Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue 04/2022
Contents of Issue 04/2022
Social philosophy
Volkova A.A., Karelin V.M. - Overcoming the Semiotic Boundary through Translation Strategies pp. 1-11

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2022.4.37828

Abstract: The possibilities of implementing the intermediary function of translation from one language to another in a communicative act are considered in the article. Its functioning can be detected both in cross-cultural communication, and when expanding the meaning of a communicative act, i.e. when including actors of different languages in it. At the same time, in each act of communication, the desynchronization of the semiotic systems of each participant is preserved. Double contingencies and polysemy also serve as obstacles to the work of translator, in the translation mechanism. However, the achievement of mutual understanding seems to be possible due to the various strategies of interpretation of meanings in the act of translation. These strategies are described in the most detail in B.Latour's research devoted to the analysis of the structure of the scientific laboratory. Considering the works of L. Pasteur, Latour concludes that communicative processes expand and go beyond the language. This makes it possible to present the interactions of actors and actors as having a network character. Latour gives the translation a geometric meaning that reflects the specifics of redirecting meanings to achieve mutual understanding. It is here that a special translation function opens up the possibility of crossing semiotic boundaries and ensuring social relationships. In this regard, translation can be understood as a necessary mechanism aimed at overcoming the boundaries of various semiotic systems. These borders are presented as a special border space where processes of connecting meanings are discovered and the uniqueness of each semiotic system is revealed.
The science of psychoanalysis
Zakharov A.D. - The philosophical question of life orientation in the context of individual psychology by Alfred Adler pp. 12-20

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2022.4.37907

Abstract: The question of life orientation, i.e. orientation towards creativity or destruction, life or death, has been considered in philosophy for a long time, but the social aspect of the issue has been developed relatively recently along with the development of psychology as a science, in particular, psychoanalysis and neo–Freudianism. This article is devoted to the study of the problem of life orientations on the example of Alfred Adler's individual psychology – a branch of deep psychology that has much in common with psychoanalytic knowledge, but differs in recognizing the holism of the human psyche. Qualitative analysis of primary empirical data, processing of secondary empirical data, analysis of the evolution of views on the chosen topic were used as research methods. This article examines and analyzes the basic concepts of individual psychology within the framework of the issue under study, as well as the assessment of the conceptual applicability of the theory of Alfred Adler to the actual existential problems of modern man. In the course of the research, the author comes to the conclusion that individual psychology, despite the historically mediated features of the proposed methods and theses, can and should be applied in the context of considering the ontological issue of life orientation, combines social and psychological-philosophical approaches, is consistent in theoretical and experimental terms, although it is almost not used in the framework of modern philosophical and psychological scientific knowledge.
Picture of the world in natural science
Rozin V.M. - To distinguish and clarify the concepts of "technique", "technology", "technical environment" pp. 21-33

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2022.4.37832

Abstract: The article clarifies the concepts of technique and technology and introduces the concept of "technical environment". The author, based on his research, points to two lines of technology development: one uses the effects of the first nature and technical art, the second uses the effects of the second nature (collective activity and sociality) and technical art. Engineering is formed in the first line, technology in the second. The question is raised about the essence of ideas about the technical environment, which N. Berdyaev and M. Heidegger began to discuss. The author problematizes the concept of nature and tries to show that under certain conditions, analyzing the second nature, it is also possible to talk about laws.   Discussing the concept of "technical environment", he turns to the analysis of two cases. The first presents the reconstruction of the formation of the ancient Egyptian pyramids, the second presents the development of electrical engineering. In both cases, we are talking about the formation of technology and the technical environment under the influence of not so much practical needs as the pressure of semiotic and cultural ideas. The author concludes that the space in which the main hypostases of technology converge and interact (technology as engineering and technology, as a technoprime, as an environment, as a field of activity) is due to the peculiarities of the first and second nature, while the development is the essence of technology, and it goes both under the influence of external factors and internal. One of the important conditions for the development of technology is the formation of meaning, which is associated with natural science research, engineering, technology, as well as social needs and requirements.
The history of humanitarian science
Emel'yanov A.S. - Marxist Humanism in the USSR: the Creative Development of Marxism-Leninism or reaction? pp. 34-45

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2022.4.37838

Abstract: The article analyzes the features of the formation of Marxist humanism in the Soviet Marxist-Leninist philosophy of the 50s and 60s. The prerequisites for the emergence of Marxist humanism in the USSR, in addition to the material of the "Manuscripts of 1844", should include the widespread spread of social democratic revisionism among representatives of Soviet social science thought. The article pays special attention to the influence of foreign tradition on the content and problems of domestic Marxist humanism (in particular, the French Communist Party and such theorists as R. Garodi and L. Sav). In addition, the study analyzes the conceptual positions of Soviet philosophers regarding the nature of humanism during the period of socialist construction (M. Petrosyan, P. Fedoseeva, G. Smirnova, I. Frolova). In particular, the issues of the correlation of socialist and bourgeois humanism, the correlation of personal and social under the socialist system, the concept of "comprehensive personality development" under communism, discussions about Marxist anthropology are considered.   At the same time, it is emphasized that the solution of these (and some other) issues proposed within the framework of domestic Marxist humanism was idealistic and divorced from the real practice of socialist construction. In conclusion, the article concludes that Marxist humanism in the Soviet Union was not a creative development of the provisions of Marxist-Leninist philosophy, but was, for the most part, a reworked social-democratic and neo-Marxist revisionism. In our opinion, this conceptual and categorical "sabotage" led to the theoretical and ideological substitution of Marx's provisions instead of their development, which became one of the reasons for the "decomposition" of the party and its loss of the status of the "leading force of the proletariat" in the USSR.
Religions and religious renaissance
Belomytsev A. - Modern Worship music and historical grounds for the use of instrumental music in Christian Worship pp. 46-56

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2022.4.37800

Abstract: The subject of the study is the historical grounds for the use of instrumental music in Christian worship, acting as arguments in favor of the permissibility of the presence of modern worship music in liturgical practice, taking into account its inherent genre and style features. Modern worship music is performed as part of the divine service by the so-called "glorification group", whose composition is formed like a secular pop or rock band and in the vast majority of cases includes performers on electronic and percussion instruments. According to supporters of the inclusion of genetically secular music in the composition of worship, a number of testimonies (primarily sacred texts) indicate that there is no prohibition on the use of some special style of music, musical instruments, as well as dance movements within the framework of worship. The novelty of the research lies in a comprehensive analysis of the studies of musicologists and the evidence of sacred texts, which allowed us to substantiate the conclusion about the nature of the liturgical music of the temple and synagogue period. As a result of the study, the predominant role of monotony, improvisational and instrumental accompaniment in temple worship was established. At the same time, a gap in the continuity in the use of instrumental music between the temple worship and the liturgy of the early Christians was revealed – not a single confirmation of the use of instrumental music in the synagogue liturgical tradition was recorded. The provisions set out in the article are intended to lay the theoretical foundations for further study of the musical tradition of early Christianity as a necessary condition for understanding the diverse trends in modern liturgical music.
Philosophical anthropology
Mamarasulov A.R. - Definition of essential attributes of a person through criticism of positive eugenics pp. 57-70

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2022.4.37744

Abstract: The purpose of the work is to identify and comprehend the essential attributes of human existence, which are found to be conceptually opposite in relation to the eugenic doctrine of the foundation. The subject of the study are such attributes of human existence as universality, stability, self-existence, self-identity. The arguments put forward by eugenics as a positivist concept, on the contrary, are based on the idea of human nature as a biologically strictly determined and changeable material for the implementation of artificial transformation. The criticism of this premise undertaken in the work, as well as the criticism of the likely consequences of the use of positive eugenics, reveals the destructiveness of the eugenic doctrine. Applying the method of critical analysis, the author raises the question: "Is positive eugenics possible at all?" - and within the framework of philosophical anthropology answers it. The author comes to the conclusion that the implementation of the doctrine of positive eugenics threatens with distortions incompatible with the existence of man. The main conclusion of the study is: the essential moment of human existence is the fundamental basis that establishes the anthropological prohibition on the implementation of eugenic transformations. As a result, the attributes of a person's essential being - universality, stability, self-existence, self-identity - are revealed as quite effective conditions for human existence, which gives these attributes an additional degree of conceptual significance and cognitively concretizes their being. The results of the study of the causes of the failure of positive eugenics can be applied in the field of anthropology, ethics, bioethics, axiology.
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