Philosophical Thought - rubric Question at hand
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Rubric "Question at hand"
Question at hand
Volkov D. - Resolution of the question of mental causation in biological naturalism of John Searle pp. 1-12


Abstract:  The object of this research is the modern analytical philosophy, while the subject is the resolution of question of mental causation in biological naturalism of the analytical philosopher John Searle. The author examines the key aspects of the theory of biological naturalism and analyzes their internal compatibility. Special attention is given to the main arguments and analogies, provided by J. Searle as the substantiation of possibility of mental causation. During the course of this work, the author determines the strongest and weakest aspects in the position of American philosopher, as well as suggests the ways to resolve the question of mental causation. The article presents a research in the area of history of the modern analytical philosophy, thus the key method of research is the historical-philosophical. The author uses textological analysis of the philosophical works, particularly of J. Searle, as well as conducts reconstruction of his views. The problem of mental causation is one of the key subjects of the research in modern analytical philosophy, it consists in the attempt to explain the possibility of causal efficiency of metal properties within the framework of naturalistic perception of the world. The biological naturalism of John Searle serves as one of the resolutions of this issue. This solution combines the theses on the ontological non-reduction of mental states, mental causation, and causation of closeness of the physical world. Searle attempts to naturalize consciousness, demonstrating that the mental causation is similar to the causation of high-level characteristics. The author pursues correlation between this analogy and the main theses of Searle. The scientific novelty lies in determination of the internal controversies in resolution of the issues of mental causation of J. Searle. The author believes that the more promising resolution of the problem of mental causation is particularly the teleological functionalism of Daniel Dennett.   
Sharov K.S. - Construction of the systems of gender power: the peculiarities of the discourse of favoritism pp. 1-7


Abstract: Using the example of gender power relations structured by Marquise Jeanne-Antoinette de Pompadour, mistress of the French King Louis XV, most famous favorite in history, the article analyzes the female power discourses and complex systems of the gender social roles that were developed by the mistresses – women who possesses a “shadow” social and political power. The goal of this work lies in examination of the typical strategies of gender power, structure by the royal favorites, using the example of Marquise de Pompadour, in which a male was included into the decentralized system of female authority. The article determines the basic regularities of establishment of the system of gender power roles by the mistresses and codification of a number of social statuses. It is demonstrated that the system of the formation of such roles corresponds to the Lacanian triad: Symbolic-Imaginary-Real. The symbolic level of the gender roles for a mistress that possessed shadow authority is the language field. The imaginary – is the formed by woman cultural traditions. The real – is the created by a woman social and political administrative strategies that include the involvement of males as the subjects of female decentralized authority into the system of gender power relations projected by a mistress. It is concluded that favoritism as a complicated social, psychological and cultural phenomenon is one of the most successful methods of manifestation of the female “shadow” authority in history.  
Alimova Y.N. - Cultural-philosophical grounds and practical consequences of mythologization of law in the global world: diffusion of values and paradoxes of law enforcement pp. 1-13


Abstract: The goal of this work is to establish the specificity of the “diffusion of values” in modern global world on the example of the phenomenon that received conventional name of “mythologization of law”. The subject of this research is the transformation process of value foundation of legal consciousness, substantiated on the one hand, by gradual increase of the role of custom in law enforcement practice, and on the other – by emergence of the model of “global law” that ensures humanity with a set of unified norms, which unlike the norms of international law, feature enforcement sustained by the power of the state. The research method became the philosophical comparativism, which allows analyzing heterogenic occurrences within the framework of the general frames of the myth (custom and/or mythologem of “global law”) and logos (positive law), basing on the positions of acknowledgement of cultural diversity and irreducibility to each other. The scientific novelty consists in clarification of the “paradoxes of law enforcement” in terms of “mythological” interpretations of the law of two types – custom law and universal norm of law; as well as in substantiation of interrelation between the legal “universalities” of global world and national legal systems. A hypothesis is verified, according to which the value “negatives” of law manifest depending on the historically specific sociocultural foundations, and on the institutional mechanism sustaining their action. A huge role continues to play the national state, with the developed system of mechanisms for ensuring functionality of its legal system comparing to other agents of law (network actors, international nongovernmental organizations, etc.). The drawn conclusions lie in clarification of the specificity of “mythologization of law” in modern society, which allows determining the boundaries of permissible interpretations of the “universal human values” and “custom norms” as aligned with the boundaries of the established national legal systems.
Nekrasov S.N. - Qualitative criteria in philosophical and social sciences: human problem and the fifth world theory pp. 11-26


Abstract: The object of this research is the philosophical and social sciences in Russia and their decline in the conditions of Marxist dogmatism, bureaucratic idealism and shift in social formation. The subject of this research is the introduction of qualitative criteria into social sciences and the transition from studying an abstract human towards examination of the human in history. The author carefully reviews the vanishing of nonscientific terminological problematic of anthropology, theory of personality and humanization of social relations; however, special attention is given to such process of knowledge reproduction, within which in light of the integral fifth world theory this terminology becomes scientific. One of the research methods is the detection of structuralistic project of refusal from studying a human and the emergence of post-structuralistic Marxism. The other method is associated with the formation of the fifth world theory of civilizational neo-industrialism. The main conclusion lies in the statement that the formation of theory and practice of civilizational neo-industrialism suggests no the refusal from applying the concept of human, but rather the transition towards development of the connection between social relations and real people. Special contribution to this research is the substantiation of the need for reviving the values of Russian philosophy and social science for turning the situation in science. The scientific novelty consists in raising a question about the introduction of qualitative criteria into social sciences, which implies the transition from studying an abstract human towards examination of human in people’s environment, as well as substantiation of civilizing mission of neo-industrialism, which demonstrates the exhaustiveness of capitalism and completeness of the second attempt of building socialism.
Bezlepkin N.I. - Historical dialectics of L. P. Krasavin pp. 15-24


Abstract: The subject of this research is the historical dialectics of L. P. Krasavin, which obtained its substantiation and application in solution of theoretical-methodological problems in his work “The Philosophy of History”. The author examines the fundamental metaphysical principles of pan-unity and trinity, based on which the philosopher substantiates the ontological and epistemological basis of historical dialectics. The article states that the philosophical-historical concept of Krasavin reflected the common to European and national thought attention to the subject of cognition, when the researchers focused not only on studying the interactions of human individuality with the surrounding world, but also how such interaction was implemented in knowledge, activity, and social existence of a human. Using the cross-cultural methodology, philosophy of polylogue, as well as the method revival of philosophical-historical heritage of L. P. Krasavin, the author determines the differences of Krasavin’s historical dialectics from the rationalistic dialectics of Hegel; presents the arguments of the Russian philosopher against application of the causal explanation in history, and dominance of “mechanistically-atomistic theories” within it. The revival of Krasavin’s historical dialectics allows revealing the complex dialectics of historical subject, which remains relevant to the present. The main conclusion consist in the scholar’s significant contribution to the establishment of nonclassical paradigm of the development of historical science, its alignment with the European concepts of historical cognition of B. Croce, W. Dilthey, the Annales School. The scientific novelty lies in substantiation of Krasavin’s contribution to formulation of the fundamentally new methodology of scientific cognition of the historical process, rising philosophy to the status of theoretical science, and imparting the creative-predictive character upon it.
Maslova V.A. - The problem of symbol in the philosophy of A. F. Losev and French symbolists pp. 18-30


Abstract: The subject of this research is the analysis of the concept of “symbol” and its content in philosophy of Aleksei Fedorovich Losev and representatives of French symbolism. The first part of the article differentiates the boundaries of the concept of “symbol” and adjacent cognate categories, such as “allegory”, “metaphor” and “sign”. The author analyzes the dynamics of ideas on content of the notion of “symbol” in various periods of Losev’s works, from the initial essence of the world in onomatodoxy until the understanding of symbol as the projection of reality. The second part of the article provides a brief review of the social and cultural prerequisites for establishment of the views of the representatives of French School of Symbolism, as well as analyzes the aesthetic views of C. Baudelaire, S. Mallarme and other representatives of this movement. The concept of “symbol” is revealed from the perspective of its relation to the category of beauty. The conclusion is made on the presence of common features and differences in the philosophy of A. F. Losev and artistic-aesthetic views of C. Baudelaire, S. Mallarme and others.
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