Philosophical Thought - rubric Ontology: being and nihility
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Rubric "Ontology: being and nihility"
Ontology: being and nihility
Kutyrev V.A. - Cognitisation of the World: its Philosophical and Historical Foundations pp. 1-45
Abstract: The article is dedicated to review of historical forms of cognitive modeling of reality: ontology, gnoseology, epistemology, cognitology. Qualitative and notional kind of cognition is replaced by quantitative and formal within direction of «cognitivism». «Logos» is reduced to «mathesis». Transcendental philosophical systems of Kant and Husserl can be considered as a basis of «cognitivism». Postmodernism (first of all in the person of Deleuze) overcame incoherence of these systems and replaced «identity and contradiction» as a substantiaties principle of thinking by «difference and repetition» in its radical interpretation. This is informationism. It means the replacement of ontology by nihitology, the replacement of human objective sensual universe by constructed, cognitive post-human world.
Maydanov A.S. - Cosmos in the Mirror of Mythology and Science pp. 1-52
Abstract: The article describes the views of the Vedas authors on cosmogenesis and how the picture of cosmogenesis developed from antropomorphic models to biomorphic and physiomorphic models. It is shown how the mythology formed the basic questions of all subsequent cosmology regarding fundamental characteristics of the universe - its beginning, genesis, structure, sources of its dynamics and the role of human as a living creature, i.e. part of the world. The author of the article also investigated the features of the cosmological thinking of archaic humans, methods and techniques of such thinking and the strategy of understanding the history of the universe. All these factors are considered in terms of their development and contribution to the modern cosmological thinking. The author of the article offers new interpretations of some extremely complex but cognitively informative images of gods - demiurges of the Universe that are analyzed from the epistemological point of view.
Prokhorov M.M. - Existence and history: interrelation and definition pp. 1-71


Abstract: Summary: This article explores the interrelation between and the definition of categories of existence and history. Special attention is given to the culture of the definition of existence. The author analyzes the relationship between existence and history, describes the law of communication between history and existence, and delves into the substantive level of definitions of existence and concomitant prejudices. The article explains that the substantive level of existence correlates to an inherent historical level, at which existence appears in the form of human activity. The correlation of tendencies to cephalization in the history of the evolution of animals and to humanization in the history of people is explored. Discrepancies in human history are investigated, as is the necessity to bring together the various strands of its emerging evolution.
Prokhorov M.M. - Attributive Definition of Being: the Third Historical Form of Contrast of Dialectics and Metaphysics pp. 1-100
Abstract: The present article is the third article in a series started with the article «Being and history: relation and definition». The present article is devoted to the attributive level of definition of 'being'. The first part of the article is the introduction that contains general provisions. These provisions are followed by an explication of an essence of attributive level of definition of 'being' in terms of such ontological categories the thing, property and relation. The following part of the article describes historical forms of contrast of dialectics and metaphysics and analyzes the philosophy of Russian cosmism as it is presented by the contemporary follower of Russian cosmism. In addition, the history of post-Soviet Russia is presented as the evidence of existence of the third historical form of contrast of dialectics and metaphysics, i.e. positive and negative dialectics. The other part of the article contains the research of rarely quoted works of Jacque Derrida about Hegel. The article is ended with a very important description of particular historical properties and features of the modern age.  
Prokhorov M.M. - Ontology: Existence and Non-existence or Being and Essence? pp. 1-102


Abstract: Paper is the fourth in a series of "Being and history: the relationship and determination." It is devoted to the justification of not "being and / or non-existence," and the correlative of 'beings and things, "is the basis of all the other problems in the study of philosophical ontology, that of him, to play with the relationship-being and existence, formed a correlate of philosophy and Science, which reflects the reality of a being and existence.In the first chapter examined and explicated meaning correlativity categories of being and existence, is reflected in the correlation with the relative philosophy and science. It is shown that the reality can not be disclosed separately either science or philosophy. She played in the mind only their correlate or co-relation. In the second chapter of the article reveals the history and logic of relation of philosophy and science. Isolated and characterized the main types of relations, the dialectical interaction of philosophy and science. The author believes that all relevant to these types of "concepts" reproduce the co-relation of philosophy and science, but the concept of each match, so to speak, its own reality relationship of philosophy and science. Some are "on the surface", while others go in depth, up to the essence of the deepest order. Three types of relation of philosophy and science: antiinteraktsionizm, reductionism (two species) and the dialectical model of interaction. The third chapter of the characteristic of the philosophical foundations of science, in the fourth - The essence of the "philosophy of science". Finally, given the conclusions of the article.
Ryabushkina T. - Self-Reflection as a Method of Self-Knowledge: On the Question about the Crisis of Foundations of the Cartesian and Post-Cartesian Theories of Subjectivity pp. 1-59


Abstract: The article shows that the concept of reflection ( the basic concept of Cartesian theory of knowledge) determines fundamental difficulties not only for classical conceptions of self-knowledge but also for modern conceptions that deny the subject-object relation of self-knowledge. Not declarative but real refusal from self-reflection as a method of self-knowledge proves to be the key to finding a productive approach to understanding of subjectivity.
Kutyrev V.A. - Cognitizatino of Reality as Destruction of Human Life World pp. 1-39


Abstract: Cognitology is the theory of informatisation, communication kind of thinking, devoid of consciousness, images and mind. Devoid of reflection, it turns into AI (artificial intelligence). This will unprecedented post-human universe of otherworld, in the ontological sense. The philosophy of science primary goal is the formation of spiritual elite as a sphere interaction qualitative being, on the one hand, cognitive forms, on the other hand. They are transmission in the society. For survival in a hi-tech world requires the creation and support geocentrically and anthropologically justified consciousness. After postmodernism – «gomodern».
Prokhorov M.M. - Principle of Unity of Being and History in Philosophical World View pp. 1-81


Abstract: The author of the article raises a question about renovation of philosophical world view. This question can be solved through implementation of the principle of unity, i.e. interdependence of being and history as the grounds for creating a philosophical picture of the world, human and human attitude to the world. The article is composed of the three parts. The first part is devoted to interpretation of philosophical world view and its structure. The second part represents the results of research of historical forms of opposition between dialectics and metaphysics. The third part describes the 'being and consciousness' and 'being and history' relations from the point of view of philosophical anthropology. 
Iakovlev V.A. - Information Unity of Being: Conciousness, Life and Materia pp. 1-57


Abstract: The main philosophical concept such as space, time, motion, essence, existence, substance, subject and object, in fact, derive from the concept of 'being', represent different aspects thereof and form some kind of a metaphysical frame (cluster or pool) that is used to describe all famous universal phenomena in this way or another. This 'hard core' (according to Imre Lakatos) of all natural science and philosophical research programs conducted by the majority of philosophers, cultural researchers, theologists and scientists has been called 'metaphysics' since Andronicus of Rhodes published Aristotle's works.  The author of the article offers a new interpretation of being as information reality that unites the three important elements of the universe - conciousness, life and materia.  The research is based on historical and philosophical traditions of interpreting the category of 'being' and definition of being in modern natural science.  In modern natural science and socio-cultural research the category 'being' means information being or existence of information represented as the unity of the three spheres of reality - conciousness (reason), life and materia. 
Demenev D.N. - Rational Element as One of the Most Important Ontological Grounds of the Creative Process pp. 1-49


Abstract: The article is devoted to the question about the rational part of the creative process and its relation to the sensual element. Describing the structure of art process as starting from the sensual level, the author proves the need in rational grounds of art, too. Concrete thinking and abstract thinking of an artist create such grounds. These cogitation patterns exist in the creative process and often transform from one to another. These patterns lie in the basis of the outcome of art process. The result of any creative process of an artist is either images resembling (reflecting) something or true art images created based on a certain degree of abstraction. The former images are easy to understand so they satisfy tastes of the majority of people and the latter images are not so comprehensive  and therefore are not always understood by the audience. The author of the present article tries to answer the question about what makes such 'ununderstandable' artwork to be created? At the end of the article the author makes a conclusino that being one of the most important ontological grounds of the creative process, the rational element is interchangeable with the sensual element and creates grounds for formation of the third stage of the creative process, i.e. life experience of the artist himself.  
Faritov V.T. - Transgression and Transcendence as Prospects of Time and Existence in Martin Heidegger's and Friedrich Nietzsche's Philosophies pp. 1-24


Abstract: Research of specifics of Heidegger's approach to interpretation of fundamental categories of ontology is presented in the offered article: time, life and anything. Conceptual development of M. Heidegger is considered in the horizon of comparative research with the doctrine F. Nietzsche, and also – Zh. Bataille, G. Bashlyar, J.P. Sartre, Zh. Delez, Ge. Derrida. The main attention in article is paid to the analysis of nature of interaction in Heidegger's philosophy of ontologic prospects of a transtsendention and transgression. The dual relation of Heidegger to the classical and nonclassical philosophy is explicated. Along with traditional methodology in article the methodological arsenal of nonclassical philosophical thought is used: hermeneutics, semiotics and deconstruction. The methodological principles of comparative research of philosophical doctrines are applied. Situation locates in article that Heidegger's ontology is constituted mainly on the basis of the transtsendention horizon, but the transtsendention thus gains in its doctrine absolutely other semantic fullness, in comparison with classical tradition of the use of this concept. At Heidegger the transtsendention in character comes nearer to transgression, to disclosure and the statement of plurality and formation. In this plan Heidegger's doctrine comes nearer to F. Nietzsche's views. However at the same time Heidegger keeps primary orientation to life as that, on identity and unity. Plurality and heterogeneity (transgression) at it are subordinated to the dominating prospect of identity (transcendence).
Faritov V.T. - Transcendence as the ontological horizon of scientific discourse (Heidegger's philosophy of science) pp. 1-31


Abstract: The subject of the study is the specificity of the interpretation of the phenomenon of science in the doctrine Martin Heidegger. Since the approaches to understanding of being as such, Heidegger begins with the development of existential analysts, before this study is twofold purpose. First, the interpretation of the phenomenon of science as a modus of human existence, that is, as the way in which things become accessible to man in his being. The study revealed the existential-ontological and metaphysical bases of scientific knowledge. Second, we show how the phenomenon of science represents being as such or transcendence.Along with the traditional methodology used in the article methodological arsenal of non-classical philosophy: hermeneutics, semiotics and deconstruction.The main result of the study is the explication of the ontological base of scientific knowledge in the context of fundamental ontology of M. Heidegger. Ontological foundation of science is to present things as objectivity, existing outside and independent of human existence. It follows that science is one of one of the modes of being in the world, or transcendence. Science is the way in which things become available in being human.
Faritov V.T. - Discourse and transgression. Prospects of ontological research pp. 1-9


Abstract: The subject of the present article is to study the phenomenon of discourse in terms of conceptual developments of modern non-classical ontology. The author examines the main trends, problems and prospects of the philosophical concept of discourse studies. On the one hand, affect the basic problems of ontology, such as being and consciousness, thought and reality. Offers solutions to these problems within the framework of philosophical discourse theory. On the other hand, considers the prospects of integration into the philosophical discourse theory of conceptual development of non-classical philosophy. In this vein, special attention is paid to the phenomenon of transgression as a way to neutralize the borders existentially-semantic certainty discourse. Used methodical arsenal developed non-classical philosophical and socio-humanitarian thought. Partially used and methodological orientations hermeneutical poststructuralist approaches. The main conclusion of the study is the thesis about the formation of a modern ontology new research paradigm - a philosophical theory of discourse. The discourse is presented as an ontological phenomenon, which removes the basic opposition of classical metaphysics, such as being and consciousness, language and reality. A significant finding is the conclusion of transgression as a special way of being and of sense, can overcome the power of discourse prospects.
Spektor D.M. - M. Heidegger: time and sense pp. 1-53


Abstract: In article aspects of temporariness are considered through a prism of philosophy of Heidegger. The special attention is paid to the leading line of research, life real, unlike real vremenyashchy itself as initial temporariness. This message is taken as the fundamental and reliable; however the fenomenologizm which isn't able and not able to leave description limits is insufficient in respect of explanation of the reasons of distinction of real and (its) life, and interpretation of the last in the area of temporariness, and is supplemented with a historical and dialectic method.The method of research is connected with a consecutive reduction here - lives to its historical bases; the structural components revealed in its course (a community and isolation) are traced further in their projection to time and history.Scientific novelty of research consists in consecutive leading under ontology here - lives of realism of nationalization. "Here", under which the prototype of an individual (the isolated life) is brought, aspires to life (community), but also the last recreates in tendency; but also life holds "here" (individual) on the brink of falling, from time to time carrying out break of an enlightenment. This break of "present" is compared with its chronological disposition. Besides, "ordinary" as not original time also takes roots in life, corresponding to structure of an agon.
Spektor D.M. - Being and subjectivity pp. 1-46


Abstract: The subject of this research is subjectivity: this quite uncertain on the topic and notion connotation is revealed with regards to its ontological status; for these purposes, subjectivity is being reduced to its origins, which include the conditions of initiation, possession, orgiastic festivities, etc. Within the logical field, subjectivity is correlated to “aspiration”, including modification of desire (also psychoanalytical) and “realization” (phenomenology). The modern developments of problematics of the “body” and its connection to the space and time are taken into account. The method of research is linked to the analysis and historical reconstruction of the notions of “body”, time, and Other; the “subject” is viewed in its internal substantiation, which acquires in history an adaptive status, but not originating out of it. Scientific novelty of the conducted research consists in the proof that genesis of subjectivity is justified by initial transformation of attraction to the motive (involvement). Motive (intention) is directed not by the object (stimulus), but its being (realistically-existing). Being is revealed as a game of transition of embodiment into the subject of unembodiment (in motivation).
Bydanov V.E., Stanzhevskii F.A. - Processualism and substantialism as two philosophical paradigms pp. 1-23


Abstract: The subject of this research is the advantage of the ontology of process over the ontology of substance in description of the ontological structure of the world. Analysis is conducted on the comparative heuristic potential of essentialism and substantialism on the one hand, and philosophy of the process on the other hand. Essentialism postulates stable, mature, already constituted objects with objectively given essential characteristics that form profound structure of the object. The clearly differentiated array of concepts and categories that reflects the structure of reality and the nature of things is placed on the reality in the flow of becoming. The philosophy of process, in turn, insists on the dynamic and relational nature of reality, and considers time to be the factor constitutive of reality. The fabric of reality is comprised of the processes that relate and interact with other processes forming their dynamic context. The article demonstrates the applicability of the ontology of process in biology, namely on the example of the phenomenon of symbiosis and holobionts. The arguments are provided that the object can be ontologically described as a process; however, a range of processes (for example, photosynthesis) cannot be analyzed in the object categories. Criticism is expressed towards the concept of essential properties of the substance, taking into account perspectivism and variants of the processes of with objects. It is indicated that gradualism characteristics to the philosophy of process allows removing dichotomies and introducing nuances into the binary picture of reality. The novelty of this work consists in highlighting the questions faced by the philosophy of process, namely the question of determination of the status of time essential for determining the process as the basic ontological entity.
Demenev D.N. - Unity of the process of creating a fine art painting: ideal and material pp. 1-41


Abstract: The subject of this research is the interaction of the ideal and the material, which ensures unity of the process of creating a fine art painting. The object of this research is the dynamics of this process, which gradually materializes the ideal through poetic transformation of the objective reality. In the course of creating a fine art painting, the author underlines the importance of ontological-phenomenological and socio-gnoseological aspects of human existence, which in many ways determine the technical and technological means of solution of the artistic and creative tasks. Special attention is given to contemplation of the objective world, purposive action of the artistic will, establishment of the artistic image as interrelated stages of objectification of the ideal. The novelty of this article consists in interpretation of the phenomenon of the ideal, reflected in painting via integrated will. The latter is the synthesis of artistic will and subjective will of the painter. The author describes a “shuttle principle” in objectification of the ideal in the works of art within the framework of the history of development of painting, as well as within a single process: 1) from the aesthetic form to the embodiment of universality of the content; 2) from the universal content to aesthetic embodiment. The following conclusions were made: 1) the objectively ideal in a painting is an aesthetically perceived (visually, mentally, and spiritually) boundary of beauty and beautiful depicted via perfect, absolute unity of the artistic form and content, artistically and graphically, adequate to its concept in its material outcome, in reality. It is of rare occurrence in the works of art, something to be sought for; 2) an artistic form should be correlated in the artwork with universality of its content, which results in the fusion of the ideal and the real, and forms their indifference; 3) the universal meanings, ideologically underlying the content of a fine art painting, deepen and broaden the possibilities of artistic matter for objectification of the ideal in aesthetic form.
Faritov V.T. - The paths of Russian religious philosophy in light of the crisis of European metaphysics: S. N. Bulgakov and F. Nietzsche pp. 8-19


Abstract: The subject of this research is the philosophical and religious views of S. N. Bulgakov in the context of crisis of the European metaphysics. The doctrine of F. Nietzsche is viewed as the sign expression of the crisis of European metaphysics. The author conducts a comparative analysis of the conceptual development of S. N. Bulgakov and F. Nietzsche; as well as the views of both thinkers upon the questions of God, Christianity, culture, history, and humanity. Special attention is given to the questions of ontology, pursuing correlation between the philosophers’ approaches towards solution of the problem of existence, unity and diversity. The article apples the methodological principles and patterns of philosophical comparativism, semiotic analysis, and approaches of ontological research. The main conclusion lies in the thesis on the proximity of conceptual horizons and initial situation of the formation and evolution of the philosophical and religious ideas of S. N. Bulgakov and F. Nietzsche. The author underlines that the main intention in the doctrines of both philosophers is the vector towards overcoming the gap between transcendent and immanent. Although, there are crossing points in their views, both philosophers take different paths, trying to decipher the crisis of European metaphysics.
Kuzmin V. - Abstracting Objects on the Example of the Concept "Color". The Phenomenological Aspect pp. 9-23



Abstract: The features of abstracting objects in three segments of reality differing in "size" are investigated: "situation", "co-existence" (situations) and "universe". At the same time, abstraction of objects can be of two types: "internal" and "external". In the first case, it is an idealization according to an intrinsic property, in the second case, it is a distraction from some external aspects set in the corresponding segment of reality, in the region of being in which the object has meaning. The purpose of the work is to identify the features of abstracting objects with a phenomenological approach. The general concept is due to the interval methodology. It is noted that with the phenomenological approach, the nature of abstraction depends entirely on the "size" of the corresponding segment of reality (in the methodology, the abstraction interval). The presented innovations are described in detail on the example of the concept "color". The difference between the concept of "color" (as a result of "internal" abstraction) and the concept of "color" ("external" abstraction) is revealed. The role of a specific color, categories of color and chromaticity in the intending of objects of color reality is differentiated. The abstraction of color in different segments of reality is studied, in particular, a specific color in a "situation", a category of color in a "co-existence" and, finally, chromaticity in a "universe". The special role of gray (achromatic) color in vision is revealed. The abstraction of gray color plays an important role in the perception of colors both in everyday life and in aesthetics (painting).
Demenev D.N. - Artistic will as the ontological basis of art pp. 10-24


Abstract: The subject of this research is the artistic will as the ontological basis of art. In the process of comprehension of the nature of art as on object of research, emerges the problem of identification and determination of the ontological will with regards to arts as a fundamental factor in “conception” of an artful work. The will is an ontological link in the chain “author – willful acts – creative process – artwork”, which allows the latter to manifest from nothingness. This leads to understanding of the “relative mechanism of conception” of an artwork, which comprises the goal of the research. The scientific novelty consists in the thesis that two types of will coexist at the current stage of the development of art: will of a modern artist and artistic will (will to beauty). Due to the fact that the will of a modern artist doesn’t always shift him towards aesthetization of the environment, whole the artistic will is particularly aimed at aesthetization of the phenomena of surrounding reality, the author underlines the crucial difference between the two wills. The conclusion is made that the “artistic will” as an aestheticizing will or the will to beauty is the ontological basis of art.
Kuzmin V. - Bi-level perception and color modes. Contrast ratio and complementarity of colors pp. 11-21


Abstract: For the “Self”, color is a color text, a structure consisting of two elements: internal context (content: tone, saturation, brightness) and external context (conditions under which color actualizes in a situation: lightness, proximity, etc.). Perception of the color is when the content overlays the conditions. The modes of color are revealed depending on the ratio of indicated contexts. There are three color modes: visible, invisible, and colorless. The goal of this article is to describe the color modes, and their correlation with contrast and complementarity of colors, what entails bi-level perception of color. The article employs situational and phenomenological approaches. Visible color for the “Self” occurs when the internal context completely overlays the external context. Invisible color occurs in the presence of internal context and absence of one or more external factors: no tone, no contrast with background, etc. “Colorless” mode occurs when the internal context is not fully set in the situation of presence of the external context: no tone, saturation, or brightness. Color in the “colorless” mode is achromatic. The compatibility of separate colors within the color text leads to the phenomena of complementarity and contrast ratio, which are interrelated with the color modes. There are two levels of color perception: 1) fundamental, i.e. is the perception of achromatic color with gradations from sharply white to pure black; gray color with varying degrees of brightness is present in chromatic colors (as the “base”); 2) perception of the chromatic colors, founded on the colorless “base”. Such bi-level perception of color is substantiated by the fact that the consciousness seeks harmony and balance, i.e. minimization of perception of the visual.
Dorozhkin E.L. - To the definition of poetic ontologies pp. 13-21


Abstract: This article examines the main vector of development of ontologies in European philosophy of the XX century. The subject of this research is the concept of “poetic ontologies”, proposed by Alan Badiou applicable to fundamental in their essence projects of Martin Heidegger and Gilles Deleuze, An attempt is made to explicate the specific conceptual meaning of the poetic in the referred projects by revealing its differences from poetry in a narrow sense of versification, and its correspondence with the fact that in Deleuze’s texts it received a name of schizophrenic language. Alongside the general scientific methods of description, analysis and synthesis, the author also used the hermeneutic method and comparative analysis. Application of the concept of “poetic ontologies” in respect to the projects of M. Heidegger and G. Deleuze, found its substantiation and legitimacy in the course of this research. The main conclusion consists in elucidation of the constructive link of the poetic with the certain interpretation of existence, known as nature and opening a prospect for the nonclassical forms of reasoning.
Kuzmin V. - Color reality: attributes and relativity pp. 16-31


Abstract: Using the phenomenological approach, the author attempts to demonstrate that the concept of “color” from the ontological perspective can be introduced as a special type of color reality. At the moment of intention it manifests through the color text. In the context of intentionality, such text represents a coherent whole, which constitutes in consciousness based on the perception of color of a particular subject and the overall situation it is placed within (illumination, color carrier, color combination of the surrounding subjects, etc.). The scientific novelty is substantiated by the need for providing a comprehensive universal approach to the ontology of color. The author determines the main attributes of color reality and its relation to the cognizing subject (stability, abstraction and categorization, hermeneutics, dynamism, and others); describes two of its basis: chromatic and achromatic; as well as underlines its stable components (invariants) manifested in language through the categories of color. Based on such invariants, for expressing the color reality is created the metalanguage, which important attribute is the statistical ground of its formation. The invariants of color reality also manifest in culture through using the same colors in rituals and traditions. Analyzing the previously published data from the Russian and foreign literature, the author suggests the principle of relativity: color reality actualized in the specific color text corresponds to such overall state of cognizing subject, in which he is willing to perceive it at the moment of intention. At the same time, the physiological and psychical peculiarities of the subject alongside his language and cultural traditions are being considered. In intersubjectivity, the boundaries of language, the aforementioned principle is reflected through the hypothesis of linguistic relativity of Sapir-Whorf.
Tsendrovskiy O. - The notion of being (Seyn) in M. Heideggers philosophy and its methodological peculiarities pp. 18-36


Abstract: This article conducts a thorough analysis of the fundamental for M. Heidegger’s doctrine notion of being (das Sein/Seyn), as well as resulting from it interpretations of the methodological peculiarities of the thinker. In a paradoxical way, within the scientific tradition of the study of Heidegger’s heritage, the question about the specific content of the notion of being is revealed briefly and unsatisfactory, even despite its paramount importance. The author makes an attempt to eliminate this flaw carefully examining all of the existing conceptual layers of Heidegger’s Seyn. The work present a detailed review of the peculiar features of the philosophical thought of Heidegger, which directly originate from the understanding of its main subject – the being. The described analysis is conducted in accordance with the text written after a so-called “turn” that took place in the philosophy of Heidegger in the 1930’s. It allows avoiding the spread methodological mistake of exaggerating the importance of the “Being of time”; as well as the attempt to interpret a semicentennial development of his though through the prism of a certain book, which in the philosopher’s opinion was unsuccessful. The author’s main contribution lies in the unique for the commentator’s tradition scheme, which suggest the gradual and systemic clarification of the essence of being in the doctrine of Heidegger through the 10 of his fundamental attributes.
Zhul'kov M.V. - Noospheric energitism: fundamental ontology pp. 23-45


Abstract: This article is devoted to the ontological aspects of the noospheric energitism – an integral part of the doctrine about noosphere. Modern philosophical energitism is based on the specific understanding of energy in the discourse of post-nonclassical science, which includes consideration of not only objective, but also subjective components of energy: physical, mental, information, semantic, spiritual. Energy has universality, unites material and information worlds into one whole, pervades into all spheres of the universe. At the intersection of energitism and noospherology, takes place the formation of a complex scientific philosophical discipline – noospheric energitism, which examines the energetic aspect of the evolution the intelligent life of space, planet, humanity, establishment of the noospheric society and the planetary noosphere. The foundation of noospheric studies consists in V. I. Vernadsky's teachings on biogeochemical and cultural biogeochemical energies, transformation of biosphere into the noosphere under the influence of labor and scientific thought of organized humanity, as well as the doctrine about the autotrophic nature of mankind. In connection with the emerging sections of science, the following general scientific approaches are used in the ontology of the noosphere: systemic, synergetic, universal, spherical (used by Vernadsky), ecological, historical, energy-information. The energy approach must take its place, especially because Vernadsky’s doctrine is fused with the energetic concepts. The author concludes that the noospheric energitism studies energy and energy-information nature of the noosphere, processes of the biosphere's transformation into the noosphere, applies the energy factor in systemic modeling of the noosphere and noospheric society. The key direction of research is the noospheric-energy approach in cognizing the nature and evolution of the consciousness, which will allow studying, modeling, and anticipating the processes of formation of the global consciousness. Noospheric energitism has its own field of research, methodological approaches, as well as possesses a significant potential for its own development.
Kuzmin A.V. - The possibility of an armillary sphere and the cosmology of Anaximander pp. 24-37


Abstract: The article is devoted to the identification of the fundamental principles of the philosophical explanation of the existence of the Sky – Cosmos – Universe, according to the teachings of Anaximander (c. 611-546 BC). The problem of determining the specifics of the philosophical explanation of the existence of the Sky – Cosmos of Anaximander and its influence on the formation of the structure of the cosmographic and zodiac model is considered. The article also provides answers to the questions: what is the specificity of the philosophical stage of cognition of the Cosmos and its difference from the mythological stage; how the fundamental principles and cosmological model influenced the creation of the early astrometric model of the Sky – Cosmos (armillary sphere). In this paper, for the first time, a comparative analysis of sources related to the subject of research, a method of comparative analysis of models of the Sky–Cosmos–Universe of the pre-theoretical and theoretical period, and a critical analysis of previously published works of domestic and foreign scientists are used. The reconstruction of possible technical prototypes of fragments of the Anaximander cosmological model and self–valuable fragments of the armillary sphere was carried out for the first time; the fundamental principles of the existence of the Sky of the Anaximander Sky-Space model were revealed for the first time. The presented study also shows for the first time the connection between the possibility of creating a mechanical model of celestial circles with figurative descriptions of the sky in ancient literary sources.
Kulieshov A.V. - Natural Information and Metaphysics pp. 25-41


Abstract: The problem of information existence in the nature, as well as the extent of natural information distribution is examined in the paper. At the same time information is understood as the subject of metaphysics, it is described as a reality, which is distinct by its mode of being. The description of information is accomplished by using metaphysical categories of matter and form, as well as their derivatives. In this context natural information is determined as the non-local form of one material object within another. To find grounds for natural existence of such form is the aim of the paper.The stated aim is being achieved exceptionally by means of metaphysics as extremely abstract knowledge about reality as such without bringing in the conceptual apparatus of natural sciences. Starting from basic terms with defined meaning and some initial statements using these terms, the grounding of the natural information phenomenon is realized.The novelty of the offered solution consists in that it is based on the specific set of initial metaphysical terms. The conclusion is made about sufficiency of the chosen conceptual base for the metaphysical grounding of natural information existence, and also about validity within the limits of the chosen metaphysical terms of Leibnitz’s idea as for the reflection of the whole world in every of its integral fragments.
Naumov O.D. - Oblivion of the antiquity as an origin of philosophical inquiry on existence pp. 26-36


Abstract: The object of this research is the phenomenon of archaic mythological ontology, while the subject is the inquiry on existence established within the framework of the indicated cultural-historical era. The main goal of the article is to represents the phenomenon of oblivion as one of the major strategies of inquiry on existence in the context of the era of antiquity. The phenomenon of oblivion is conceptualized and considered in the following aspects: metaphilosophical, ontological, epistemological, and anthropological. As a result, the phenomenon of oblivion is analyzed as one of the mechanisms that realizes the transformation of the archaic Myth into the ancient Logos. A tacit argument of raising an inquiry on existence in the archaic myth is a subject that acts within the realm of the myth as a character, which key function is reduced to determination and support of the existing world order through preservation and restoration of differences, realized by the ritual practices. Thus, the condition and cause of the established unity of the world, represented by an archaic myth, is a distinction, which loss is perceived by the primeval society as a submersion of the world into chaos. However, the distinction alongside the subject in the archaic mythological ontology, in the parlance of Derrida’s language, are the structure of the absent presence. It is justified by the fact that the main task of archaic strategy of comprehension of existence is reduced to seeing the world as it is revealed in the view, excluding the process of world establishment. An archaic myth represents a historically first and genetically similar to the philosophy strategy of apprehending existence. The peculiarity of such mythological ontology lies in its manifestation as a pre-symbolic ontology of a gesture: coition and struggle. It can be concluded that the mythological ontology of an archaic myth forms leaning on the following principles: a) onto-gnoseological interpretation of a sensation, preceding and explaining any attempt of establishment and manifestation of the world as an integral whole; b) mostly topographic perception of the world, subsequently complemented by the historical dimension, necessary for inclusion of a subject into the sacred dimension of dynamic existence, illustrated by the scheme: space-gods-people. As a result, the archaic mythological ontology is a type of pre/conceptual prologue towards the Western European philosophy, which history is realized as a process of interaction between the subject and existence, with the common feature of the phenomenon of oblivion that manifests as a way of actualizing the inquiry on existence in one or another cultural-historical era.
Kachay I.S. - Linguistic, praxeological, anthropological, and ontological grounds of correlation between the notions artistry and creativity pp. 32-49


Abstract: The object of this research is the creative work as the ontological phenomenon. The subject of study is the various grounds of correlation between the notions of “artistry” and “creativity”, which act as the criterial base of the conceptual separation of the original phenomena. The notion of “artistry” is being understood as internally free, spontaneous, unpredictable, and altruistic process of the improvised formation of the qualitatively new being that has sociocultural importance, high level of perfection, and oriented towards the integral cognition of reality, spiritually-ethical improvement of the universe and self-realization of the subject. The notion of “creativity” is substantiates as dependent from the external factors, algorithmic, technological, and pragmatic process of the stereotype combination of the already present being, which represents the value for mass consumer with low level of performance, as well as aimed at the fragmentary cognition of the world, public recognition, and outrageous self-presentation. The scientific novelty consists in substantiation of creativity as similarity, imitation, and surrogate of the constructive process that is characterized by the plagiarism, pragmatic, and mechanistic nature, and manifesting as the creative work of public and consumer designation. The author’s main contribution lies in formulation of the original understanding of creativity as the pseudo-creativity, substantiation of the level of legitimacy of the use of the notion of “creativity” in scientific works, as well as actualization of the anti-synonymous approach towards the correlation of the terms of “artistry” and “creativity” be means of development of the linguistic, praxeological, anthropological, and ontological grounds of their interaction. The main conclusion is the postulation of the inadmissibility of identification of the notions of “artistry” and “creativity” for avoiding the processes of dehumanization of social relations and devaluation of the personal beginning.
Gaginskii A.M. - Heidegger and Plato's idea of the Good pp. 34-64



Abstract: The article deals with the question of Plato's reception in Heidegger's philosophy. In particular, the research focuses on the question of how Heidegger interpreted the idea of the good from Plato's "State". Here a number of difficulties important for the history of philosophy arise. What is the ontological status of the idea of good? How is the idea of the good connected with the demiurge from the dialogue "Timaeus"? On the one hand, it is well known that the late Heidegger criticized Plato and all European metaphysics, which was and remains Platonism. On the other hand, the early Heidegger clearly presents an attempt to master the shining heights of Platonism: the question of the meaning of being needs an angle from which a definite answer can be highlighted and Heidegger borrows this angle from Plato. Just as the good endows existence with being and truth, so the understanding of being is possible from time, because it is temporality that is the condition for understanding being, it highlights its meaning. And if Plato's being "pounces" on the good, or on the one, then for Heidegger, time is such a condition. This line of thought, fundamental to the whole project of fundamental ontology, is directly related to the philosophy of Plato, who for the first time was able to rise so high as to become ἐπέκεινα τῆς οὐσίας, to see things as if from the outside, i.e. in the light of the transcendent idea of good. Nevertheless, Heidegger criticizes Plato, which allows us to raise the question: how did Heidegger understand Platonic ἐπέκεινα τῆς οὐσίας and the doctrine of the good? It is impossible to answer this question unequivocally, since Heidegger approached this question from different sides and at different times interpreted this most important position of the Greek thinker in different ways. Nevertheless, the main remarks can be reduced to two: (1) the good was conceived by Plato as something moral and therefore mixed with the existing, (2) the good subordinates the being, brings it under fitness.
Gonotskaya N., Garadzha N.V. - Fundamental ontology: language, word, name pp. 40-46


Abstract: This article analyzes some approaches towards comprehension of language in the West and Russian philosophy of the XX century. In particular, the authors compare the linguistic and philosophical approaches to the examination of language; highlight the characteristic features of philosophical method; and demonstrate the implementation process of the ontology of language in the Western European philosophy and the Russian philosophy of name. Special attention is given to the peculiarity of philosophical symbolism of S. Bulgakov, not only as one of the components of the Russian tradition of onomatodoxy (Imiaslavie), but also in the extensive context – with reference to the Western concepts of language. The comparative analysis of “fundamental ontology” (M. Heidegger and S. Bulgakov) allowed revealing their common grounds and demonstrate the drastic distinction. It consists in the fact that the “fundamental ontologies” have different foundations. Unlike the Heidegger’s ontology, penetrated with the “tragic godforsakeness”, the ontology of onomatodoxy (Imiaslavie) finds its grounds in the God-Absolute, who endows with meaning the reality represented through the name-symbol. The absolute ground, symbolically reflected in the name of God, is the existential support for a human inquiring about life. The name acquires a special ontological status: it is not just a symbol that represents reality, but the reality itself that comes to existence through the process of philosophical cognition. Thus, philosophical cognition is simultaneously an instrument, which helps to comprehend the truth of existence, and the condition of possibility of its origination.
Koren' R.V. - Fundamental Culturology as the Science of Survival and Conceptual Analogy to Theological Soteriology pp. 82-134


Abstract: The article is devoted to information as the measure of system certainty. The purpose of the article is to show that it is not important what semantic system information is recorded in. Thus, the Universal Principle of Maximum Information can be used in studies of substances of the both material and spiritual worlds and enrich the cognitive process aimed at survival (salvation).  This statement is proved based on the example of the conceptual analogy between fundamental culturology as the science of survival and theological soteriology.  The author of the article offers a new paradigm of the 'game culture' that provides the definition of 'survival' based on the energoinformational means. The author also proves that Andrey Flier's statement about the fundamentality of culturology is not quite correct both logically and methodologically. The author describes features of the fundamental and views different approaches to the problem of survival. From the point of view of the system science, when we talk about fundamental culturology as the science of survival, we mean scientific and philosophical fundamentality. Formation and development of the fundamental culturology as the science of survival directly relate to the process of health recovery. This process is provided by the means of culture and art and presents an alternative to traditional pharmaceutical treatment.  The author also describes the main provisions of theological soteriology. Theological soteriology is based on the Jesus Christ's Teaching about Salvation. The author shows that it is possible to describe this Teaching from the analytical point of view and provides the criterion of the Last Judgement during the Second Advent of Christ. 
Gaginskii A.M. - Being and givenness in the philosophy of M. Heidegger pp. 93-105



Abstract: The author believes that it is possible to discuss Heidegger's philosophy only in the light of a more or less clarified understanding of being, but this is precisely the main difficulty: Heidegger invites you on the road without saying where to go and what to guide you on the road. What should serve as a guideline to understand it correctly? From what preliminary understanding of being should we proceed when talking about fundamental ontology, ontotheology, ontological difference? First of all, my own being is for me a point of reference and a starting position in the comprehension of being and the construction of ontology. Therefore, the meaning of being is read not from the existing in general, but from the concrete existing, from itself. The being of Dasein finite, because the existing one is mortal. However, the existence of a person is different from the existence of a number, a tree or an angel how then to understand what meaning this word has? If being is time, and time is myself, then what is being a rock, a number, or God? In addition, Heidegger does not limit himself to the statement that God or an angel are given to consciousness, that is, given as certain entities, he says that they exist, that is, that entities are essences. This corresponds to the concept of "givenness" in phenomenology. At the same time, the datum can refer to anything, for example, to a unicorn and pegasus, Zeus and Hera, a round square and a wooden iron, but without considering them as something existing. Therefore, the question naturally arises about how Heidegger understands being after all, why does reality act as a synonym for being for him?
Vetushinskiy A.S. - We live within a computer game: video gaming metaphor and its metaphysical potential pp. 164-172


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the critical reevaluation of video gaming metaphor that is more and more often used in the literary works and speeches of contemporary intellectuals. Although video gaming metaphor is a particular case of the usual to the natural and humanitarian sciences of a computer metaphor, namely the video games, being a central product of digital culture, at the present stage become the environment for comprehending the world and the place of human within it. Considering the fact that eventually the significance of video gaming metaphor will only grow, the author suggests to think how valuable this metaphor can be.  In order to evaluate the potential of video gaming metaphor, the article refers to Nick Bostrom’s simulation argument, who attempt to convince that we actually live within a computer game. Having analyzed Bostrom’s argument, the author turn to the theory of digidal media by Lev Manovich, which paradoxically appears to be identical to the theory of object within the framework of modern realistic plain ontologies. Metaphysical meaning of stimulation argument, as well as complete identity of the theory of digital objects and modern metaphysical realism, allow claiming that that world can actually be viewed as digital. In this case, the comparison between real and virtual loses it meaning, and videogames become a speculative instrument for polishing the skills of ontological analysis and search for the language that can be applied for describing the structure of digital worlds (our own world can be acknowledged as one of those).
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