Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue 10/2022
Contents of Issue 10/2022
Social dynamics
Ziyazov R.A., Khramova K.V. - Philosophical Foundations of Social Conflict pp. 1-6

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2022.10.38932

EDN: CKBNBS

Abstract: This article is devoted to the study and consideration of the provisions on the philosophical foundations of social conflict, the nature of social conflict, as well as the problems and prospects of their resolution in the modern world. The text notes that the lack of theoretical understanding of the problem of social conflicts makes it difficult to logically solve practical problems aimed at preventing conflict situations in the modern community. The article examines the difficulties encountered in the localization and resolution of conflicts, thoroughly analyzes the entire course of the conflict development with the subsequent establishment of its possible causes and consequences. Also, this article discusses the causes of social conflicts in modern society, as well as the features of their occurrence. The works on the development of problems of methodology and general theory of conflict occurring in society are noted. In our country, there is a tradition of studying social conflicts through the objective contradiction of the interests of the majority of social groups, which dictate to the parties the logic, duration, degree of tension of the struggle for the satisfaction of urgent needs. However, it is not always necessary to equate objective contradictions of social groups with conflicts. The conflict is somehow connected with people's subjective awareness of the inconsistency of their interests as members of certain social groups. Aggravated contradictions generate open or closed conflicts only when they are deeply experienced by people, are realized as incompatibility of interests and goals. Taking into account the fact that philosophers in the Ancient World began to be interested in the nature of conflicts, the representatives of three modern socio-philosophical concepts of conflict made the greatest systematic contribution to its understanding: the concepts of positive-functional conflict proposed by L.Kozerom: R. Darrendorff's conflict models of society and K. Boulding's general theory of conflict.
The lectern
Lenkhoboeva T.R. - Reception of the Ecological Ethics of Buddhism in the Works of Scientists from Buryatia, Kalmykia, Tuva pp. 7-22

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2022.10.38933

EDN: EJOCDE

Abstract: The article presents an overview of research on the ecological ethics of Buddhism. The author examines the works of scientists from the main Buddhist regions of Russia (Buryatia, Kalmykia and Tuva), gives a description of the main methodological directions, and also offers a classification of approaches to the study of environmental ethics of Buddhism. The first scientific approach is historical and philosophical, within which the history of the emergence of Buddhist philosophy is presented, the second scientific approach, social and philosophical, is associated with the basic concepts of the philosophy of Buddhism and the substantiation of solutions to environmental problems offered by Buddhism. This is followed by a sociological one, within the framework of this research vector, an attempt was made to interpret the ritual behavior of the inhabitants of Ulan-Ude within the framework of the ecological ethics of Buddhism. The next research vector can be characterized as historical and literary. Other areas of research are also described. The novelty of the review of studies on environmental ethics in the Buddhist republics of Russia lies in the fact that this is the first attempt to systematize the diversity of the listed scientific approaches, which, in turn, will allow a deeper understanding of the value of Buddhist teaching in the formation of ecological consciousness among the population and identify specific, practical ways to solve the existing environmental problems. The review presents the main names of scientists involved in the environmental ethics of Buddhism, the main works are indicated.
Philosophy of science
Malakhova E.V. - Ethical Expertise of Artificial Intelligence Technologies in Subject-oriented Social Relationships pp. 23-34

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2022.10.39011

EDN: HSXQXS

Abstract: The ethical examination of modern technologies, especially those that use artificial intelligence, can be based on an approach that focuses not on the technology itself, but on the subject as a human-agent who can be the developer and user of this technology. In this article, we consider the concept of an ethical subject as an agent with the fundamental ability to make ethically significant choices. The peculiarity of such choices is that they are significant not only for society, but also for the ethical subjects themselves, who are always not only a means, but also the goal of moral actions. That is why such ethical subjects can be only persons or groups of people, but not technology, even the most advanced otherwise it would be the goal of ethical choices for itself and for people. Ethical expertise of a technology capable of acting independently of a person is possible, as we believe, through its training to recognize situations of applying those solutions to ethical dilemmas that are provided by a person, and valuation of the results of such recognition. A part of such training may be worth providing not only to developers, but also to users, remembering the fact that all these solutions should also be brought into compliance with local legislative norms.
The dialogue of cultures
Golovanivskaya M.K., Efimenko N.A. - The Idea of Fate in Russian, French, and Chinese Cultures pp. 35-53

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2022.10.38954

EDN: GMCUAS

Abstract: The article is devoted to the comparative description of the ideas of fate in three national worldviews Russian, French and Chinese. These worldviews are reconstructed from linguistic data and cultural context. In each of the languages, the synonymic series of the concept is described, etymology, mythological and philosophical origins, modern meanings and compatibility are analyzed. The result of the study is identification of similarities and differences in the ideas about the fate among these peoples. We see that the Russian field of fate is verbal, the French semantic is associated with the idea of falling-falling out, and the Chinese is associated with such actions as changing and understanding. The actual interrelationships of the Russian concept are an indication of the causes of the damage , the French one is a source of wellbeing, the Chinese one is with ideas about possibility and dependence. The Russian creation personifies the concept of fate in the image of a self-willed woman, as well as in the French picture of the world, while the Chinese figurative thinking identifies fate with a code, an assistant or a rival. In the Russian picture of the world, a person is passive in relation to his fate, in the French he is active, he fights with it, the Chinese gestalt unites both: you can passively accept, you can actively fight.
Aesthetics
Kuznetsova T.V., Welch L.V. - The Photographic Image as an Aesthetic Phenomenon. pp. 54-62

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2022.10.38896

EDN: GMVLEX

Abstract: The subject of the study is the analysis of the preservation and creation of an image in the art of photography. The invention of photography and the creation of a technical image is considered the second turning point in human culture. An image is an imagination, an illusion, it is a reflection of the sensory world. The object of the study is the specificity and evolution of attitudes towards the concept of an image in photography as an aesthetic phenomenon. The language of fine art, as an earlier phenomenon, had a significant impact on the creation of a photographic image, but the role of photography in changing the language of fine art is also noted. The purpose of this work is to identify the features of the formation of photographic thinking, in the analysis of its evolution. As a methodological basis of the study, the formal-stylistic method of cognition, the method of sensory cognition and historical and cultural analysis are used. The scientific novelty of the study lies in the analysis of the role of imagination, illusion, magic in creating a photographic image. Causal relationships do not work here - the image of the acts as an intermediary between the world and man. Both the photographer and the subject are the directors of the creation of the image, and the game becomes part of its creation. The image is what the director-photographer wants to see, and how the subject feels. However, the freedom of the photographer is limited by the quality of the equipment, which makes it necessary to improve the technical means of the camera more and more. Creating an image is the implementation of the technical capabilities that are embedded in the camera. The image of photography is the subjective vision of the master, the transformation of the real world into the world of illusion.
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