Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue 02/2022
Contents of Issue 02/2022
Ontology: being and nihility
Bydanov V.E., Stanzhevskii F.A. - Processualism and substantialism as two philosophical paradigms pp. 1-23


Abstract: The subject of this research is the advantage of the ontology of process over the ontology of substance in description of the ontological structure of the world. Analysis is conducted on the comparative heuristic potential of essentialism and substantialism on the one hand, and philosophy of the process on the other hand. Essentialism postulates stable, mature, already constituted objects with objectively given essential characteristics that form profound structure of the object. The clearly differentiated array of concepts and categories that reflects the structure of reality and the nature of things is placed on the reality in the flow of becoming. The philosophy of process, in turn, insists on the dynamic and relational nature of reality, and considers time to be the factor constitutive of reality. The fabric of reality is comprised of the processes that relate and interact with other processes forming their dynamic context. The article demonstrates the applicability of the ontology of process in biology, namely on the example of the phenomenon of symbiosis and holobionts. The arguments are provided that the object can be ontologically described as a process; however, a range of processes (for example, photosynthesis) cannot be analyzed in the object categories. Criticism is expressed towards the concept of essential properties of the substance, taking into account perspectivism and variants of the processes of with objects. It is indicated that gradualism characteristics to the philosophy of process allows removing dichotomies and introducing nuances into the binary picture of reality. The novelty of this work consists in highlighting the questions faced by the philosophy of process, namely the question of determination of the status of time essential for determining the process as the basic ontological entity.
Kuzmin A.V. - The possibility of an armillary sphere and the cosmology of Anaximander pp. 24-37


Abstract: The article is devoted to the identification of the fundamental principles of the philosophical explanation of the existence of the Sky – Cosmos – Universe, according to the teachings of Anaximander (c. 611-546 BC). The problem of determining the specifics of the philosophical explanation of the existence of the Sky – Cosmos of Anaximander and its influence on the formation of the structure of the cosmographic and zodiac model is considered. The article also provides answers to the questions: what is the specificity of the philosophical stage of cognition of the Cosmos and its difference from the mythological stage; how the fundamental principles and cosmological model influenced the creation of the early astrometric model of the Sky – Cosmos (armillary sphere). In this paper, for the first time, a comparative analysis of sources related to the subject of research, a method of comparative analysis of models of the Sky–Cosmos–Universe of the pre-theoretical and theoretical period, and a critical analysis of previously published works of domestic and foreign scientists are used. The reconstruction of possible technical prototypes of fragments of the Anaximander cosmological model and self–valuable fragments of the armillary sphere was carried out for the first time; the fundamental principles of the existence of the Sky of the Anaximander Sky-Space model were revealed for the first time. The presented study also shows for the first time the connection between the possibility of creating a mechanical model of celestial circles with figurative descriptions of the sky in ancient literary sources.
History of ideas and teachings
Kudaev A.E. - On the question of the origins of Berdyaev's creativity. Historical excursion into Russian-Italian cultural relations pp. 38-82


Abstract: The article is devoted to one of the most important sources of Berdyaev's creativity, which is usually overlooked when studying his legacy. We are talking about the philosopher's Italian travels, which had a "huge" influence on his work. But since his trips go far beyond the boundaries of his personal experience alone and fit seamlessly into the general context of Russian-Italian cultural ties, it seemed appropriate to turn to their expanded disclosure within the broader theme of "Italy and Russia" in order, on the one hand, to show the inextricable connection of Berdyaev's Italian travels with this centuries-old tradition, thanks to which formed the soil that will become a breeding ground for many of the defining provisions of Berdyaev's aesthetics. And on the other hand, against this broader historical background of cultural ties between our countries, the declared topic appears more multifaceted, highlighting the full significance and influence of Italian travels on Berdyaev's work, and at the same time demonstrating their far from accidental nature, which caused both his research interest in Italian culture and the conceptual foundations of his philosophical- aesthetic thought. The scientific novelty of the article lies in the fact that it is the first attempt in Russian literature to study Berdyaev's Italian travels as one of the most important sources of his work, which have not yet been the subject of special study. In addition, they are viewed against a broad background of Russian-Italian cultural ties that have been formed over several centuries, which the Silver Age inherited as an established tradition. This makes it possible to identify both their organic connection and continuity with this tradition, and hence their quite natural character, and Berdyaev's active role in the development and strengthening of these ties.
Social philosophy
Kozlova I.V. - Historical and philosophical analysis of the problem of the formation of human dignity pp. 83-90


Abstract: The article presents a historical and philosophical analysis of the category "human dignity", traces the historical connection of philosophical views with the modern understanding of this category. The object of the research is the philosophical category "human dignity", the subject is aspects of the formation of human dignity. The main philosophical approaches to the study of the formation of human dignity are analyzed. The methodology used in the study of this problem is considered. Within the framework of historical and philosophical analysis, the main views in the history of philosophical thought on the understanding of what human dignity is are considered, conceptualization of this category is made. The author, based on the analysis, gives a modern interpretation of the concept of "human dignity". "Human dignity" as a philosophical category that reveals a person's attitude to himself, to other people and to the world as a whole has changed its content throughout the history of mankind, but it should still be noted that over the centuries general trends in the understanding of this category have also been preserved (self-knowledge, self-determination, the formation of one's own "I"). In general, human dignity is a complex, multi-valued, multi-level philosophical category based on the idea of the inner moral value of a person. It can be said that in the modern sense, dignity is a person's awareness of his value, spiritual, cultural and social significance, and an important component of the formation of dignity is demanding of himself, his behavior and actions, which should correspond to the idea of human dignity.
Religions and religious renaissance
Golovushkin D.A. - "Changing the Image" of Gods, Religion and theology in Ernst Junger's Optics pp. 91-110


Abstract: The article is devoted to a little–studied topic in Russian humanities – the issue of "changing the image" [1] of gods, religion and theology in the works of the German writer and thinker Ernst Junger (1895 - 1998). In Russia, this author is better known as one of the ideologists of the conservative revolution. However, in the post-war years, E. Junger began to pay considerable attention to issues of religion and the church. And this is not by chance. E. Junger believed that in a new technologized society, the essence of a person is suppressed, he ceases to feel the true values of life, transferring them to external ones. According to the writer, it is possible to find a way out of this situation only by relying on the help of three great forces: art, philosophy and theology. However, by assigning such an important mission to them, E. Junger makes a fundamental reservation – the old religions and churches based on faith can only fight the consequences of the Enlightenment project today. The struggle against the "chimeras" and Leviathans of modernity is only possible for new forms of spiritual life and new spiritual practices that bring a person closer to himself, and which we define as transcendence. Starting with "Going into the Forest", through "Heliopolis" and "Eumeswil", E. Junger gradually finds their "image". According to the writer, he and, consequently, the "image" of the new world will depend entirely on the quality of human freedom. Then the "divine, desiring to appear in the highest degree of spirituality" will no longer need masks of animals and people. The new theology will be distinguished by a new quality of language in which a person can talk about the gods – poetry is such for E. Junger. In this sense, the work of the "last knight" is characterized by the highest humanistic pathos, and he himself is undoubtedly the "prophet" of another Reformation.
Zatseva N.V. - Principles of diversity and novelty in gallant aesthetics pp. 111-124


Abstract: In this paper, the aim is to investigate the reasons for the demand for diversity and novelty in a gallant society, how from the sphere of secular and gender relations these requirements come to literature and art, becoming one of the main aesthetic principles of gallant aesthetics. It seems important to consider the phenomenon of the art of the XVII century, when diversity and novelty become a sign not of avant-garde art, not the lot of a narrow group of artists breaking with the old tradition and breaking through the layer of inertia and rejection of their innovation, but a well-formulated and conscious fundamental requirement of Modern art. Several aspects of the problem can be distinguished - philosophical, philosophical, social, gender and artistic. Moralists, writers, philosophers, art historians of the XVII century are united in the opinion that diversity and novelty are the fundamental principles of the new aesthetics. The gallant aesthetics of the XVII century, relying on Cartesianism and rationalism, does not give up before the infinite diversity of the world, which is in constant motion. The art of Modern times considers the principle of diversity and novelty as a reflection of the richness and diversity of the surrounding world, the impermanent nature of man himself and, consequently, as the main condition for what to like. Diversity is perceived as a pleasure for the eyes and mind. It is contrasted with monotony and tedious static.
Philosophy and art
Alikhanova V.L. - Mass production of works of art in the "digital era" pp. 125-132


Abstract: The subject of the study is the process of digitalization and its socio-cultural manifestations. The author pays special attention to the impact of digitalization on art in the modern world. According to the author, the work of art is subject to the process of mass production, which has a certain connection with the process being studied. In the "digital age", a work of art penetrates into the Internet environment, where it acquires completely specific features. This is a new way of art's existence and its translation in the modern world. As a result, digital technologies become a trigger, one of the factors contributing to the process of mass production in art. Digital reproduction becomes aimed at meeting the entertainment needs of the maximum average viewer. The main conclusions of the study are the following provisions. Digitalization processes have an ambiguous effect on the main forms of art existence and its perception by the viewer. On the one hand, as a result of digitalization, art as a whole becomes more accessible and its understanding is simplified. On the other hand, digital reproductions are deprived of the status that the original has. In addition, such reproductions are aimed at pleasing the mass audience who wants to get the simplest product - bright, interesting and entertaining content, not loaded with deep meanings. In addition, cultural institutions that have traditionally been translators of art are losing their monopoly on it today. As a result, there is a gradual break in the connection between the viewer and the work of art.
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