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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Rubric "Question at hand"
Question at hand
Volkov D. - Resolution of the question of mental causation in biological naturalism of John Searle pp. 1-12

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2017.2.21743

Abstract:  The object of this research is the modern analytical philosophy, while the subject is the resolution of question of mental causation in biological naturalism of the analytical philosopher John Searle. The author examines the key aspects of the theory of biological naturalism and analyzes their internal compatibility. Special attention is given to the main arguments and analogies, provided by J. Searle as the substantiation of possibility of mental causation. During the course of this work, the author determines the strongest and weakest aspects in the position of American philosopher, as well as suggests the ways to resolve the question of mental causation. The article presents a research in the area of history of the modern analytical philosophy, thus the key method of research is the historical-philosophical. The author uses textological analysis of the philosophical works, particularly of J. Searle, as well as conducts reconstruction of his views. The problem of mental causation is one of the key subjects of the research in modern analytical philosophy, it consists in the attempt to explain the possibility of causal efficiency of metal properties within the framework of naturalistic perception of the world. The biological naturalism of John Searle serves as one of the resolutions of this issue. This solution combines the theses on the ontological non-reduction of mental states, mental causation, and causation of closeness of the physical world. Searle attempts to naturalize consciousness, demonstrating that the mental causation is similar to the causation of high-level characteristics. The author pursues correlation between this analogy and the main theses of Searle. The scientific novelty lies in determination of the internal controversies in resolution of the issues of mental causation of J. Searle. The author believes that the more promising resolution of the problem of mental causation is particularly the teleological functionalism of Daniel Dennett.   
Sharov K.S. - Construction of the systems of gender power: the peculiarities of the discourse of favoritism pp. 1-7

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2018.8.27136

Abstract: Using the example of gender power relations structured by Marquise Jeanne-Antoinette de Pompadour, mistress of the French King Louis XV, most famous favorite in history, the article analyzes the female power discourses and complex systems of the gender social roles that were developed by the mistresses – women who possesses a “shadow” social and political power. The goal of this work lies in examination of the typical strategies of gender power, structure by the royal favorites, using the example of Marquise de Pompadour, in which a male was included into the decentralized system of female authority. The article determines the basic regularities of establishment of the system of gender power roles by the mistresses and codification of a number of social statuses. It is demonstrated that the system of the formation of such roles corresponds to the Lacanian triad: Symbolic-Imaginary-Real. The symbolic level of the gender roles for a mistress that possessed shadow authority is the language field. The imaginary – is the formed by woman cultural traditions. The real – is the created by a woman social and political administrative strategies that include the involvement of males as the subjects of female decentralized authority into the system of gender power relations projected by a mistress. It is concluded that favoritism as a complicated social, psychological and cultural phenomenon is one of the most successful methods of manifestation of the female “shadow” authority in history.  
Nekrasov S.N. - Qualitative criteria in philosophical and social sciences: human problem and the fifth world theory pp. 11-26

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2018.9.27157

Abstract: The object of this research is the philosophical and social sciences in Russia and their decline in the conditions of Marxist dogmatism, bureaucratic idealism and shift in social formation. The subject of this research is the introduction of qualitative criteria into social sciences and the transition from studying an abstract human towards examination of the human in history. The author carefully reviews the vanishing of nonscientific terminological problematic of anthropology, theory of personality and humanization of social relations; however, special attention is given to such process of knowledge reproduction, within which in light of the integral fifth world theory this terminology becomes scientific. One of the research methods is the detection of structuralistic project of refusal from studying a human and the emergence of post-structuralistic Marxism. The other method is associated with the formation of the fifth world theory of civilizational neo-industrialism. The main conclusion lies in the statement that the formation of theory and practice of civilizational neo-industrialism suggests no the refusal from applying the concept of human, but rather the transition towards development of the connection between social relations and real people. Special contribution to this research is the substantiation of the need for reviving the values of Russian philosophy and social science for turning the situation in science. The scientific novelty consists in raising a question about the introduction of qualitative criteria into social sciences, which implies the transition from studying an abstract human towards examination of human in people’s environment, as well as substantiation of civilizing mission of neo-industrialism, which demonstrates the exhaustiveness of capitalism and completeness of the second attempt of building socialism.
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