Philosophical Thought - rubric Spectrum of consciousness
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Rubric "Spectrum of consciousness"
Spectrum of consciousness
Ivanov E.M. - Hypothesis About Extrasomatic Nature of Memory pp. 1-69


Abstract: The author of the article discusses the hypothesis offered by Henry Bergson about extrasomatic ('out of the body') nature of a certain element of permanent memory. Based on the hypothesis, at least some part of the permanent memory exists as a direct access to the past (in the form of past states of mind or consciousness) but not as an engram (recording). The author provides grounds for this hypothesis from the point of view of psychology, neuroscience and philosophy. He also viwes possible mechanisms of extrasomatic memory and offers his own concept of 'consciousness in the quantum world'. This concept continues Everett-Mensky's theory on the relation between consciousness and quantum reality. The author also studies some additional aspects of the model of 'consciousness in the quantum world' associated with the role of brain in performance of psychic processes and the nature of space and time. The author also analyzes how this model can be used to explain the process of biological evolution. 
Binhi V. - D. Chalmers argument from logical supervenience in explanation of the phenomenal consciousness pp. 1-10


Abstract: The subject of this research is D. Chalmers’ argument in explanation of the phenomenal consciousness –sentience or qualia – explanation on the basis of dualism of the low-level physical and high-level mental propertoes of the brain. The dualism of properties in the philosophy of consciousness means that consciousness is a high-level property, supervenient on the physical properties of the brain. Chalmers introduces the concept of logical supervenience and explains the phenomenal consciousness by the fact that psychical properties are supervenient on physical properties naturally, rather than logically. This comprises the essence of Chalmers' concept of naturalistic dualism. The article reviews the concept of supervenience in most commonly used form, and the definition of logical and natural supervenience. Supervenience becomes logical and/or natural due to the fact that its definition includes the modal term “possibility”, which concedes different interpretations: possibility by virtue of the laws of nature – nomic possibility, and logical possibility. The author demonstrates that the definition of logical supervenience, which leans on the concept of identity, makes sense only in the context of transtemporal, rather than transworld identity. Such circumstance substantially changes the meaning of the definition of logical supervenience. The novelty of this work consists in showing that unlike the logical and natural possibilities, logical and natural supervenience are different names for the same type of relationship. The conclusion is formulated that naturalistic dualism, which claims their fundamental difference, cannot explain the phenomenal consciousness using this distinction.
Medova A.A. - The idea of God as a condition for the reason functionning in Kant's transcendental Theology pp. 1-15



Abstract: According to I. Kant, reflecting on reality, the mind inevitably comes to the idea of an entity possessing the highest perfection and absolutely necessary by its nature. The idea of God as the supreme being is considered by transcendental theology as a hypothesis of pure reason, without which its practical application is impossible. The author of the article explores why and how the concept of God plays a coordinating role in the work of speculative reason. In this regard, the structure and tasks of Kant's transcendental theology are discussed, its problematic nature as a form of cognition, the prerequisites for the emergence of the idea of God in pure reason, the possibility of proving His existence solely based on a priori concepts, the problem of excluding empirical definitions from the idea of God. The idea of God is analyzed in the light of the natural tasks of the mind formulated by Kant, as a necessary condition for the possibility of achieving them.The study is based on the analysis of Kantian texts. These are mainly the works "The only possible basis for proving the existence of God" (1763), the First and Second criticisms, manuscripts from 1778-1780 (the so-called materials for the "Critique of Pure Reason"), Lectures on Rational Theology of the winter semester of 1783/84, etc. As a result of the research, it is shown that the idea of God acts as an unprovable position, which, nevertheless, the mind must accept, since this is necessary for the completeness of its application. The author explains the organizing role of the concept of God by its a priori "genetic" connection with such categories of pure reason as reality and necessity. The concept of God is "involved" in the work of these categories and is simultaneously shaped by their application. It allows, ultimately, to think about the order and expediency of reality and satisfies the requirement of reason to be economical with respect to the number of explanatory principles. The author's special contribution to the research of the topic is to demonstrate the specifics of the transcendental approach to the stated problem. It is shown that the unprovability of the existence of God is a necessary element of transcendental theology. The very idea of the supreme essence appears in it as a limit, indicating the limit of the possibilities of the mind. In this regard, it is productive, as it allows us to idealize, model consciousness and construct a different type of rationality within the boundaries of our understanding of our own mind.
Ivanov E.M. - Deadlocks of naturalistic theories of mind and the way out pp. 13-38


Abstract: The subject of this research is the mind-body problem, its naturalistic and non-naturalistic interpretations. In light of this, the author examines the based problems of the philosophy of mind, which solution within the framework of naturalistic approaches to the problem of consciousness, problem of nature of individuality of the “Self”, and problem of “casual ability” of phenomenal mind. The author also explores the problem of the “reduction of wave function” in quantum mechanics for the purpose of determining the correlation of this problem with the basic questions of the philosophy of mind. Methodology is based on the principle of interdisciplinary synthesis, viewing the related issues of the philosophy of quantum-relativistic physics and philosophy of mind. The author demonstrates the possible constructive solution of fundamental problems of the philosophy of mind beyond the naturalistic paradigm in the context of authorial concept of “consciousness in quantum world”, which represents a modernized version of the interpretation of quantum mechanics of Everett-Mensky. The study substantiates the idea of the existence of extrasomatic component of the function of consciousness, associated with the “insight” mechanism and long-term memory.
Titlin L.I. - The concept of subject of Samkhya and discussion between Buddhist and Samkhyaks in the passage Atmapariksha from Shantarakshita's Tattvasamgraha on the existence and qualities of Atman pp. 14-25


Abstract: This article examines the metaphysical nature of Samkhya and the concept of subject within it; then the author refers to the polemics between Buddhists and Samkhyaks as it is described in the passage Atmapariksha from Shantarakshita's Tattvasamgraha (VIII century) with the commentary "Panjika” of Shri Kamalashila. The subject of this research is the concept of subject within the philosophical system of Samkhya as it is given in Samkhya Karika and section on the polemics with Samkhya of the chapter Atmapariksha from Shantarakshita's Tattvasamgraha with the commentary "Panjika” of Shri Kamalashila. The object of this research is the Samkhya Karika and Shantarakshita's Tattvasamgraha. The key research method is the classical historical-philosophical method suggesting the combination of several methodological approaches. Genetic approach, comprehended as a method of studying philosophical concepts and notions, is based on the analysis of their origin and development. It implies consideration of the objects in evolutionary perspective, in dynamics of their historical development, therefore requires the establishment of initial conditions, key stage, main trends and strategies of development. The main goal of such research lies in identification of connection between the objects in time, studying of transitions from the historically older forms of philosophical (or even pre-philosophical) reflection towards the historically more recent. The author’s special contribution consists in conducting the first even research in Russia and in Russian language of the chapter “Discussion with the representatives of Samkhya on Atman” of the passage Atmapariksha from Shantarakshita's Tattvasamgraha with the commentary "Panjika” of Shri Kamalashila based on the original translation from Sanskrit.
Zhul'kov M.V. - Energy aspects of consciousness in the philosophy of the XX century pp. 15-28


Abstract: The subject of this research is the energy paradigm of the XX century philosophy of consciousness. Among them are such concepts as: the materialistic, William James’ flow of consciousness; the concept of Arthur Schopenhauer; psychodynamic concept of Sigmund Freud; Albert’s Veinik thermodynamics concept; Lev Gumilev’s theory of ethnogenesis; Vladimir Vernadsky’s doctrine of bioenergy, and others. The existing concepts the author classifies using the systematic approach and the triad “substance-energy-information” proposed by I. V. Dmitrevskaya. As a result, these concepts are divided into substance- substrate, structural-energy, and information. The majority is referred to as “substance” or “information”. This article demonstrates that energy characteristics are present in many concepts of the XX century, and this fact confirms the fundamentality of the energy approach towards studying the consciousness. Energy concepts along with information and substrate are mutually complemented, and can become grounds for the future creation of the integral doctrine on consciousness. One of the important directions of the research on consciousness is the conjunction of the energy approach with noosphere, which will allow combining within the framework of a unified approach the psychical-energy and subjective, natural scientific and humanitarian paradigms of consciousness, adequately describing the processes of formation of the global consciousness.
Maximov L.V. - Reduction of Consciousness to Cognition as the Methodological Principle of Cognitive Science and Humanities pp. 32-71


Abstract: Object of research and the critical analysis in this article is the epistemological reductionism – the methodological approach defining the main contents and structure of cognitive science. The basis of this approach is made by idea, very widespread in philosophy of consciousness and psychology, that human mentality (spirit, mentality) in general and in all the manifestations can be reduced to knowledge and knowledge and is respectively described and explained in terms of an epistemologiya. In cognitive science the specified traditional approach changed a little, language of a classical epistemologiya gave way to a conceptual framework of the theory of information, however these changes left the general kognitivistsky interpretation of consciousness in inviolability. In article other methodological approach – a nonkognitivizm according to which the consciousness (spirit, mentality) includes a number of phenomena, essentially irreducible to knowledge is opposed to an epistemological reductionism of cognitive science; these are emotions, estimates, interests, the purposes, etc. Novelty of research consists that it allowed to reveal and theoretically to articulate characteristic for "sciences about spirit" a methodological mistake, namely – the unilateral cognitive and information approach to consciousness which is excessively simplifying its structure and by that considerably distorting results of scientific searches in this area. Correction of the specified methodological approach from a position of an anti-reductionism has to promote successful advance of science in the solution of a number of actual problems, in particular – an applied problem of "artificial intelligence", a psychophysical problem and some other.
Gabdullin I.R., Orlova E.V. - Spontaneous-unconscious forms of thought processes: philosophical and psychological aspects of research pp. 32-41



Abstract: The subject of this study is those aspects of human mental activity that are determined by its inclusion in non-articulated and non-reflexive spheres of mental activity. The purpose of this article is to analyze the psychological and philosophical aspects of studying specific aspects of the formation and functioning of thinking as the highest cognitive ability of a person, namely in that part of this ability that manifests itself in a spontaneously unconscious form. One of the tasks that require resolution and arise in such a context is to raise the question of whether these forms of manifestation of thinking are considered only a consequence of the influence of external factors, or whether it is a necessary element of the process of their formation and functioning. Another task, due to the specifics of the chosen research subject, was the question of choosing a methodological context and prospects for further research. The methodological approaches and methods used in the course of the research involve both the theoretical developments of classical philosophy and psychology, as well as the results of modern philosophical and psychological research, which allows us to apply the so-called method of "systematic eclecticism", which partly allows us to actualize an integrated approach to such a complex field of research as the phenomenon of human consciousness. The relevance of the research is determined by the fact that despite the continuing interest in the problems of the functioning of human thinking, its origin remains insufficiently investigated in terms of its relationship with the unconscious processes of the human psyche. One of the reasons for this situation is the relative differentiation and fragmentation in methodological campaigns. As one of the main conclusions in the attempted study of the mental processes indicated by the chosen topic is the position of the inextricable connection, interdependence of conscious and unconscious acts of the psyche, and the spontaneous-unconscious form of manifestation of thinking is naturally inherent in it. As a particular conclusion based on the results of the conducted research, it is proposed to update the already existing results achieved in cognitive sciences as an interdisciplinary field of research on problems of consciousness and thinking.
Dimitrova S. - About the role of cognition within the conscious action pp. 37-43


Abstract: The object of this research became the situations, under which the efficient technological activity imposes the goals for development and strategies to man and society. The subject of this research is the search and determination of the “regimes of consciousness” aimed at establishment of the personal being. The author formulates the limits of the intentional acts of cognition and self-consciousness that represent the objective meanings on the world and human. Consciousness manifests not within the formulated meanings, but within the possibility of understanding, allowing to include into the content of consciousness everything that has been cognized. During the course of this research, the author conducted the analysis and interpretation of the philosophical work of the Pope Paul John II “Human Personality and Action”. The main conclusion consists in the thesis that consciousness is defined not by the objective criteria, established in the process of the intentionally targeted cognitive activity, but rather the way of existence of personality. In the “regime of conscious action”, personality manifests itself, as well as carries responsibility for its own actions.
Aleinik R.M. - Cognition and World View: Naturalistic Position pp. 40-67


Abstract: The subject matter of the article is the epistemology from the point of view of the New Naturalism in comparison with the term 'world view'. The author of the article views the main approaches to epistemology in classical and non-classical philosophy and describes their pluses and minuses. The author also discusses the concepts of naturalization of epistemology (in particular, the concept offered by Jean-Marie Schaeffer) and the developmet of the naturalistic tradition in philosophical anthropology and socio-humanitarian sciences.  The naturalistic approach offers a new view on ideology and allows to harmonize the relations of human with the world and himself. The purpose of the present article is to evaluate the advantages of this approach to epistemology. The set of methods used in the research includes the comparative method and the historical approach that is based on the concept of global evolutionism. This approach allows to eliminate the dichotomy between nature and culture. The present research can be used in a general philosophy course (the topics 'Subject matter of the philosophy' and 'the problem of human in the philosophy') as well as in the philosophy of science (researches of the most recent scientific paradigms). 
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