Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue 08/2022
Contents of Issue 08/2022
The new paradigm of science
Rozin V.M. - Tropology or the doctrine of realities? pp. 1-11

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2022.8.38612

EDN: UIPJAK

Abstract: The author analyzes S.S. Neretina's ideas and concept of tropology, comparing this discourse with the doctrine of reality, which he has been developing for many years. He agrees with Neretina's position that the work is a way of transforming a person, sets the task of understanding the idea and discourse of tropology, notes that where Neretina talks about paths and turns, he uses the expression "change of realities" or "change of events in a certain reality". Neretina's understanding of the concept of tropes is analyzed, not just as a turn and a change of point of view, but also as a desire to escape from traditional, everyday life, the events of which are absurd and random, as a discourse that changes vision and thinking, finally, as a change in the basic reality (there was a God, there was a Word, then the world created by the Word). To understand, the author analyzes two cases in which metaphors were clearly used (one of the types of trope); the purpose is to demonstrate reconstruction using the concepts of the doctrine of realities, as well as to test the possibilities of tropology. The example of Neretina's path about the king is analyzed, in this case it is both a turn and a turn within the framework of the Christian worldview. In the first case, the author points to a reality that is difficult to identify with the main one, due to the fact that we have either lost our understanding of it or are dealing with many, different realities in the absence of the main one. In the second case, it is said either about splitting from the Christian ultimate reality, yet one of the main characters is God, or simply about a conceivable and imaginary reality, which is naturally very problematic to implement. At the end of the study, it is concluded that the discourse of tropology is complementary to the author's discourse of the doctrine of realities.
History of ideas and teachings
Zhukova E.M. - The Reasons of Ineffectiveness of modern Concepts of religious Tolerance pp. 12-28

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2022.8.38320

EDN: TVVXQI

Abstract: The article examines a number of characteristic features of modern concepts of religious tolerance and its "expanded" version tolerance in general. These concepts now have a noticeable impact on socio-political life. Despite its spread, the concepts of tolerance and the concepts of multiculturalism and pluralism that grew out of them proved unable to solve the serious problems facing the modern international community. The subject of this study is the characteristic features of the concepts of (religious) tolerance. The purpose of the study is to analyze the specifics of the origin of ideas of (religious) tolerance in the works of European thinkers of the XVIIXVIII centuries and to identify a number of features of the corresponding modern socio-political concepts due to this specificity. The article uses: an integrated approach that contributes to the comprehensive disclosure of the problem posed; a causal method that allows us to trace the connection between the features of ideas of (religious) tolerance in the past and certain aspects of relevant modern concepts; methods of generalization and classification. The novelty of the study lies in the fact that one of the goals of religious tolerance in the past has been revealed to level the influence of Christianity (Catholicism) on society. An attempt is made to answer the question of the reasons for the ineffectiveness of the concepts of tolerance, appealing to the historical origins of the underlying ideas, as well as to the modern period of global changes and geopolitical transformations, including the current military-political situation in Ukraine. The results of the study can be used both in the theoretical, purely scientific aspect (religious studies, philosophy, political science), and in practical in the strategic planning of the internal political course of Russia. The result of the study is the establishment of a number of reasons for those trends that are inherent both in the process of theoretical development of these concepts and in the practice of their application. The conclusion is that religious tolerance cannot be the foundation for solving interfaith and state-confessional issues in the world.
Social philosophy
Gusev D.A., Potaturov V.A. - Three Levels of Perception of Socio-political Conflict, or Another Damage to Human Nature pp. 29-56

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2022.8.38518

EDN: UJFFTO

Abstract: Major socio-political changes, as a rule, split society into their supporters and opponents. Each side creates its own humanitarian picture of the world, declaring it true, and the opponents' ideas as a delusion. In the minds of representatives of each of the parties to the conflict, a kind of segregation appears on the "right" and "wrong", which is one of the manifestations of damage to human nature, which brings suffering to a person, and disasters to society. The relevance of the topic is determined by the search for the causes of this damage and ways to overcome it for the harmonization of both human and social life. The object of the study is universal generic damage, and the subject is its segregational manifestation during periods of major social conflicts. The novelty of the conducted research consists in an attempt to synthesize scientific and theological discourses in the conditions of modern post-secularism and substantiating the fact that in the coordinates of purely secular consciousness it is impossible to find the real causes of human damage and effective ways to overcome it, as everyone can see empirically by the example of their own life path. One of the main conclusions of the study is that a person's attitude to the socio-political split can be represented as three-part hierarchically, where the emotional, theoretical-methodological and metaphysical, or religious, or Christian level are distinguished. The first is characterized by misanthropic segregation and separation, the second by skepticism and ideological neutrality, where there is no division, but there is no unification, and the third by repentance and humility, healing the damage to our nature and leading to fraternal unification, human happiness and social prosperity.
Ginatulina O.A. - The development of a scientific view of history in the early works of K. Marx pp. 57-66

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2022.8.38607

EDN: WTNVGJ

Abstract: The subject of this study is the dynamics of the ideas of materialism in the views on society and the history of K. Marx. The object of research is the early works of the thinker (the 40s of the XIX century). The author pays special attention to the reconstruction of the method developed by K. Marx for the analysis of history and society. The relevance of this topic lies in the fact that a retrospective look at the method created by K. Marx will allow it to be applied more effectively in modern social research. The methods used are the analysis of primary sources, as well as comparative-historical, analytical-interpretive, hermeneutic methods. The novelty of the research lies in the fact that historical reconstruction is carried out through the prism of a modern scientific approach to the analysis of society, the essence of which is in the progressive unfolding of human nature. As a result, it is revealed that at the beginning of his creative career K. Marx took the position of dialectical idealism and revolutionary democracy. However, the practical activity of the thinker allowed him to gradually ideologically evolve, which is shown in this article. And already in the Preface to the Critique of Political Economy, we can observe the quintessence of the theory of materialism in views on society and history. This theory is at the same time a method, an analysis tool that has not lost its heuristic value and is applicable to the analysis of modern society.
Aesthetics
Kaigorodova V.S. - Aesthetic experience and aesthetic perception in the study of the image of the Russian estate: phenomenological aspects pp. 67-76

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2022.8.38616

EDN: WGSWWW

Abstract: The object of the study is the currently formed image of the Russian manor in its aesthetic interpretation, and the subject is the Russian noble manor from the point of view of the peculiarities of its perception. Turning to history, the author noticed that the existence of the estate as a material building largely depended on the observer's interest in it, and it was he who formed its status throughout the existence of the estate. However, although the image of the estate has been addressed in various periods from the point of view of history, art, culture and architecture, one can find a little study of it from the observer, whose role, according to the author, should not be underestimated. The author suggests starting the research that can establish and describe this role by establishing the Russian estate as a work of art, not only possessing the aura that V. Benjamin wrote about, but also capable of generating an atmosphere. The atmosphere differs from the aura in that it is not enclosed in the object of art, but forms the space around it. It is also important to distinguish three sides of the modern perception of the Russian estate: the interest of others in it, personal interest and the ratio of their own and others' interest. It is in the correlation of interest, aura and uniqueness of each act of its perception that the significance of aesthetic experience and aesthetic perception lies in the study of the image of the Russian estate.
Philosophy and culture
Maltsev Y.V. - Man and Being as factors of Culture dynamics in the concept of permanent Modernity pp. 77-96

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2022.8.38515

EDN: XIKHCY

Abstract: The article examines the dynamics of culture as a result of self-unfolding and self-knowledge of being, the agent of which is a person who is both an actor of himself, his own being, and creating culture as a shell of the "second" being, as a screen (S. Zizek), the stage on which his action unfolds, his practice of cognition of being and himself (including as part of being). There is a folding of the triad of being, man and culture, correlating with the well-known formula of Lacan: Real, Imaginary, Symbolic. Within the boundaries of this triad, there is a subject-subject dialogue between man and man, man and being as equal objects in relation to co-creation, co-being, co-cognition. The article correlates with the current search for new ontological theories (object-oriented ontology, speculative realism, assembly theory, etc.), the desire to rethink the role and meaning of the subject (which S. Zizek calls for), to rethink Hegel and actualize his philosophical heritage (again, S. Zizek's thesis), with the search for new concepts that would explain the processes taking place in culture in a better way than the postmodern theory does (L. Hutcheon). The article proposes to consider the dynamics of the genesis and evolution of culture as a correlation of autonomous phenomena of the mind, as a result of reflection by being itself through its own thinking forms - the living: the interaction of being with its own thinking forms for the inclusion of objects of being in the movement of being and its self-disclosure, the disclosure of ways to be, the essence of the immanent property of being, revealed in the procedures of the search for truth, within the boundaries of which culture arises.
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