Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue 06/2023
Contents of Issue 06/2023
Social philosophy
Zakharov A.D. - The socio-philosophical theory by Jacques Lacan as a metacriticism of the world outlook concept pp. 1-13

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2023.6.40868

EDN: OSGYLQ

Abstract: Social philosophy is a rather young discipline considering philosophy, its methodology and problems often address the extremely general features of social life, the development of society and its structuring models, but individualistic approaches that have noticeably developed in the XIX-XX centuries significantly expanded the range of socio-philosophical categories' application. One of the most outstanding between such methodological approaches is associated with the psychoanalytic tradition and the name of Jacques Lacan. He was able to compile various spheres of social life - from linguistics and mythology to sociology, ethics and maths - considering his theory of the subject and its existence in the vital conditions of social life, which is also the subject of this article. Qualitative analysis of primary empirical data, including the translated seminars of Jacques Lacan, processing of secondary empirical data by foreign and domestic authors, analysis of various interdisciplinary points of view on the topic regarded were used as research methods. This article examines the main concepts and original insights of Lacan's analytical discourse within the framework of the issue under study and also reveals the possibility of conceptual applicability of his theory to worldview issues in the context of psychic and social life. In the course of research, the author comes to the conclusion that the varied, somewhat chaotic view by Jacques Lacan actually allows to conduct a structured, pointwise and thorough criticism on the foundations of socio-ethical worldview peculiarities, and thus can appear to be interesting for philosophers, psychologists, sociologists , teachers, historians, culturologists.
Philosophy of religion
Kotliar E.R., Zolotukhina N.A. - The cultural code of "Numbers" in the Jewish pictorial Semiosis of the Crimea pp. 14-41

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2023.6.40797

EDN: JRWAZI

Abstract: The subject of the study is the cultural code of "Numbers", covering numerical symbols and their embodiment in the pictorial semiosis of the Jews of the Crimea. The object of the study is the traditional compositions and images associated with the symbolism of numbers in the pictorial practice of the Jews of the Crimea. The research uses methods of semiotic and semantic analysis in deciphering the meanings of numeric symbols and their embodiment in the Jewish pictorial semiosis of the Crimea, the method of analyzing previous research on the topic, the synthesis method in generalizing the meanings of numeric symbols. In the article, the authors consider such aspects of the topic as: the codes of the pictorial semiosis of the Jews of the Crimea are defined, their system, etymology, key meanings and the main code are indicated. The code of the Number and its features are considered in detail. The main conclusions of the study are: 1. The result of the consideration of the traditional culture of the Jews of the Crimea was the definition of five codes of the Jewish pictorial semiosis, including groups of images: phytomorphic, zoomorphic, skewomorphic, numerical. The Sefer code (Book) is a generalizing one. The interrelationships of the codes are structured, as a result of which the key meanings are revealed Creation, Paradise, Torah persons, Messianic aspirations. The semantic center of the codes is defined Aron Hakodesh - the repository of the Torah, which is the source of all Jewish doctrine. 2. The considered Number code includes images, the number of which has a symbolic meaning, the basis of which lies in the Torah. The main numbers mentioned in the Torah, their meanings and their embodiment in traditional pictorial practice are considered. In addition to the direct mention of numbers in the Torah, the meanings of numeric symbols follow from Kabbalah, which translates alphabetic values into numeric ones (due to the same spelling of numeric and alphabetic symbols in Hebrew). Scientific novelty of the study: for the first time, the interrelationships of cultural codes in the pictorial semiosis of the Jews of the Crimea were determined. The author's concept of the sacred geometric code of numbers in Judaism is presented on the basis of the study of the Torah, as well as the classical philosophy of the Pythagoreans and Platonists.
Value and truth
Fedorov S. - Existential Truth in Dialectical-symbolic Understanding pp. 42-54

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2023.6.40730

EDN: ESQMYB

Abstract: The subject of research in this article is the phenomenon of existential truth. The author relies on the distinction between epistemic and existential truth proposed by D.V. Pivovarov. The latter is the correspondence of knowledge (or being in the case of ontological truth) to the subject-object unity, human being, which is the basis of cognitive activity. The ideas related to the existential understanding of truth in the works of B. Pascal, S. Kierkegaard, M. Unamuno, H. Ortega y Gasset, L. Shestov, N.A. Berdyaev, K. Jaspers, G. Marcel, A. Camus, J.-P. Sartre and M. Heidegger are presented. "Cordiality", subjectivity, vitality, perspectivism, irrationality, creative nature, communication, personality, "rebellion", freedom, "non-concealment" of existential truth are highlighted. With the help of A.F. Losev's dialectical methodology, an attempt is made to comprehend these signs as moments of symbolism of existential truth. The mainstay is the works of A.F. Losev, in which the symbol is understood as a communicative and interpretive expression of a transcendent essence ("the very self"). This expression is a "directly-intuitively" given generality, naturally decomposed into a number of separate singularities, which can be realized in reality and thereby become a "myth" in Losev's understanding. The myth, immanent to personal existence, is intensively experienced by a person, manifests itself in an irrational "miracle". The symbol and myth reveal the considered signs of existential truth and at the same time take into account the objective, functional sides of the truth. From the point of view of the dialectical-symbolic approach, existential truth is the correspondence of knowledge (or being) to a dialectically concrete symbolic reflection of reality, subject-object unity, which is a "directly intuitive" given in immanent personal being. The novelty of the work lies in the application of A.F. Losev's dialectical theory of the symbol to the study of the existential understanding of truth.
Man and mankind
Babich V.V. - Homo loquens: values in the structure of narrative identity pp. 55-67

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2023.6.40863

EDN: FDUIHM

Abstract: The relationship between narrative identity and values is considered. It is argued that the problem of the relationship and balance between the experience of experiencing: values, a multidirectional spectrum of desires, emotions and actions, is inseparable from the issue of self-determination of the subject. The presented analysis is based on the concept of the dynamics of narrative changes by Ch.M. Taylor "the best possible articulation of experience" (Best Account) and the concept of M.M. Bakhtin. Building a narrative identity is impossible without reference to values that serve as the foundations of intentional states, orientations and motives that determine behavior. The necessity of values for our self-description reveals their reality. Reflection is a necessary condition for the ontologization of values, defining the difference between "values" and "norms", "desires" and "preferences". In the structure of narrative identity, value is not any desire or preference, but only one that needs justification (rational articulation). The empirical consequence of rational articulation is the formation of a common narrative or the formation of a common language that facilitates the justification of values, which is a condition for the emergence of solidarity. The hermeneutic circle is considered as a model for the formation and transformation of narrative identity. The presented model describes the interaction between the subject's articulations and his pre-reflexive experience of the emotional experience of values, correlating these elements with the existing spectrum of axiological interpretations. The hermeneutic circle reveals the possibility of coordinating in the subject different levels of existence of values, from the point of view of overcoming the contradictions between the individual and the collective: desires, emotions, values and actions. It is concluded that values are embedded in the structure of narrative identity in several ways: they form the content of the narrative, reinforce ideas about ideals through narrative, and form intentions.
The history of humanitarian science
Soloviev R.S. - Aristotle's Early Treatises as a Clue to Interpreting of Platos Euthyphro pp. 68-83

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2023.6.40609

EDN: FEHNMP

Abstract: In this article, the author seeks to reconsider the chronology of the dialogue Euthyphro, which is usually considered to be Plato's earliest dialogue. Having shown the incongruity of the traditional early dating, the author, proceeding from the idea of the genre evolution of Plato's work, places the dialogue among the school ones, written against the background of the composition of Plato's Laws. In order to corroborate the thesis, the author refers to the early works of Aristotle, who had a significant role in Plato's Academy. On the basis of the Topics and Sophistic Refutations it is shown how Aristotle reflected in his works the realities of school disputations, as well as work on certain problems reflected in the Laws and elaborated in school dialogues. The author substantiates the thesis that Aristotle's Topics and Sophistic Refutations reflect not the previous disputes of sophists, but the state of sophistic schools, contemporary to Aristotle. Taking into account the focus of Aristotle's early works on his and Plato's opponents, the Megarics, the author suggests that the aporetic character of school dialogues is a reflection of the Megarics' eristics. The direct parallels with the early works of Aristotle permit us to see in the dialogue Euthyphro an example of academic discussion of a certain theme of the Laws the relationship between justice and piety, the author of which was one of the members of the Academy, who was inspired by Plato's Theaetetus and in some respects was in disagreement with his teacher.
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