Philosophical Thought - rubric Question at hand
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Question at hand
Volkov D. - Resolution of the question of mental causation in biological naturalism of John Searle pp. 1-12


Abstract:   The object of this research is the modern analytical philosophy, while the subject is the resolution of question of mental causation in biological naturalism of the analytical philosopher John Searle. The author examines the key aspects of the theory of biological naturalism and analyzes their internal compatibility. Special attention is given to the main arguments and analogies, provided by J. Searle as the substantiation of possibility of mental causation. During the course of this work, the author determines the strongest and weakest aspects in the position of American philosopher, as well as suggests the ways to resolve the question of mental causation. The article presents a research in the area of history of the modern analytical philosophy, thus the key method of research is the historical-philosophical. The author uses textological analysis of the philosophical works, particularly of J. Searle, as well as conducts reconstruction of his views. The problem of mental causation is one of the key subjects of the research in modern analytical philosophy, it consists in the attempt to explain the possibility of causal efficiency of metal properties within the framework of naturalistic perception of the world. The biological naturalism of John Searle serves as one of the resolutions of this issue. This solution combines the theses on the ontological non-reduction of mental states, mental causation, and causation of closeness of the physical world. Searle attempts to naturalize consciousness, demonstrating that the mental causation is similar to the causation of high-level characteristics. The author pursues correlation between this analogy and the main theses of Searle. The scientific novelty lies in determination of the internal controversies in resolution of the issues of mental causation of J. Searle. The author believes that the more promising resolution of the problem of mental causation is particularly the teleological functionalism of Daniel Dennett.    
Sharov K.S. - Construction of the systems of gender power: the peculiarities of the discourse of favoritism pp. 1-7


Abstract: Using the example of gender power relations structured by Marquise Jeanne-Antoinette de Pompadour, mistress of the French King Louis XV, most famous favorite in history, the article analyzes the female power discourses and complex systems of the gender social roles that were developed by the mistresses – women who possesses a “shadow” social and political power. The goal of this work lies in examination of the typical strategies of gender power, structure by the royal favorites, using the example of Marquise de Pompadour, in which a male was included into the decentralized system of female authority. The article determines the basic regularities of establishment of the system of gender power roles by the mistresses and codification of a number of social statuses. It is demonstrated that the system of the formation of such roles corresponds to the Lacanian triad: Symbolic-Imaginary-Real. The symbolic level of the gender roles for a mistress that possessed shadow authority is the language field. The imaginary – is the formed by woman cultural traditions. The real – is the created by a woman social and political administrative strategies that include the involvement of males as the subjects of female decentralized authority into the system of gender power relations projected by a mistress. It is concluded that favoritism as a complicated social, psychological and cultural phenomenon is one of the most successful methods of manifestation of the female “shadow” authority in history.  
Alimova Y.N. - Cultural-philosophical grounds and practical consequences of mythologization of law in the global world: diffusion of values and paradoxes of law enforcement pp. 1-13


Abstract: The goal of this work is to establish the specificity of the “diffusion of values” in modern global world on the example of the phenomenon that received conventional name of “mythologization of law”. The subject of this research is the transformation process of value foundation of legal consciousness, substantiated on the one hand, by gradual increase of the role of custom in law enforcement practice, and on the other – by emergence of the model of “global law” that ensures humanity with a set of unified norms, which unlike the norms of international law, feature enforcement sustained by the power of the state. The research method became the philosophical comparativism, which allows analyzing heterogenic occurrences within the framework of the general frames of the myth (custom and/or mythologem of “global law”) and logos (positive law), basing on the positions of acknowledgement of cultural diversity and irreducibility to each other. The scientific novelty consists in clarification of the “paradoxes of law enforcement” in terms of “mythological” interpretations of the law of two types – custom law and universal norm of law; as well as in substantiation of interrelation between the legal “universalities” of global world and national legal systems. A hypothesis is verified, according to which the value “negatives” of law manifest depending on the historically specific sociocultural foundations, and on the institutional mechanism sustaining their action. A huge role continues to play the national state, with the developed system of mechanisms for ensuring functionality of its legal system comparing to other agents of law (network actors, international nongovernmental organizations, etc.). The drawn conclusions lie in clarification of the specificity of “mythologization of law” in modern society, which allows determining the boundaries of permissible interpretations of the “universal human values” and “custom norms” as aligned with the boundaries of the established national legal systems.
Stavitskiy A.V. - Nonclassical mythology on the cognitive problems and capabilities of myth ontology pp. 1-10


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the cognitive and epistemological peculiarities of the myth, which can be better understood relying on the principles and approaches of nonclassical science. The article discloses the key reasons for incomprehension of the myth by science, and explains the ways for its overcoming based on the broader sense of the myth. Within the framework of this paradigm, myth is viewed as a cultural universal, where mythmaking is a quality and function of consciousness. Such myth long ago has transcended the representations and formulas of classical mythology, and requires different attitude, considering the latest research (A. A. Gagaev, A. M. Lobok, V. M. Naydysh, and others). These studies indicate that modern (nonclassical) myth can be grasped only with consideration of latest discoveries in psychology, semiotics, and cognitive research, which prove that people have always been engaged in mythmaking, not just at the dawn of humanity. This means that on the agenda of scientific research of myth is the problem of existence of another nonclassical mythology and the creation of the universal theory of myth. All major elaborations of the leading theories of myth of the XX century are successfully synthesized within the universal theory of myth in accordance with the principle of mutual complementarity. This topic is increasingly relevant, and opens up new opportunities for science, fundamentally changing its perception of myth.
Minasyan L.A., Leshcheva O.A. - Kant's approach to understanding space from the perspective of modern natural science pp. 1-11


Abstract: The logical-historical subtext of Kant's definition of space and time as pure forms of sensory knowledge is investigated. The author analyzes the thinker's revision of the concept of a priori, his assertion of the existence of a priori synthetic judgments that serve as the basis for the formulation of the problem of the possibility of a priori forms of sensuality. In the center of the consideration is Kant's correlation of the categories of substance and form, matter and form, spatial incongruence as justifications of transcendental aesthetics. Special emphasis is placed on the differentiation, even the opposition of the categories of matter and form, substance and form by the thinker. The main method is hermeneutical reinterpretation of Kant's legacy from the standpoint of achievements and problems of modern cosmology. The main conclusions of this study are: 1) The formulation of the problem of the human dimension of our Universe in Kant's philosophy, which echoes the anthropic principle widely discussed in physics and testifies to the enduring projective significance of the philosopher's creativity.2) In this regard, it is permissible to attribute a priori forms of sensuality to the innate features of the human body. The three-dimensionality of the form of human sensory perception in the models of eleven-dimensional space-time discussed in modern science determines the very fact of the possibility of its existence. 3) In Kantian philosophy, the question is not raised how the form is attached to the essence. The development of modern elementary particle physics and cosmology in geometrodynamic content has come close to this priority issue.
Yangutov L. - The concept of emptiness in the Prajnaparamite tradition pp. 1-10



Abstract: The article deals with the central concept of Prajnaparamite philosophy the concept of emptiness. The analysis of the understanding of this concept in the scientific literature is given, the difficulties of understanding it are indicated. Nagarjuna's explanations of the doctrine of emptiness are considered in the context of the Prajnaparamite theory of the middle. Much attention is paid to the difficulties of understanding emptiness in China during the formation of Buddhism in this country. The variants of understanding the concept of emptiness presented in the teachings of the "six schools and seven directions" (Liu jia qi zong) are considered. The interpretation of the understanding of emptiness in the writings of Seng Zhao and Kumarajiva is shown. The translation of the text of the Hridaya Sutra is presented, in which the definition of the concept of emptiness is given in a concise form. The object of the study is the philosophy of Prajnaparamita. The subject of the study is the interpretation of the concept of emptiness in the Prajnaparamite tradition. The scientific novelty of the article lies in the fact that it presents different points of view on the understanding of the concept of emptiness, both in the scientific literature and in the Buddhist tradition of India, Tibet and China. The main conclusion of the article is that the reason for the different interpretation of emptiness lies in the semantic features of the term "emptiness" which implies absolute negation. Therefore, there was a need to justify the fact that the negation is followed by a statement, the emptiness hides the true being. The next difficulty was the question of what truly exists. The search for the true essence of this being is especially clearly traced to the Chinese tradition.
Nekrasov S.N. - Qualitative criteria in philosophical and social sciences: human problem and the fifth world theory pp. 11-26


Abstract: The object of this research is the philosophical and social sciences in Russia and their decline in the conditions of Marxist dogmatism, bureaucratic idealism and shift in social formation. The subject of this research is the introduction of qualitative criteria into social sciences and the transition from studying an abstract human towards examination of the human in history. The author carefully reviews the vanishing of nonscientific terminological problematic of anthropology, theory of personality and humanization of social relations; however, special attention is given to such process of knowledge reproduction, within which in light of the integral fifth world theory this terminology becomes scientific. One of the research methods is the detection of structuralistic project of refusal from studying a human and the emergence of post-structuralistic Marxism. The other method is associated with the formation of the fifth world theory of civilizational neo-industrialism. The main conclusion lies in the statement that the formation of theory and practice of civilizational neo-industrialism suggests no the refusal from applying the concept of human, but rather the transition towards development of the connection between social relations and real people. Special contribution to this research is the substantiation of the need for reviving the values of Russian philosophy and social science for turning the situation in science. The scientific novelty consists in raising a question about the introduction of qualitative criteria into social sciences, which implies the transition from studying an abstract human towards examination of human in people’s environment, as well as substantiation of civilizing mission of neo-industrialism, which demonstrates the exhaustiveness of capitalism and completeness of the second attempt of building socialism.
Khasieva M.A. - Social and technological aspects of the European utopia of Modern times pp. 12-19


Abstract: The subject of the study is the social and technological aspects of the European utopia of Modern times. The European utopia was influenced by the most iconic images and plots of the ancient and Renaissance utopia. It embodied and reinterpreted the images and plot elements of the famous "State" of Plato, the utopias of T. More and T. Campanella, the model of the ideal Christian state presented in the treatise "Description of the Christianopolitan Republic" by I.V. Andre (1586-1654). The article gives a general description of the New European Utopianism based on the concepts of F. Bacon, S. de Bergerac, S. Fourier. If in the Middle Ages social inequality and injustice were considered an expression of the natural order of things or a consequence of the imperfection of human nature, then in later periods of history people begin to try to improve the life of society through changes in the political, economic and social structure. The scientific novelty of the research topic is due to the correlation of European Utopianism with the most pronounced socio-cultural characteristics of the era. In the Renaissance, the social utopia was considered by the authors in an inextricable relationship with the architectural and urban aspects of the formation of the human habitat. In the Modern era, social utopianism correlates with technological utopianism. The conclusions of the article include the characteristics of the utopia of the XVIII century, when the utopians' attention is most focused on the legislative and political organization of society, as well as the XIX century, when the optimal economic structure is considered the key to social well-being.
Bezlepkin N.I. - Historical dialectics of L. P. Krasavin pp. 15-24


Abstract: The subject of this research is the historical dialectics of L. P. Krasavin, which obtained its substantiation and application in solution of theoretical-methodological problems in his work “The Philosophy of History”. The author examines the fundamental metaphysical principles of pan-unity and trinity, based on which the philosopher substantiates the ontological and epistemological basis of historical dialectics. The article states that the philosophical-historical concept of Krasavin reflected the common to European and national thought attention to the subject of cognition, when the researchers focused not only on studying the interactions of human individuality with the surrounding world, but also how such interaction was implemented in knowledge, activity, and social existence of a human. Using the cross-cultural methodology, philosophy of polylogue, as well as the method revival of philosophical-historical heritage of L. P. Krasavin, the author determines the differences of Krasavin’s historical dialectics from the rationalistic dialectics of Hegel; presents the arguments of the Russian philosopher against application of the causal explanation in history, and dominance of “mechanistically-atomistic theories” within it. The revival of Krasavin’s historical dialectics allows revealing the complex dialectics of historical subject, which remains relevant to the present. The main conclusion consist in the scholar’s significant contribution to the establishment of nonclassical paradigm of the development of historical science, its alignment with the European concepts of historical cognition of B. Croce, W. Dilthey, the Annales School. The scientific novelty lies in substantiation of Krasavin’s contribution to formulation of the fundamentally new methodology of scientific cognition of the historical process, rising philosophy to the status of theoretical science, and imparting the creative-predictive character upon it.
Maslova V.A. - The problem of symbol in the philosophy of A. F. Losev and French symbolists pp. 18-30


Abstract: The subject of this research is the analysis of the concept of “symbol” and its content in philosophy of Aleksei Fedorovich Losev and representatives of French symbolism. The first part of the article differentiates the boundaries of the concept of “symbol” and adjacent cognate categories, such as “allegory”, “metaphor” and “sign”. The author analyzes the dynamics of ideas on content of the notion of “symbol” in various periods of Losev’s works, from the initial essence of the world in onomatodoxy until the understanding of symbol as the projection of reality. The second part of the article provides a brief review of the social and cultural prerequisites for establishment of the views of the representatives of French School of Symbolism, as well as analyzes the aesthetic views of C. Baudelaire, S. Mallarme and other representatives of this movement. The concept of “symbol” is revealed from the perspective of its relation to the category of beauty. The conclusion is made on the presence of common features and differences in the philosophy of A. F. Losev and artistic-aesthetic views of C. Baudelaire, S. Mallarme and others.
Lyubokhonskaya O.V. - Socrates and Lao Tzu: philosophy and Sophiphilia pp. 19-32


Abstract: This article discusses the problem of the lost meaning of the philosophy, which emerged as a result of its “technematization” in modern world. The question of “What is philosophy?” is being raised again. The author refers to the two key representatives of philosophical thought of the ancient West and East: Socrates and Lao Tzu, using the comparative approach and considering the category of Tao in the contrast to the main categories of ancient Greek philosophy: being, truth, logos, and action. Reconstruction of the teachings of Socrates and Lao Tzu contributes to the disclosure of philosophy through the four crucial aspects: ontological, gnoseological, anthropological, and ethical. The explanation of these aspects or dimensions of the philosophy gives the key to its initial meaning. The author concludes on the borderline and specificity between “wisdom” and “discretion”, where the latter is the primary foundation of the existence of philosophy. The philosophy itself is viewed as a being and process of cognition, directed not only to the outwards, which is characteristic to the Western European tradition overall, but also to within, which is typical to the Eastern thought. The disclosure of the structure of philosophy indicated the need for coming back to its basic meaning through the ethical dominant, which was initially embedded in the concepts of “wisdom” and “love”. The author introduces a peculiar term of “Sophiphilia”, which corresponds to the level of “discretion” as a pre-philosophical field of existence.
Barinov N.N. - Marxism-Leninism and Christianity: dictatorship of the proletariat and terror pp. 41-64


Abstract: This article carries out a historical-theological analysis of compatibility of the theory and practice of Marxism-Leninism with Christianity. The relevance of this topic is substantiate by the ongoing polemic, which is directly pertains to the social structure. The author reviews the historical-theological aspects of this question based on the critical study of historical-philosophical research, as well as historical documents on the matter. In order to conduct comprehensive analysis on this topic, the article explores the dictatorship of the “proletariat” and terror views of opposing sides, as well as describes contrary opinions, texts of Holy Scripture, and views of the Orthodox Church Fathers. The novelty of this research lies in introduction of certain documents in the context of articulated problem for the first time. The author gives a detailed historical-theological overview on the comparison of Marxism-Leninism with Orthodox Christianity. The goal of this work lies in examination of the historical documents and historical-theological writings on the topic at hand. The conclusion is made that despite apparent similarity of certain provisions, Marxism-Leninism and Christianity are by no means compatible. In theoretical terms, socialism could exist in symbiosis with Christianity if the existing contradictions are eliminated. However, such socialism would be no longer based on Marxism-Leninism.
Ilin P.A. - Metaphorical truth and neopragmatic realism of Richard Rorty pp. 46-58


Abstract: The subject of this research is the examination of neopragmatic realism of Richard Rorty through the prism of the concept of metaphorical truth of Paul Ricoeur. The key goal lies in the attempt to fill the “black box of reality” in the philosophy of R. Rorty with the methodological instruments derived from the concept of metaphorical truth of P. Ricoeur. Having dedicated certain time to describing the core ideas of R. Rorty, the author analyzed the methodology of P. Ricoeur regarding the problem of reality and the cognitive opacity of language characteristic to the system of the American philosopher. The author seeks to determine the common and contradictory aspects in methodology of both philosophers for the purpose of conducting the substitution of the elements of Rorty’s philosophy that is organic for the entire logical construct, concluding on the cognitive opacity of language and elements of Ricoeur’s thoughts that lead to backward reasoning. The crucial element is the idea of “physis” borrowed by Ricoeur from Aristotle for ontological substantiation of the concept of metaphorical reality. Namely this idea that becomes the key to recoding of the philosophical system of R. Rorty to what can be called full realism in the philosophical sense. As a result of application of the idea of “physis” to Rorty's philosophy, the author finds the way to saturate the concept of reality with certain ontological content; however, this content is not susceptible to structural description, and thus does not allow solving the problem of cognitive opacity of language characteristic to Rorty's philosophy. Nevertheless, the application of P. Ricoeur’s concept of metaphorical truth to the philosophical system of R. Rorty in the context of ontological problem of accessing reality is the original tactic of reasoning that has not been previously implemented within the scientific and philosophical circles. Although one of the advanced hypothesis that suggests the possibility of substantiation of the cognitive opacity of language was being refuted, the concept of P. Ricoeur allowed saturating the concept of reality of the American philosopher with the ontological content.
Kerimli N.I. - Artistic image of a woman in the culture of Azerbaijan pp. 59-64


Abstract: The subject of this research is the image of the Azerbaijani woman. The centuries-long history has explored the female images in artistic culture, where female characters are in the limelight. Since the ancient times, Azerbaijani women have been actively engaged in social governance, culture, science, and art; felt the beauty of nature raising it to the level of the phenomenon of cultural life. The article also describes the current state, obstacles, problems, and opportunities of Azerbaijani women in folk art. The Turkic women do not blindly follow the principles of the Sharia, but rather guided by the moral principles of Islam, which broadens their cultural mindset. It is concluded that the female image in evolution of the artistic culture of Azerbaijan plays a crucial role in upbringing and spiritual enrichment of the world. The history of the Turkic culture has created the female images that refute the idea that women's creativity is the second grade art. In folklore, which is the product of artistic thinking and mythological consciousness of the Turkic people, women are depicted with the greatest regard. Female image is illustrated in various forms of art. One of the core indicators of the improvement of spirituality and artistic-aesthetic worldview of the Turkic people is the examples of anthropomorphic plastic art depicting female image in the ancient national artistic thought.
Safronov A.V. - Hypothesis on the informative principles of voluntary and involuntary attention: on the theory of non-systems and causal environments in causal dualism pp. 66-83


Abstract: The subject of this research is certain informative principles of functionality of human nervous system. In the limelight is the interdependence of consciousness and information, as well as the question in the spirit of anti-physicalist arguments: whether the conscious processes are informative, and thus physical, or require a categorical apparatus for description? The first part of the article discusses possible wording of some informative principles of functionality of nervous system that answer the question “why” rather than “how”. The second part is dedicated to the general classification of causal environments, as well as description of conscious processes within the framework of new possible terminology. A number of hypotheses is advanced on the informative mechanisms of involuntary and voluntary attention. With regards to involuntary attention, the author examines the mechanism for resource conservation, or filtering information, which suggests that the nervous system tends to consume resources for processing the rarer – and more information capacious messages. Such position complies with the law of conservation of energy. Voluntary attention is viewed on the basis of information interpretation of the Le Chatelier’s principle. Voluntary attention, resulting conscious actions, and responses of the nervous system (including creativity) are considered as informational messages aimed at alleviation of the impact of external environment, namely the level of information uncertainty. Such information approach prompts to view consciousness as a non-system or causal environment, within which causality is transmitted without transmitting information. The article provides the variant of classification of causal environments that may contribute to further development of non-informative (non-physicalist) approach towards the problem of consciousness.
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