Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue 02/2023
Contents of Issue 02/2023
Frontiers and theories of knowledge
Volkova V., Kamin A. - henomenon of Fantasy as a Form of Human Consciousness pp. 1-14

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2023.2.39517

EDN: ATRAPI

Abstract: The article deals with the problem of fantasy as a form of consciousness. Ideas about consciousness change along with ideas about human nature. One form of the existence of consciousness is fantasy. Fantasy becomes a part of an anthropological study project about human existence as a reality of dominance of integrative knowledge. The era of conceptualization forms a request for awareness of a priori grounds for figurative perception of information and its living as an object in a fantasy form of consciousness. A feature of fantasy is that in the imagination there is a translation from perception into a generalized transcendental representation by creating a chain of associations, a drawing, a narrative. Non-linear description of the feelings and thoughts of a person in the epoch of romanticism, feeling surpasses intelligence. The formation of fantasy states of consciousness is associated with overcoming mirror reflection and getting into the noumenal world in higher dimensions, similar to mathematics and physics. External situation turns out to be a surface hiding fantasy as a dimension of human creative potential. Modern discussions of the reality of fantasy oppose it as a special form of reality, equal in its properties to the mind. Fantasy is the source of human experience of his being, embodied conceptually in the process of imaging. Imaginative cognition conceptually connects the experience of previous generations preserved in images with experiences in one's own life and the lives of others. As a source of creativity, fantasy extends to scientific knowledge, creating syntheses of different sciences
Yastreb N.A. - How is Technical Creativity Possible? pp. 15-25

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2023.2.39748

EDN: CVUAFB

Abstract: The article deals with the problem of sources, possibilities and limitations of technical creativity. Technical creativity is defined in the article as the creation of objects that are qualitatively different from all previously created artifacts. The problem of impossibility, improbability and unthinkability of creativity is analyzed. The possibility of its solution in the case of technical creativity is considered. The role of the subject and the environment in the emergence of new objects is revealed. The limitations and conditions of inventive activity are considered, including the role of previously created technical devices. The methodological basis of the work is the three-act concept of P.K. Engelmeyer and the theory of affordances (possibility) by D. Gibson. It is shown that in ontological terms, technical creativity can be considered as the realization of those possibilities that are determined by the characteristics of the environment, in particular, physical laws, but due to various circumstances are not updated without the participation of the subject. At the same time, technical evolution should be considered in the unity of its own internal laws and human activity. Internal patterns are due to the fact that the emergence of new devices creates new opportunities (affordances) for constructive human activity. The role of the subject in this case is to actualize the potential, that is, the practical implementation of those opportunities that appear in the "man-environment" system. The limitations of technical creativity are logical, physical, paradigm consistency and praxeological admissibility. On the example of generative neural networks, the possibilities and limitations of machine creativity are considered.
Fates and outlines of civilizations
Ugrin I.M. - In Search of a New Russia: Reflections on the Concept of Spiritual and Ecological Civilization (A.V. Ivanov, I.V. Fotiev, M.Y. Shishin) pp. 26-49

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2023.2.39752

EDN: DIALMM

Abstract: The article deals with the problem of choosing a strategy for the civilizational development of Russia based on the concept of spiritual and ecological (noospheric) civilization developed by A.V. Ivanov, I.V. Fotieva, M.Y. Shishin. There are five variants of the strategy of civilizational development. The understanding of civilization formulated by A. Toynbee and refined by V.L. Tsymbursky (it is the definition of the latter that is used as a working definition) is taken as a methodological approach that allows to identify and give a general description of these options. The latter option is a variant of the New Russia, that is, a renewed Russian civilization, not inheriting, but rebuilding the "sacred vertical". It is in the perspective of the possibility of implementing this option, in our opinion, that the concept of spiritual and ecological civilization should be considered. The author of this article generally agrees with the main provisions of the proposed concept. The study provides a brief overview and analysis of them. It is necessary to emphasize the integrity, logic and validity on the basis of a broad material (historical, philosophical, political) of the concept of noospheric civilization. It is characterized by the novelty of thought and interdisciplinary synthetics. However, it is necessary to point out the main drawback of the proposed concept. In our opinion, it lies in the lack of consideration of the issue of collecting the subject of civilizational development. Which social actor is able to take responsibility for the implementation of the project of spiritual and ecological civilization? Or is it assumed that it will come by itself, due to the objective laws of the historical process? The latter assumption seems utopian. The author of this article offers his answer to the question, thereby contributing to the development of the concept. At the same time, the political component of the concept under consideration is criticized, instead of the idea of hagiocracy, the idea of meritocracy is proposed as a form of government that largely corresponds to the stated principles.
The dialogue of cultures
Zykin A., Aref'ev M.A. - On the Question of the Cultural Role of the Russian Orthodox Church (on the Example of the Altai Spiritual Mission) pp. 50-63

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2023.2.39771

EDN: DGHHWE

Abstract: In this paper, the activity of the Altai Spiritual Mission (Western Siberia) is considered from the standpoint of the methodology of the culturological approach, the axiological paradigm and the interdisciplinary features of regionalism. The semantics of the term "mission" is analyzed in line with the topics stated in the work. It is indicated that the institute of Spiritual Missions in the aspect of the Christianization of peoples arose in the XVI century, and the understanding of the "Spiritual Mission" as a special church preaching institute in the XIX century due to the creation of the Altai model for other missions. The work also describes the history of creation and its originality, analyzes the activities that led to the following results, social and cultural transformations: the transition of the autochthonous population to the Orthodox faith (sedentary lifestyle, benefits, indulgences), versatile arrangement and organization of life (cultivation of land, the order of household life), education (literacy), the creation of an array of ethnographic, cultural and linguistic works that retain their uniqueness and relevance for researchers of the cultural origins of this region to this day. Of particular note is the creation of alphabets and the compilation of alphabets, which made it possible to translate the Gospel and other religious works into local languages. All this work has led to the emergence and growth of educational institutions and the spread of Russian culture. Translation activity is invaluable, which led to the acquisition of the spiritual culture of the Altai ethnic groups to historicity and its infusion into the Russian one.
Religions and religious renaissance
Shugurov M.V., Mozzhilin S.I. - Understanding the Religious-Mystical Experience within the Framework of Analytical Psychology: Refraction of the Universalist Paradigm pp. 64-101

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2023.2.39749

EDN: DWNGOU

Abstract: The subject of the research is the approach of analytical psychology to understanding the content and meaning of mystical experience represented by religious and esoteric traditions. The purpose of the presented article is to reveal the content, directions and results of the conceptualization of religious-mystical experience within the framework of the psychological theory of religion characteristic of analytical psychology, as well as the justification of the universalist paradigm as the basis of this conceptualization. The authors consider in detail the mystical aspects of both analytical psychology itself and the psychological theory of religion formulated within its framework. Special attention is paid to the role of individual mystical and religious experiences of C.G. Jung himself as the empirical basis of this theory. The main conclusions are the theoretical provisions that, unlike religious studies, analytical psychology, involving theology and new religious movements in dialogue, aims to solve the practical problem of resolving the spiritual crisis of modernity on the basis of a new interpretation of mental health achieved with the help of appropriate psychoanalytic practices leading a person to revive his mystical experience, which has a syncretic and trans-confessional nature. A special contribution of the research is the substantiation of the position that the approach of analytical psychology to the phenomenon of religious-mystical experience correlates with the universalist paradigm in religious studies, according to which all mystical traditions, both religious and non-religious, contain certain invariants. A generalization is formulated according to which the result of the implementation of this kind of universalism on the part of analytical psychology was the erosion of the classical Christian mystical tradition, at least its Western Christian version, which led to the replacement of the latter with new mystical practices in line with new religious movements.
Philosophy of technology
Rozin V.M. - Two Concepts of Artificial Intelligence: Realistic and Utopian pp. 102-114

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2023.2.39739

EDN: DDLZIT

Abstract: The article analyzes modern concepts of artificial intelligence. The author suggests distinguishing between two main ones: utopian and realistic; in the first, it is argued that it is possible to create machines that think like a person and even better than him, in the second, intelligence is presented as a kind of psychobiological computer. An excursion into the history of the development of artificial intelligence is made, within the framework of which three approaches are considered that have had a serious impact on the development of this phenomenon: the reducinalist approach, psychological and computer. Artificial intelligence is compared with natural intelligence, the latter is considered as a complex semiotic, cultural and social education, involving human communication, development, filiation of ideas and techniques. The conclusion is made and justified, according to which the utopian concept of artificial intelligence cannot be implemented, although efforts to implement it will continue for a long time. One of the arguments here are contradictions in the ethical interpretation of artificial intelligence, which is discussed in the form of a virtual dialogue between the author and the designer of modern robots. On the contrary, the realistic concept is implemented in the form of a permanent project. There are practically no anthropological claims in this concept, and the concept of intelligence is reduced here, i.e. intelligence means imitation of only those established intellectual processes that can be modeled and algorithmized, which is a necessary condition for programming.
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