a proof. On the contrary both his theses and antitheses are irrefutable. The essence of problems is not in unavoidable contradictions of mind or process of cognition of transcendental world in the course of Kantian debates of mind with itself but in non-uniqueness of conceptual representations. As for the limits prescribed to the perceptive mind, they involve, first of all, the laws that determine the architectonics of veritable theories. 
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