Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue 12/2022
Contents of Issue 12/2022
Axiology: values and relics
Troshkina I.N. - Family Values: Category and Structure pp. 1-9

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2022.12.39219

EDN: PQQYMC

Abstract: The aim of the work is to pose the problem of studying family values in the focus of category and structure. Research objectives: to consider the classification of the category "family values", to reveal the classification of the structure of family values. The object of the study is family values, the subject of the study is the category, structure of family values. The article discusses approaches, the category of "family values", the structure of family values. The author reveals the categories of "family", "modern or non-family values", "traditional family values", focuses on the component basis of family values. The methodological basis of the research consists of the principles and categories of dialectics, methods of analysis and synthesis, system-structural analysis of social systems. Main conclusions: 1. The category of "family values" is studied by researchers within the framework of intra-family, family-extra-family, personal-family constructs. 2. The structure of family values is represented by three systems with one-term, two-term, three-term bases. The most common is a structure consisting of a single-member classification of the family by family elements (matrimony / parenthood, kinship). The author's main contribution to the research of the topic is to identify approaches to the classification of "family values" and the structure of family values, the components of these systems are revealed. The scope of application of the research results is an addition to the existing scientific knowledge in this field of research, inclusion in the programs of special courses of universities in the areas of sociocultural dynamics, family studies.
Philosophy of science and education
Lavrentyeva S.V. - Counterfactual Thinking and the Identity Problem: The Casus of Communication about Genetic Risks pp. 10-22

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2022.12.39362

EDN: WNIUTP

Abstract: The subject of this article is counterfactual thinking as a tool in geneticist-patient communication under conditions of uncertainty. The article focuses on the use of the counterfactual narrative as one of the main components of doctor-patient communication in the framework of making decisions about future treatment. The conditions for the use of the counterfactual narrative are considered, taking into consideration two features: the logic of predetermination and the influence of overpersonal forces and notions of kinship that contribute to the deindividualization of the patient. Based on A.S. Karpenko's formulation of the concept of possibility, a heuristic approach to sketching possible scenarios for treatment during genetic counseling is outlined. The novelty of the study lies in the analysis of the problem of self-future identity, constructed by the patient in the counterfactual narrative. This problem is examined using two thought experiments. The first thought experiment (concerning the fate of the unborn child - D. Bunin) reveals the identity problem itself. The second (concerning non-derministic behavior of a flipped coin - C. Dorst) shows how this problem is disclosed under conditions of uncertainty. It is shown that in creating possible scenarios of disease and its treatment with counterfactuals it is important to take into account "necessary properties" (U. Eco) of the patient, focusing on qualitative, not numerical identity. In the last section of the article this conclusion is justified in the light of the concept of narrative identity, through which the counterfactual can be revealed.
Philosophy of science
Nesterkin S. - The Main Principles and Directions of the Activity of Socially Engaged Buddhism pp. 23-32

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2022.12.39181

EDN: VWEYGO

Abstract: The work deals with the history, main principles and areas of activity of "Socially Engaged Buddhism" - an influential trend of modern Buddhist social activism that is especially popular in Western countries. It is noted that its relevance is caused by the need to develop new forms of interaction between Buddhism and society, brought about by a clash with the ideology and social practices of modernity as well as by the consequences of the globalization process; according to the ideologists of "Socially Engaged Buddhism," the traditional forms of Sangha social activity had ceased to meet the challenges of modernity. The main areas of activity of the movement are: 1) environmental issues; 2) racism and ethno-cultural diversity; 3) volunteer and educational work with prisoners; and 4) the women's movement and gender issues. The movement of Engaged Buddhism rather quickly acquired institutionalized forms in the West. Moreover, if initially its activity developed within the framework of Asian Buddhist organizations that have branches in the countries of the West, subsequently new forms and organizations developed within Western communities. These structures quite actively conduct publishing, educational and training activities, so that at present the "Engaged Buddhism" movement is one of the most influential forms of social activity of Buddhism in the countries of the West.
Chechetkina I.I. - Philosophical and Methodological Aspects of Discrete Mathematical Chemistry as a New Field of Knowledge in Theoretical Chemistry in its Logical and Historical Context pp. 33-41

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2022.12.39327

EDN: RXRSQK

Abstract: The subject of the study is discrete mathematical chemistry as a new field of knowledge in theoretical chemistry. Particular attention is paid to such aspects of research as: the characteristics of the stages of its development in connection with scientific and social problems, their connection with the formation of the subject and the features of methodology, the difference between discrete mathematical chemistry from mathematical chemistry, chemoinformatics and digital chemistry, the connection with these sciences is traced. The object of research is mathematical discrete chemistry in the context of its history. The methodology of the research includes the principle of the relationship between historical and logical, which made it possible to identify turning points in the history of discrete mathematical chemistry associated with its theorization, and a systematic approach, in which the hierarchy of mathematical models in modern mathematical chemical sciences is considered, revealing the peculiarity of the subject of discrete mathematical chemistry. It is concluded that discrete mathematical chemistry is an independent field of knowledge that arose as a result of the integration of methods of non-numerical mathematics and various fields of chemical knowledge. It has gradually emerged from various fields of chemical sciences, has its own specifics, which distinguishes it from mathematical chemistry, chemoinformatics and digital chemistry according to the following criteria: 1) the method of introducing discrete mathematics into chemistry without the participation of an intermediary in this process physics, 2) a special style of mathematical thinking in chemistry, 3) the degree of idealization in mathematical modeling. Its mathematical apparatus is a mathematical modeling, which is used to formalize many chemical sciences. It is a research tool and the language of modern chemistry. The novelty of the research lies in the fact that the specificity of discrete mathematical chemistry is revealed, its identity and independence are established, and its methodological boundaries are determined in accordance with the hierarchy of mathematical chemical sciences. The research results contribute to the methodology of chemistry and the philosophy of science.
Meaning and silence
Ponomareva A. - Absurdist Fiction in the Focus of Philosophy: Máirtín Ó Cadhain and his Novel "The Dirty Dust" pp. 42-49

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2022.12.38927

EDN: RZWOGT

Abstract: The subject of the study is the phenomenon of the absurd in Irish fiction and its relation to philosophical discourse. Absurdist fiction is proposed to be analyzed from the point of view of the philosophical meanings embedded in it. Most often, this is the interpretation of the absurd as a concept meaning a person's discord with the world. The novel by the Irish writer Ó Cadhain is considered as representing the absurdity of the human existence. In the analysis of the novel, the methods of modern cultural knowledge were used: the description of various sociocultural trends and phenomena, their theoretical generalization. The purpose of the work is to clarify the meaning of the absurd for the constitution of human existence. The article explores the connection of the realities present in the novel with the philosophy of traditionalism. The absurd is investigated as an indicator of the "silencing" of meaning. The factors that bring together the views of modernists who wrote about the absurd and the traditionalist doctrine are: fixation of the destruction of the habitual way of life, self-integrity, perversion or disappearance of the hierarchical social order, substitution of values, a direct indication of the "end of time" (eschatology). Changes in speech almost always act as an indicator of the heroes losing their own identity. With the help of this indicator, as a rule, loss of connection with Another, global alienation and dehumanization of a human being are recorded. Thus, the importance of the category of the absurd for fundamental philosophical ontology is proved.
Philosophy of religion
Guseva A.A. - One Page from the Diaries of Alexandra Schmemann: about (not)the Possibility of a Golden Age pp. 50-63

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2022.12.39347

EDN: YNWENR

Abstract: The subject of the study is the reflections of prot. Alexander Schmeman on the fate of Russia and the Church in exile. The image of pre-revolutionary Russia, having survived the processes of recommoration, takes on the features of the golden age, becoming an ideal space in memory, the story of which is based on "memory points" - oral and written speech, traditions, a narrative about the lost homeland. It is impossible to ignore the image of the Russian Church, which is also being idealized, becoming a universal Church from a strictly national Church, which leads to the substitution of the foundations of Christianity and Orthodoxy. With the beginning of emigration, there is a transfer of space (translatio imperii) and this is accompanied by a decrease in the amount of space and a rupture of history, which just provokes the priority of the national, since the national becomes borders, a house with its walls, a promise of inviolability, an appeal to history, in particular to the history of the Church, can be understood as a work that results in the liberation of a person from incessant looking back at the past as the only true and lasting "place". With the help of the work of understanding, one can achieve the removal of time and, having passed this path, go out to the timeless, infinite, in order to see the true Church. The problem of understanding the concept of the lost Homeland in the historical consciousness of the first wave of Russian emigration is extremely important, since the choice of a certain mode creates a particular narrative in which the paths leading from the "transcendent" golden age to the fate of the real space - Russia today are revealed.
Philosophy and culture
Erdnieva B.D. - The Idea of Justice in the Cultural Context of Renaissance Philosophy pp. 64-73

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2022.12.39237

EDN: SHQXGA

Abstract: The article provides a philosophical and cultural analysis of the phenomenon of justice on the example of the views of some representatives of the philosophical thought of the Renaissance. The choice of this period is not accidental: the Middle Ages, faced with an existential crisis as a result of the destruction brought by the barbarians, developed a concept of justice that turned a person to the search for an internal support that allowed him to cope with the challenge and the full power of which he was able to realize in the renewed idea of justice during the Renaissance. The purpose of the work is to determine, based on the results of the analysis: 1) whether the practices of justice proposed by the Renaissance are possible today; 2) if so, in what form? To answer the questions posed, the author uses the method of comparative cultural analysis. With regard to the concepts of justice proposed by the philosophers of the Renaissance, the following conclusions were drawn: 1) despite the historical completeness of the conditions that gave rise to the considered concepts of justice, the latter continue to exist today; 2) the form of justice proposed by the Renaissance became the forerunner of the concepts of fundamental human freedom and its value. The results of the work can help clarify positions regarding the idea of justice as understood by representatives of different social groups, and therefore can be used to build a dialogue between them.
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